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系統識別號 U0002-1702201618094800
中文論文名稱 北約在阿富汗的反叛亂作戰之研究
英文論文名稱 A study of the NATO counter-insurgency operations in Afghanistan
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生中文姓名 賴達文
研究生英文姓名 Ta-Wen Lai
學號 602330234
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2015-01-14
論文頁數 141頁
口試委員 指導教授-翁明賢
委員-洪陸訓
委員-沈明室
中文關鍵字 北約  阿富汗  反叛亂 
英文關鍵字 NATO  Afghanistan  Counter-insurgency 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 成立於1949年的北大西洋公約組織(北約)其目的為維護成員國安全,而在2001年9月11日美國遭受恐怖攻擊前,北約作戰範圍皆都在歐洲區域內。911事件後北約首次引用北大西洋公約第五條,並在2003年承接由聯合國所創建的「國際安全援助部隊」,開始進行北約史上第一次的境外作戰。
北約在阿富汗的主要任務為重建及維護當地人民安全。在2006年時,塔利班組織開始重新回到阿富汗,促使北約在2009年時進行反叛亂作戰。北約成員國對於反叛亂及阿富汗戰爭各有不同的立場,造成成員國在決策以及執行上皆有不同的考量,因此北約在阿富汗作戰時的成效也會根據成員國的不同而有差異。
而北約在未來同樣也可能再次的在非傳統區域作戰,因此首次境外作戰也會是北約自冷戰後的重要挑戰。然而研究後發現到,北約在首次境外作戰時,其指揮鏈和內部決策有著相當嚴重的缺失,促使北約在阿富汗的行動走向失敗之路。
英文摘要 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) which established in 1949 is to keep its members’ security. Before the terrorist attacks in United States on September 11, 2001, the NATO’s operations were all in European region. However after 911 attacks, the NATO was first time according to the article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty. NATO undertaking the command of “International Security Assistance Force” from the United Nation in 2003 and began the first overseas operation in NATO’s history.
The main task of NATO in Afghanistan was to reconstruct and keep Afghanistan people’s security. However in 2006 the Taliban began return to Afghanistan, prompt NATO started counter-insurgency operation in 2009. But the members were has different standpoints with counter-insurgency and the war in Afghanistan, which caused different considerations in decision-makings and executions. Therefore, the effectiveness of NATO’s operations in Afghanistan was different with different countries.
Since NATO may face the overseas operations again in the future. The war in Afghanistan will be an important challenger after the Cold War. In this thesis the author will focus on the NATO’s decision-makings and operations in Afghanistan.
論文目次 目錄
第一章-緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 文獻檢閱 6
第三節 研究途徑及方法 25
第四節 研究架構及章節安排 27
第二章 北約在阿富汗戰爭之歷程 29
第一節 阿富汗安全發展 29
第二節 阿富汗政治發展 58
第三節 阿富汗經濟發展 62
第三章-北約制定反叛亂作戰之模式 69
第一節 北約決策程序 69
第二節 德、英、美反叛亂作戰立場 71
第三節 北約反叛亂作戰之決策 78
第四章-北約反叛亂作戰之過程 84
第一節 北約-反叛亂作戰原因 84
第二節 2006-2008年北約反叛亂作戰行動 88
第三節 2009年北約反叛亂作戰 92
第五章-北約反叛亂作戰之評析 100
第一節 安全層面評析 100
第二節 政治層面評析 108
第三節 經濟層面評析 109
第六章-結論 113
參考資料 119
壹、中文資料 119
貳、英文資料 124
參、德文資料 141
肆、法文資料 141

表格目錄
表1-1:軍隊傷亡總和 4
表1-2:游擊隊、叛亂組織和恐怖分子的區分表 12
表2-1:2013年阿富汗軍隊基金累計總額 55
表3-1:美國、英國和德國的反叛亂作戰比較 82

圖目錄
圖1 1:Three Pillars of Counterinsurgency 14
圖1 2:北約非軍事組織架構 23
圖1 3:北約軍事組織架構 24
圖1 4:研究概念 27
圖2-1:NATO-ISAF指揮架構 30
圖2-2 北約部隊擴張(expansion)地圖 33
圖2-3:2002-2007年的IED數量總數 36
圖2-4:北約2003年至2009年部隊增長趨勢 37
圖2-5:2003年至2009年北約增兵數量 41
圖2-6:英國民調-是否應該撤離駐阿富汗英軍 42
圖2-7:蓋洛普公司民調-美國人們對阿富汗戰爭的走向 42
圖2-8:Pew -撤離或維持駐阿富汗的北約及美軍 43
圖2-9:責任轉移篩選過程 45
圖2-10:阿富汗第一、二期責任轉移地區 46
圖2-11:第一期至第五期轉移地區 49
圖2-12:2011-2013年基地設備轉移 49
圖2-13:ANA在2014到2015的人員數量(總數、增加、流失、目標) 57
圖2-14:2004年阿富汗選舉候選人得票率 60
圖2-15:阿富汗國家發展戰略結構 61
圖2-16:1994至2015年罌粟花種植面積 64
圖2-17:1994至2015年鴉片產量 64
圖2-18:2006至2014年阿富汗人口成長圖 66
圖2-19:2006至2014年阿富汗GDP成長圖 66
圖2-20:PRTs在阿富汗部屬位置 68
圖3-1:北約作戰行動決策程序 70
圖4-1:2001-2012年美軍及其他聯軍主要傷亡原因比例 85
圖4-2:2007-2008年阿富汗安全風險和罌粟花種植面積 87
圖5-1:每年在阿富汗各地的叛亂事件次數 102
圖5-2:2015年塔利班勢力範圍 102
圖5-3:2004-2009年IEDs造成之平民傷亡及拆除和引爆數量 105
圖5-4:2010-2012年阿富汗部隊和北約部隊所造成的平民傷亡 106
圖5-5:2010-2012年北約轟炸所造成的平民傷亡 106
圖5-6:2009-2014年平民死亡及受傷數量 107
圖5-7:北約在阿富汗的經濟重建數據 110




參考文獻 壹、中文資料
一、專書
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5.翁明賢、林德澔、陳聰銘。「歐洲區域組織新論」。 台北:五南圖書出版有限公司,1994。
6.許海云。「北約簡史」。 北京:中國人民大學, 2005.
7.Paul B. Stares, 高滿榮譯。「北約組織的指揮特質」。台北:國防部史政編譯局, 1996。

二、期刊與論文
1.孫本初。 「如何寫好一篇優質的碩博士論文」。 撰寫碩博士論文與投稿學術期刊論壇。
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3.董慧明。 「21世紀非傳統戰爭型態之探討--政治作戰觀點」。 國防雜誌 第25卷第四期。
4.楊永明。 「聯合國之反恐措施與人權保障問題」。 月旦法學雜誌 131(2006)。
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6.葛騰飛。 「美國反叛亂理論的發展及其困境」,美國研究1(2012)。

三、新聞與網路資料
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4.陳杉、仇博。 「北約撤離 阿富汗亂局出路和在」。人民網,2015。
(http://world.people.com.cn/n/2015/0101/c1002-26310395.html)
5.「北約低調降旗 13年阿富汗戰爭落寞告終」。自由時報,2014
(http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/breakingnews/1193105)
6.「美軍最高指揮官:阿富汗的戰士需更多軍隊」,新華網,2008。
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7.「北約稱已有36個國家確定項阿富汗增兵6800人」,新華網,2009。
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8.「北約秘書長表示今年內開始向阿富汗移交防務」,新華網,2010。
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9.「北約將在2014年完成阿富汗安全事務交接」,新華網,2010。
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10.「北約外長將在布魯塞爾討論阿富汗問題」,美國之音,2009。
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11.婁楊宣、閆嘉琪。「北約撤軍後阿富汗塔利班頻繁襲擊 欲展現力量」,人民網,2015。
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13.「塔利班進擊 阿富汗東北大城大半失守」,聯合新聞網,2015。
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(http://dailynews.sina.com/bg/news/int/sinacn/20100314/18001265075.html)
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(http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/world/2013/11/131113_un_afghan_opium)

18.程君秋。「阿富汗總統加尼公布新一屆內閣名單 多為新面孔」,中國日報 中文網,2015。
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19.「阿富汗和北約軍隊聯手”美杜紗行動”進攻塔利班」,新華網,2006。(http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2006-09/06/content_5055289.htm )
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貳、英文資料
一、官方資料
1.Agreement on Provisional Arrangements in Afghanistan Pending the Re-Establishment of Permanent Government Institutions ("Bonn Agreement"). edited by United Nations Security Council. Germany: United Nations Security Council 2001.
2.United Nations,Security Council Resolution 1386 (2001) on the Situation in Afghanistan, edited by Security Council: United Nations, 2001.
3.Guide, Bureau of Politicial-Military Affairs U.S. Government Counterinsurgency. Bureau of Politicial-Military Affairs U.S. Government Counterinsurgency Guide. Washington D.C.: Bureau of Politicak-Military Affairs, 2009.
4.Kicullen, J. David. Three Pillars of Cpunterinsurgency, edited by Remarks delivered at the U.S. Government Counterinsurgency Conference, p.4-p.5. Washington D.C., 2006.
5.Kilcullen, J. David. Three Pillars of Cpunterinsurgency, edited by Remarks delivered at the U.S. Government Counterinsurgency Conference, p.6. Washington D.C., 2006.
6.The North Atlantic Treaty(1949), North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Washington D.C. : North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949
7.Partnership tools, NATO, 2014. (http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_80925.htm)
8.NATO Organization-Civilian structure, NATO, 2014.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/structure.htm#CS)
9.NATO Organization-Military structure, NATO, 2014.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/structure.htm#MS)
10.International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, United Nations General Assembly, 1999. (http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/54/109&referer=http://www.un.org/chinese/documents/decl-con/terrorism.htm&Lang=E)
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12.The Global War on Terrorism: The First 100 Days, The White House, 2001.
(http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/ct/rls/wh/6947.htm)
13.NATO Logistics Handbook, NATO, 2012.
(http://www.nato.int/docu/logi-en/logistics_hndbk_2012-en.pdf)
14.NATO Headquarters, NATO, 2014.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_49284.htm )
15.ISAF’s mission in Afghanistan (2001-2014), NATO , 2015. (http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_69366.htm)
16.The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security, UN Security Council, 2008.
(http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2008/159&referer=http://www.un.org/en/sc/documents/sgreports/2008.shtml&Lang=E)
17.Security Council resolution 1386 (2001), United National Security Council, 2001.
(http://www.rs.nato.int/images/stories/File/official-texts/resolution_1386.pdf)
18.Afghanistan Resolute Support Leadership, NATO , 2015.
(http://www.rs.nato.int/leadership.html)
19.Afghanistan Resolute Support, CSTC-A History, 2015.
(http://www.rs.nato.int/article/resolute-support/cstc-a-history.html)
20.Security Council resolution 1510 (2003), United National Security Council, 2003.
(http://www.nato.int/isaf/topics/mandate/unscr/resolution_1510.pdf)
21.NATO Afghan First Policy, NATO e-Library, 2010.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_62851.htm)
22.Afghan National Security Force (ANSF), NATO Public diplomacy division, 2013.
(http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_2013_10/20131018_131022-MediaBackgrounder_ANSF_en.pdf)
23.S/2003/970, United National Security Council, 2003.
(http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/Afgh%20S2003%20970.pdf)
24.ISAF’s Mission in Afghanistan, European Parliament, 2009.
(http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2009_2014/documents/sede/dv/sede121112isaf_/sede121112isaf_en.pdf)
25.17 to 21 September 2005 – Election observation mission, Afghanistan, NATO Parliamentary Assembly, 2005.
(http://www.nato-pa.int/default.asp?SHORTCUT=797)
26.NATO to head South in Afghanistan, NATO Update, 2005.
(http://www.nato.int/docu/update/2005/12-december/e1208a.htm)
27.NATO and Afghanistan, NATO HQ, 2015.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_8189.htm)
28.Security Council resolution 1890 (2009), United National Security Council, 2009.
29.Lisbon Summit Declaration, NATO e-Libaray, 2010.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_68828.htm)
30.NATO Summit 2010, International Affairs and Defence Section, 2010.
31.Transition: Inteqal, Public Diplomacy Division, 2010.
(http://www.rs.nato.int/images/stories/File/factsheets/1667-10_Inteqal_LR_en.pdf)
32.Announcement by President Hamid Karzai on the Official Launch of Transition Tranche 3, Afghanistan Government Office of The President, 2012.
(http://president.gov.af/en/news/9553)
33.Chicago Summit Declaration, NATO e-Library, 2012.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_87593.htm?mode=pressrelease)
34.Monthly press briefing by NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen, NATO Newsroom, 2012.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/opinions_85692.htm)
35.NATO Secretary General welcomes Afghan transition announcement, NATO Newsroom, 2013.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_101482.htm?utm_source=tik&utm_medium=social+media&utm_campaign=130618+t5)
36.Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan, Department of Defense,2013.
(http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/Section_1230_Report_July_2013.pdf)
37.S/2013/558, Security Council, 2013.
(http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2013_558.pdf)
38.Wales Summit Declaration on Afghanistan, NATO Newsroom, 2014.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_112517.htm?mode=pressrelease)
39.Quarterly report to the United Nations on the operations of the International Security Assistance Force, 2007.
(http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2007/306)
40.NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan, NATO Newsroom, 2009.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_52802.htm)
41.NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan, National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces, 2012.
(http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/operations-supporting-docs/ntm-a.page)
42.Frequently Asked Questions About Making Donations to the Afghan National Army (ANA) Trust Found, NATO ISAF, 2009.
(http://nato.int/isaf/topics/ana/faq.html)
43.Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), Media Backgrounder, 2013.
44.Latter dated 28 July 2010 from the Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization addressed to the Secretary-General, UN Security Council, 2010.
(http://www.un.org/zh/documents/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2010/437&referer=http://www.un.org/chinese/ha/afghanistan/forces.htm&Lang=E)
45.Afghanistan National Development Strategy, Afghanistan Government, 2008.
(http://www.embassyofafghanistan.org/sites/default/files/publications/resume_ANDS.pdf)
46.National Drug Control Strategy, Afghanistan Government Ministry of Counter-Narcotics, 2006.
(https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/36443/fco_nationaldrugcontrolstrategy.pdf)
47.Afghanistan Report 2009, NATO Public Diplomacy Division, 2009.
(http://www.rs.nato.int/pdf/20090331_090331_afghanistan_report_2009.pdf)
48.Annual report: December 22, 2013 to December 21, 2014, ARTF Administrator.
(http://www.artf.af/images/uploads/artf-annual-2014-final2.pdf)
49.Consensus decision-making at NATO, NATO, 2014.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_49178.htm)
50.Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), NATO, 2014.
(http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_50110.htm?selectedLocale=en)
51.Fourth Report from the Foreign Affairs Committee Session 2010-11, U.K Foreign Affairs Committee, 2011.
(https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32947/2011-may-afpak-report.pdf)
52.U.S Government, United States Overseas Internal Defense Policy, 1962.
(https://zh.scribd.com/doc/50366332/Overseas-Internal-Defense-Policy-1962)
53.FM 3-24 MCWP 3-33.5 Counterinsurgency Dec 2006, Marine Corps Warfighting Publication, 2006.
54.FM 3-24 MCWP 3-33.5 Insurgencies and Counterinsurgency May 2014, Marine Corps Warfighting Publication, 2014.
55.ISAF Commander’s Counterinsurgency Guidance, HQ ISAF Kabul Afghanistan, 2010.
56.Allied Joint Doctrine AJP-01, NATO, 2010.
(https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/33694/AJP01D.pdf)
57.U.K, UK-led operation helps ISAF take control in northen Helmand, U.K Ministy of Defence, 2007.
58.U.K. Marines clear Taliban from key Afghan dam, U.K Ministry of Defence. 2007.
59.NATO, UNAMA 2014 Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Report, NATO Afghanistan Resolute Support, 2015.
60.United Nation, Afghanistan: Ground combat taking ‘devastating’ civilian toll, says UN, reporting sharp rise in casualties, UN News Centre, 2014.
61.United Nations, Resolution 1199, UN Security Council, 1998.
62.NATO, Statement by the Security General following the ACTWARN decision, NATO, 1998.
63.NATO, Statement to the Press by the Security General Following Decision on the ACTORD, NATO, Oct 1998.
64.UNICTY, Final Report to the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, UNICTY.
65.Afghanistan resolute support, Mission, 2015. (http://www.rs.nato.int/mission.html)

二、專書
1.Atkins, E.Stephen. The 9/11 Encyclopedia, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2011.
2.Galuka, David. Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice, New York. London: FREDERICK A. PRAEGER, 1964.
3.Hoffman,Bruce. Inside Terrorism, New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.
4.Blank, J. Stephen. NATO After Enlargement:New Challenges, New Missions, New Forces, Carlisle: Army War College, 1998.
5.Kriendler. John, NATO Headquarters Transformation: Getting Ahead of the Power Curve, Camberley, U.K. Conflict Research Center, 2005.
6.Mumford Andrew, The Counter-Insurgency Myth: The British experience of irregular warfare, New York: Routledge, 2012.
7.Dixon Paul, The British Approach to Counterinsurgency: From Malaya and Northern Ireland to Iraq and Afghanistan, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
8.K.S. Chun Clayton, Gothic Serpent-Black Hawk Down Mogadishu 1993, Oxford U.K: Osprey Publishing, 2012
9.Finlan Alastair, The Collapse of Yugoslavia 1991-1999: Essential Histories, Oxford, Osprey, 2004.
10.M. Naimark Norman and Case Holly, Yugoslavia and its historians: Understanding the Balkan Wars of the 1990s, California, Stanford University Press, 2002.
11.S. Reveron Derek and Stevenson Murer Jeffrey, Flashpoints in the war on terrorism, New York, Routledge, 2006.
12.Grigorova Mincheva Lyubov and Robert Gurr Ted, Crime-terror Alliances and the State: Ethnonationalist and Islamist Challenges to Regional Security, New York, Routledge 2012.
13.Judah Tim, The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia 3rd , Yale University Press, 2000.

三、期刊與機構報告
1.Frank G. Hoffman, Neo-Classical Counterinsurgency?, Parameters Summer (2007).
2.Webber Mark, NATO: The United States, Transformation and the War in Afghanistan, Political Studies Association 11(2009).
14.McNerney J. Michael, Stabilization and Reconstruction in Afghanistan: Are PRTs a Model or a Muddle?, U.S. Army War College;Winter2005-2006, 35(2005).
15.NATO, Progress in Afghanistan Bucharest Summit 2-4 April 2008, NATO 2-4.IV (2008).
16.DCAF, Security Sector Transformation in Afghanistan, 2002.
17.Afghan National Army (ANA), Global Security, 2015.
(http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/afghanistan/ana.htm)
18.Nagl. John & Weitz. Richard, Counterinsurgency and the Future of NATO, The Chicago Council on Global Affairs, Transatlantic Paper Series October No.1, (2010).
19.Noetzel T. & Schreer B., All the Way? The Evolution of German Military Power, International Affairs vol. 84, no.2 (March 2008).
20.D Bindenagel James, Afghanistan: The German Factor, PRISM vol.1 , no.4 (September 2010).
21.Noetzel. Timo, Germany’s Small War in Afghanistan Military Learning amid Politico-Strategic Inertia, Security Policy vol.31 No.3 (December 2010).
22.X. Hammes Thomas, Insurgency: Modern Warfare Evolves into a Fourth Generation, Strategic Forum No.214 Jan (2005).
23.Nagl John & Weitz Richard, Counterinsurgency and the Future of NATO, The Chicago Council on Global Affairs No.1 Oct (2010).
24.Williams M. J., Empire Lite Revisited: NATO, the Comprehensive Approach and State-building in Afghanistan, International Peacekeeping Vol.18 (2011).
25.Beljan Robert, Afghanistan: Lessons Learned from an ISAF Perspective, Small Wars Journal(2013)
26.Michael MG Flynn, Racheting Down on Corruption, COIN Common Sense Vol.1 July (2010).
27.Roggio Bill, Operation Mountain Fury in Eastern Afghanistan, The Long War Journal Sep (2006).
28.Roggio Bill, operation Achilles: NATO’s offensive in Helmand province, The Long War Journal March (2007).
29.Roggio Bill, Afghan forces and Taliban clash in Kunduz, The Long War Journal (2009).
30.Roggio Billo, NATO airstrike in Kunduz kills scores, The Long War Journal (2009).
31.Afghanistan GDP and Economic Data, Global Finance (2016).

四、新聞與網路資料
1.Infinite Justice, out - Enduring Freedom, In, BBC, 2001.
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1563722.stm)
2.Karzai Declared Afghan President, BBC, 2004.
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3977677.stm)
3.Mike Mount, Larry Shaughnessy, Jill Dougherty and Jason Hanna, Key Points of Obama's Strategy for Afghanistan, CNN, 2009.
(http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/12/01/afghanistan.key.points/index.html?iref=24hours)
4.Operation Moshtarak: Assault in Helmand Province, BBC, 2010.
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8500903.stm)
5.David Rohde, Foreign Fighters of Harsher Bent Bolster Taliban, New York Times, 2007.
(http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/world/asia/30afghan.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&)
6.Kabul, Shah Mahmood, Why Obama's Afghan War Is Different, TIME, 2009.
(http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1908724,00.html?xid=rss-fullworld-yahoo)
7.Wire Staff, Highlights: Key Points in the Raid That Killed Bin Laden, CNN, 2011.
(http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/05/bin.laden.highlights/)
8.U.S. Drops Bombs, Leaflets in Afghanistan, abcnews, 2001.
(http://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=80480)
9.U.S. to Keep 9,800 Afghanistan Troops after 2014, BBC, 2014.
(http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-27593518)
10.Nato ends combat operations in Afghanistan, the gurardian, 2014. (http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/28/nato-ends-afghanistan-combat-operations-after-13-years )
11.Afghan civilian death hit record high, the gurardian, 2015. (http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/18/afghan-civilian-deaths-record-high)
12.Roya Aziz, Operation Start Over Again, PBS, 2007.
(http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/afghanistan604/map.html)
13.Lisa Burgess, Jones: Failure of Some NATO Nations to Join Iraq Training Effort is “Disturbing”, Stars and Stripes, 2004.
(http://www.military.com/NewContent/0,13190,SS_112404_NATO,00.html)
14.Daniel Dombey and Stephen Fidler, “Poland appears best hope for Nato troops plea”, Financial Time, 2006.
(http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/150af3de-438e-11db-9574-0000779e2340.html#axzz3sqjs2JV9)
15.UK fatalities in Afghanistan and Iraq, BBC, 2012. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk/7616301.stm)
16.Female Engagement Teams (FET), Afghan war news, 2010.
(http://www.afghanwarnews.info/women/fet.htm)
17.Afghan police chief claims 151 Taliban fighters killed in 12-day battle, The Guardian, 2014. (http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/23/afghan-army-claims-151-taliban-fighters-killed-12-day-battle-dangam)
18.ane Perlez, Pir Zubair, “Porous Pakistani Border Could Hinder U.S.”, New York Times, 2009.
(http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/05/world/asia/05fighter.html)
19.Britons believe ‘Afghan war is failing’, Channel 4 news, 2009.
(http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/uk/britons+believe+aposafghan+war+is+failingapos/3397902.html)
20.David Cowling, Poll watch: British in Afghanistan, BBC, 2009.
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/8238495.stm)
21.Erin Cunningham, Karzai reveals first phase of Afghan security handover, The National, 2011.
(http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/south-asia/karzai-reveals-first-phase-of-afghan-security-handover)
22.Nick Paton Walsh, Afghanistan announces second phase of security handover, CNN, 2011.
(http://edition.cnn.com/2011/11/27/world/asia/afghanistan-transition/)
23.Afghanistan enters forth stage in transition of power from US forces, The Tribune news, 2012.
(http://tribune.com.pk/story/487026/afghanistan-enters-fourth-stage-in-transition-of-power-from-us-forces/)
24.Thomas Harding, James Kirkup, Afghan National Police penetrated by Taliban at ‘every level’, The Telegraph, 2009.
(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/6502175/Afghan-National-Police-penetrated-by-Taliban-at-every-level.html)
25.Afghan policeman kills five UK soldiers, Channel 4 News, 2009.
(http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/world/asia_pacific/afghan+policeman+kills+five+uk+soldiers/3410697.html)
26.Karzai declared Afghan president, BBC, 2004.
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/3977677.stm)
27.Pamela Constable, Afghan Vice President Survives Bomb Attack, The Washington Post, 2004.
(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A36002-2004Sep20.html)
28.Afghan blast kills 5; elections delayed, China daily, 2005.
(http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-03/18/content_426111.htm)
29.Reld Standish, NATO Couldn’t Crush Afghanistan’s Opium Economy>, Foreign Policy, 2014.
(http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/11/13/nato-couldnt-crush-afghanistans-opium-economy/)
30.Kathleen Caulderwood, Opium Is Now 4% of Afghanistan’s GDP, International Business Times, 2013.
(http://www.ibtimes.com/opium-now-4-afghanistans-gdp-1468852)
31.France ends four-decade NATO rift, BBC, 2009.
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7937666.stm)
32.COMISAF Initial Assessment (Unclassified)—Searchable Document, Washington Post, 2009. (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/09/21/AR2009092100110.html)
33.Canadian troops shut down bomb-making facility, CTV News, 2007.
(http://www.ctvnews.ca/canadian-troops-shut-down-bomb-making-facility-1.266896)
34.NATO hopes to lower Afghan civilian deaths, CTV News, 2007.
(http://www.ctvnews.ca/nato-hopes-to-lower-afghan-civilian-deaths-1.222026)
35.NATO: 200 Taliban dead in Afghan offensive, NBC News, 2006. (http://www.nbcnews.com/id/14653529/#.VoKsWBV96Ul)
36.Brian Hutchinson, Panjwaii defies Canada’s best efforts, The Long Road, 2010. (http://afghanistan.nationalpost.com/panjwaii-defies-canadas-best-efforts/)
37.Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy, Opiate smuggling routes from Afghanistan to Europe and Asia (2006), Geopium.org.
38.Terry Friel, Taliban flee battle using children as shields: NATO, Reuters, 2007.
(http://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghan-idUSISL29139620070214)
39.Our forgotten war, Telegraph, 2007. (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1553394/Our-forgotten-war.html)
40.Taliban forced back as UK troops build bridges in Helmand, Live Leak, 2007. (http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=e91_1182603344)
41.Susanne Koelbl and Alexander Szandar, Not Licensed to kill: German Special Forces in Afghanistan Let Taliban Commander Escape, Spiegel Online International, 2008. , (http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/not-licensed-to-kill-german-special-forces-in-afghanistan-let-taliban-commander-escape-a-554033.html)
42.Ben Farmer in Gereshk, Taliban attack Nato’s biggest base in Afghanistan, The Telegraph, 2010. (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/7756781/Taliban-attack-Natos-biggest-base-in-Afghanistan.html)
43.2009 Kunduz-Operation Sahda Ehlm, Modern Warfare, 2012. (http://modern-warfare.all-forum.net/t16-2009-kunduz-operation-sahda-ehlm)
44.Sean Rayment, Taliban stronghold destroyed by British and Afghan forces after 10 day battle, The Telegraph, 2009. (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/4549325/Taliban-stronghold-destroyed-by-British-and-Afghan-forces-after-10-day-battle.html)
45.Michael Hirsh, After Mcchrystal, What’s Next for Afghanistan?, Newsweek, 2010. (http://www.newsweek.com/after-mcchrystal-whats-next-afghanistan-73269)
46.Thomas Harding, British forces in Afghanistan seize £50m of heroin and kill 20 Taliban, The Telegraph, 2009. (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/onthefrontline/4681443/British-forces-in-Afghanistan-seize-50m-of-heroin-and-kill-20-Taliban.html)
47.French Afghan assault concludes”, BBC, 2009. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8419829.stm)
48.Franz-Stefan Gady, How NATO Advises Afghanistan’s National Security Forces, The Diplomat, 2015. (http://thediplomat.com/2015/12/how-nato-advises-afghanistans-national-security-forces/)
49.Ben Brown, World: Europe Pristina waits for war, BBC, 1999. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/271316.stm)
50.Amnesty accuses NATO of war crimes, The Guardian, 2000. (http://www.theguardian.com/world/2000/jun/07/balkans1)

參、德文資料
一、官方資料
1.Bundeswehrplan 2009, Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, 2008.

肆、法文資料
一、官方資料
1.French government, 18/12/09 Afghanistan : opération « Septentrion », la stratégie des Mikados (vidéo), French Ministere de la Defense, 2009.

二、新聞與網路資料
1.Bundeswehr bringt Unruheregion unter Kontrolle, Welt, 2009. (http://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article4176241/Bundeswehr-bringt-Unruheregion-unter-Kontrolle.html)
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