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系統識別號 U0002-1702202014530800
中文論文名稱 電化學法處理 Acyl Homoserine Lactones (AHLs)及控制濾膜阻塞之可行性研究
英文論文名稱 A feasibility study of treating Acyl Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) and controlling biofouling by an electrochemical method
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 蕭克威
研究生英文姓名 Ke Wei Hsiao
學號 607480083
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2019-12-24
論文頁數 63頁
口試委員 指導教授-簡義杰
委員-林居慶
委員-林正嵐
中文關鍵字 濾膜阻塞控制  Acyl homoserine lactones  電化學法  薄膜生物反應器 
英文關鍵字 biofouling control  acyl homoserine lactone  electrochemical  membrane bioreactor 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要   濾膜阻塞控制對於薄膜生物反應器(MBR)的操作與維護相當關鍵,生物膜則是造成濾膜阻塞的重要因素且可受到群體感應(quorum sensing, QS)系統的調控。Acyl homoserine lactones為革蘭氏陰性菌QS系統中普遍採用的一類訊息分子,易受到環境的pH值影響進而改變其化學結構。因此本研究擬探討利用此一AHLs的化學特性,藉由電化學法提升與濾膜相鄰的陰極表面的pH值,而在高pH值的環境中進一步將AHLs將會水解,阻斷AHLs在QS中的功能,達到降低革蘭氏陰性菌產生胞外聚合物的產量,最終並評估此法延緩濾膜阻塞的成效。
  本研究中先以批次試驗觀察電化學法降低人工廢水中AHLs濃度的效果,結果顯示施加-1.8 V的DC電源能提高人工廢水的pH值至9.5,並且在X-gal平板法與冷光法的生物檢測中,五種的AHLs至少失去76%以上的活性,並且證明AHLs是因被水解而失去其QS功能。接著測試不同的電位、電極配置與有無攪拌等組合,分析電化學法水解AHLs的效率,結果顯示以分離陰陽電極且無攪拌的方式有最佳的AHLs處理效率,分別為65.2%與54.8%的去除率。最後將電化學法實際應用在實驗室規模的MBR,在以鐵金屬的陽極的試驗中,應用電化學的eMBR (electro-MBR)的濾膜阻塞速率反而增加,20天內濾膜阻塞5次,而對照組的MBR的濾膜則是尚未阻塞,推測是陰極與濾膜模組的距離接近,造成混凝劑與污泥容易附著在陰極上,並造成濾膜的阻塞加劇。而在將陽極改為鈦金屬後,eMBR為平均38.0天阻塞,MBR則是平均19.4天阻塞,試驗中並未產生使用鐵陽極時污泥附著的問題,結果顯示使用鈦陽極的電化學法具有延緩濾膜阻塞的效果。
英文摘要 Biofouling control is a crucial factor for operation and maintenance of membrane bioreactor (MBR). Bacteria utilize quorum sensing (QS) systems to regulate biofilm formation which is thought to be critical in causing biofouling. Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), a QS signaling molecule frequently used by many Gram-negative bacteria, is pH-sensitive. Exploiting this chemical properties of AHLs, we utilized electrochemical approach to raise the pH value on the surface of cathode in the vicinity of filtration membrane. After AHLs hydrolysis occurring in high pH circumstance, interruption of QS systems would inhibit biofilm formation, therefore, the rate of biofouling can be mitigated.
In this study, we first conducted experiments in batch tests to evaluate the effect of the electrochemical approach on removal rate of AHL in synthetic wastewater. The results show that pH of solution can be increased to 9.5 when applying -1.8 V DC to synthetic wastewater. At least 76% loss of QS activity of five types of AHLs were evidenced by X-gal plate and luminescence biodetection methods and the mechanism of AHLs deactivation was caused by AHLs hydrolysis. Different electrode configurations, electric potential from -1.2V to -2.0V, and with or without mixing were performed to estimate the efficiency of AHLs hydrolysis. Results indicate that isolated electrodes without stir is the best condition to treat AHLs, with the efficiency of 65.2% and 54.8%, respectively.
Applying the electrochemical approach to a lab-scale MBR was first conducted with iron anode, but conversely increased the rate of fouling in eMBR (electro-MBR) by 5 times in 20-day compared to a control MBR. This is probably due to the aggregation of sludge and coagulants on the cathode and nearby membrane. After altering to titanium anode, the average time of fouling for eMBR and normal MBR were 38.0 days and 19.4 days, respectively. This result shows that eMBR utilizing titanium anode can alleviate biofilm formation and has potential to be applied to full-scale MBR for biofouling control.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 序論 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究之假設與目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 薄膜生物反應器 4
2.1.1 薄膜生物器之原理 4
2.1.2 濾膜之阻塞與控制. 4
2.2 群體感應(quorum sensing)系統 6
2.2.1 群體感應之原理與分類 6
2.2.2 Acyl-homoserine Lactones 6
2.2.3 AHLs的pH相依性 7
2.3 群體感應抑制(quorum quenching) 9
2.3.1 酵素法 9
2.3.2 生物法 10
2.4 Electro-MBR 11
第三章 實驗方法與材料 12
3.1 電化學法批次試驗 12
3.1.1 人工廢水(Synthetic Wastewater) 12
3.1.2 實驗步驟 12
3.2 AHL生物分析法 15
3.2.1 X-gal瓊脂平板生物檢測法 15
3.2.2 冷光(luminescence)生物檢測法 16
3.3 薄膜生物反應器連續試驗 17
3.3.1 濾膜製備 17
3.3.2 薄膜生物反應器 18
3.4 胞外聚合物(EPS)分析 20
3.4.1 SMPp與EPSp 20
3.4.2 SMPc與EPSc 21
3.5 化學需氧量(COD)之檢測 21
3.6 凱氏氮與氨氮之檢測 21
3.7 硝酸鹽氮之檢測 23
3.8 水中懸浮固體物(MLSS)之檢測 23
3.9 統計分析 23
第四章 實驗結果 25
4.1 電化學法處理AHLs之初步試驗 25
4.1.1 電化學批次試驗法提升pH值之初步測試 25
4.1.2 批次試驗中人工廢水之pH值變化率 26
4.1.3 電化學法處理AHLs之評估 29
4.2 電化學法之批次試驗 35
4.3 電化學法在反應槽中之分析 41
4.3.1 電化學法的連續試驗 41
4.3.2 胞外聚合物(EPS)與溶解性微生物產物(SMP)之變化 48
4.3.3 處理效能比較 52
第五章 結果與建議 57
5.1 結論 57
5.2 建議 59
參考文獻 60

圖目錄
圖2 1 Homeserine lactone訊息分子的不同結構 7
圖2- 2 AHLs的水解變化 8
圖2- 3 C4-HSL的內脂環(lactone ring)的「開環」與「閉環」途徑 8
圖3- 1 電化學法在批次試驗中之配置示意圖 12
圖3 2 批次試驗的配置圖 13
圖3- 3 尚未已樹脂固定的濾膜模組 17
圖3- 4 濾膜模組固定於電極網上 17
圖3- 5 薄膜生物反應器系統示意圖 18
圖3- 6 實驗流程圖 24
圖4-1 電化學法提高人工廢水pH值的初步測試 25
圖4- 2 陰極電極片在通電過程中產生的氣泡 26
圖4- 3 以電化學法施加-1.8V電位於人工廢水之pH變化率 27
圖4- 5 以5 N NaOH及5 N HCl處理C8-HSL後,並以X-gal生物檢測法觀察C8-HSL之濃度變化 30
圖4- 6 以電化學法及5 N HCl處理C8-HSL後,並以X-gal生物檢測法觀察C8-HSL之濃度變化 32
圖4- 7 AHLs經鐵金屬陽極電化學法(-1.8V/20 min)及5 N HCl處理後,以冷光生物檢測法觀察其濃度變化 34
圖4- 8 AHLs經鈦金屬陽極電化學法(-1.8V/20 min)及5 N HCl處理後,以冷光生物檢測法觀察其濃度變化 34
圖4- 9 暴露電極(exposed electrodes)電化學法在不同電位與攪拌與否條件下處理C8-HSL,以冷光生物檢測法觀察C8-HSL之濃度變化 36
圖4- 10 分離電極(isolated electrodes)電化學法在不同電位與攪拌與否條件下處理C8-HSL,以冷光生物檢測法觀察C8-HSL之濃度變化 37
圖4- 11電化學法在不同電位與攪拌與否條件下處理C8-HSL,以5 N HCl酸回復的樣本,並以冷光生物檢測法檢測C8-HSL之濃度 39
圖4- 12 第一階段試驗之透膜壓力變化 43
圖4- 13 第二階段試驗之透膜壓力變化 44
圖4- 14 不鏽鋼陰極網的污泥附著情形 45
圖4- 15 受腐蝕的不鏽鋼陽極比較圖 46
圖4- 16 第三階段試驗之透膜壓力變化 47
圖4- 17 鈦金屬陰極網的污泥附著情形 48
圖4- 18 EPSp在反應槽中之時間序列變化 49
圖4- 19 EPSc在反應槽中之時間序列變化 50
圖4- 20 SMPp在反應槽中之時間序列變化 50
圖4- 21 SMPc在反應槽中之時間序列變化 51
圖4- 23 MBR與eMBR在第一階段至第三階段中 MLSS的時間序列變化 53
圖4- 24 MBR在第一階段至第三階段中COD的時間序列變化 54
圖4- 25 eMBR在第一階段至第三階段中COD的時間序列變化 54
圖4- 26 MBR在第三階段中硝酸鹽氮的時間序列變化 55
圖4- 27 eMBR在第三階段中硝酸鹽氮的時間序列變化 55

表目錄
表3 1 人工廢水成份(Weerasekara et al. 2014) 12
表3- 2 批次試驗的參數 14
表3- 3 Lysogeny broth (LB) agar培養基成份 15
表3- 4 薄膜反應器之操作參數 18
表3- 5 Lowry混和液成份 20
表3- 6 消化試劑 22
表3- 7 氫氧化鈉-硫代硫酸鈉試劑 22
表3- 8 氧化試劑 22
表4- 1 各種不同的電化學條件以電化學法處理前後的C8-HSL平均濃度與去除濃度 38
表4- 2薄膜生物反應器之操作參數 41
表4- 3 濾膜長度 41
表4- 4 薄膜生物反應器在連續試驗中,在不同的階段之操作的參數與電極的使用 42
表4- 5 MBR的相關係數表 52
表4- 6 eMBR的相關係數表 52
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