淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1702201416452700
中文論文名稱 美國人用「跟述」學習中文之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of Implementing “Shadowing” as a Task on How Americans Learn Chinese
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 胡佳宜
研究生英文姓名 Jia-Yi Hu
學號 697250248
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-01-20
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭岱宗
委員-李利德
委員-李本京
中文關鍵字 跟述  美國人  中文  發音  流利 
英文關鍵字 shadowing  Americans  Chinese  pronunciation  fluency 
學科別分類
中文摘要 自中國崛起後,在美國學習中文做為第二語言已成為一種潮流,但是學習中文發音仍然是一項挑戰。本研究將籍以實施跟述,一種有效訓練口譯員的技巧,來減低學習中文發音的困難,並且加強口語流暢度。本研究的調查中包含兩個問卷來調查受測者學習中文的背景與動機。本研究招募了十位在台灣教中文的美國人,進行為期三天的跟述練習,練習當中的發音以錄音的方式記錄下來,並且以t檢定的方式來分析練習前後的結果。研究結果顯示出十位受測者的發音、閱讀正確度與口語流暢度皆有顯著的進步,說中文的信心也因而提升。本研究建議利用跟述來學習中文可以增進發音的準確度,並且能夠提供教授中文為外語的教師們做為有效的參考。
英文摘要 There have seen a rising trend of CFL (Chinese as Foreign Language) among American since the emergence of China, but the difficulty in learning Chinese pronunciation has remained a daunting task. This study aims to tackle pronunciation related difficulties by implementing Shadowing, an effective method for training interpreters, to assist the participants acquire Chinese pronunciation and therefore enhance their oral fluency. This study involved a survey, comprised of two sets of questionnaires concerning background and motivation of learning Chinese. Ten Americans who work for cram school as English teachers were recruited in this study, participating in a three-day Shadowing experiment in which they concurrently listened to the audio file and uttered what they heard as quickly as they could. Their voice productions before and after the experiment were recorded for a close analysis, and the quantitative analysis of the experiment was conducted through descriptive statistics as well as paired sample t-test in order to indicate the relationship between the two variables of the outcome before and after the implementation of Shadowing. Results of this study showed a significant improvement in improving Chinese pronunciation as well as reading accuracy and oral fluency. The participants also found themselves more confident in speaking Chinese. To summarize, this study may be of importance in explaining the effectiveness of Shadowing implemented in the field of CFL, as well as in assisting CFL teachers and learners with a better alternative to overcome the difficulty lying in Chinese pronunciation.
論文目次 Table of Contents

CHAPER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 3
1.3 Significance of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Definition of Terms 6
1.5.1 Shadowing 6
1.5.2 Fluency 7
1.6 Features of Chinese 9
1.6.1 Tones 12
1.6.2 Chinese Characters 13
1.6.3 Grammar 14
1.6.4 Retroflex and Non-retroflex Pronunciation 16

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE 18
2.1 Shadowing 19
2.1.1 The Origin of Shadowing 20
2.1.2 Shadowing is Effective in Interpreting Training 21
2.1.3 The Types of Shadowing 22
2.1.4 Shadowing Improves Listening and Reading Fluency 25
2.1.5 Shadowing Assists Second Language Acquisition 26
2.1.6 How to Perform Shadowing 28
2.1.7 Shadowing: Pros and Cons 30
2.2 Fluency 31
2.3 Cultural Barriers in Learning Chinese for Americans 34

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 Research Design 37
3.2 Subjects 37
3.2.1 Participants 37
3.2.2 Raters 39
3.3 Materials 40
3.3.1 Pre-questionnaire and Post-questionnaire 40
3.3.2 Reading Material 41
3.3.3 Audio File 41
3.3.4 Score cards 43
3.3.5 An Alternative Way to Evaluate 44
3.4 Procedures 46
3.4.1 Pre-Experiment Process 47
3.4.2 In-Experiment Process 48
3.4.3 Post-Experiment Process 49
3.5 Data Analysis 49

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 51
4.1 Results of Implementing Shadowing 51
4.1.1 Comparison of the Participants’ Pronunciation before and after Shadowing 52
4.1.2 Result of Total improvement with regard to Speed, Accuracy, and Fluency 53
4.2 Results of Questionnaires 54
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 59
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings 59
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 60
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Researchers 61

REFERENCE 63

APPENDICES 72
Appendix A 72
Appendix B 73
Appendix C 74
Appendix D 75
參考文獻 REFERENCES

Anderson, Richard C.; Hidde, Janet L. (1971). Imagery and sentence learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(6), Dec 1971, 526-530. doi:10.1037/h0031824

Andrew, G., Howie, P. M., Dozsa, M., & Guitar, B. E. (1982). Stuttering: Speech Pattern Characteristics under Fluency-Inducing Conditions. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 25, 208-216. Retrieved on Oct, 9, 2013, from http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/2/208
Baaring, I. (2006). Respeaking-based online subtitling in Denmark. In Eugeni, C. e G. Mack (a cura di) Proceedings of the first international seminar on real-time intralingual subtitling. InTRAlinea special issue: respeaking. www. intralinea. it.
Bickley, Verner. (1989). Language teaching and learning styles within and across cultures. Institute of Language Education, Hong Kong Education Department, H.K.
Byram, Michael. (1989). Cultural Studies in Foreign Language Education. Clevedon &Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Coughlin, J. (1989). Interpreters versus Psychologists: A Case of Context. In Coming of Age. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the ATA (pp. 105-113).
Chambers, Francine. (1997). What Do We Mean by Fluency? System, 25(4), 535-544. Chamot, Anna Uhl. (2005). Language Learning Strategy Instruction: Current Issues and Research, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112-130. (Cambridge Journal Online)
Chen, Chin-Chuan. (1976). Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States, Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 11(3), 168-171.
Chu, Hsiang-Ning Rebecca. (2008). Shyness and EFL Learning in Taiwan: A Study of Shy and Non-shy College Students’ Use of Strategies, Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivation, and Willingness to Communicate. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.
Chiu, Michael. (2010). Map of Confucius Institutes in the U.S., 2013, April 13, from USC US-China Institute:

Cross, Jeremy. (2009). Effects of listening strategy instruction on news videotext comprehension, Language Teaching Research, 13(2), 151-176.
Crystal, D. (1987). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Cucchiarini, C., Strik, H., & Boves, L. (2002). Quantitative assessment of second language learners’ fluency: Comparisons between read and spontaneous speech. the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 111, 2862.
DeFrancis, John. (1984). The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.
Felton, R. (2003). Research to practice: Developing fluency in poor readers. In NCIDA Spring Conference (2003, Hickory, NC).
Furman, Nelly. Goldberg, David & Lusin, Natalia. (2012). Enrollment in Languages Other than English in the United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2009. Modern Language Association., p.19. 2012, November 8,
.
Gerver, D. (1976). Empirical studies of simultaneous interpretation: A review and a model. Translation: Applications and research, 165-207.
Guitar, B. (2005). Stuttering: An Integrated Approach to Its Nature and Treatment (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Guo, Yannan. (1997). Language and culture in Chinese as a foreign language: the development of textbooks and their cultural content. Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5080/
Harris. A.J., Sipay, E. R. (1990). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental & remedial methods. New York: Longman.
Harry L. Gradman & Edith Hanania. (1991). Language Learning Background Factors and ESL Proficiency, Modern Language Journal, 75(1), 39-51.
Haas, Mary R. (1943). The Linguist as a Teacher of Languages, Linguistic Society of America, 19(3), 203-208. (Accessed: 25/11/2012)
Hisaoko, Toshio. (2004). On the use of shadowing for improving listening ability: Theory and practice, GLIM IR Institution Repository, 学習院高等科紀要, 2004-6-30,13-30.

J. Michael O'Malley, Anna Uhl Chamot, Gloria Stewner-Manzanares, Rocco P. Russo and Lisa Kupper, (1985). Learning Strategy Applications with Students of English as a Second Language, TESOL Quarterly , 19(3), 557-584
J. Michael O’Malley, Anna Uhl Chamot. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press, NY.
Kaylani, C. (1996). The influence of gender and motivation on EFL learning strategy use in Jordan. Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives, 88.
Kelham, R., & McHale, A. (1966). The application of learning theory to the treatment of shuttering. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1, 114-118.
Ken Tamai. (1997). Shadowing as a powerful listening tool: why does it work? A presentation given in March to Hiroshima branch of JALT reported in The Language Teacher, 21(5), 72.
Lai, Rou Yu (2010). Perception and Production of Retroflex Sounds in Taiwan Mandarin. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2010.
Lambert, S. (1988). A human information processing and cognitive approach to the training of simultaneous interpreters. In D. Lindberg Hammond (Ed.), Language at crossroads: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the American Translators Association. Medford, NJ: Learned Information. Inc.
Lawrence, M. & Barclay, D. M III. (1998). Stuttering: A Brief Review. American Family Physician, 2012, November, 8,
.
Lee, Seung Chun. (2010). Developing Intensive Listening Skills: A Case Study of the Long-Term Dictation Tasks Using Rapid Speech, The English Teacher, 19, 94-120.
Lennon, P. (1990). Investigating fluency in EFL: a quantitative approach. Language Learning 40, 387-417.
Lin, Li Chi. (2009), A Study of Using “Shadowing” as a Task in Junior High School EFL Program in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 2009.
Liu, X., Liu, S., Lee, S.-h., & Magjuka, R. J. (2010). Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions. Educational Technology & Society, 13, (3), 177–188.
Mackintosh, J. (1991). Language enhancement for interpreters. In Liu, J. Z. (Ed.), New thesis collection of translation: the 20th collection of Hong Kong Translation Association.
Maley, Alan. (1989). A comeback for literature? Practical English Teacher, 10(1), 1989.
Marc Lewis, Richard P. Honeck and Harold Fishbein. (1975). Does Shadowing Differentially Unlock Attention? The American Journal of Psychology, 88(3), 455-458.
Miyake S. (2009). Cognitive Processes in Phrase Shadowing: Focusing on Articulation Rate and Shadowing Latency, JACET Journal, 48, 15-28.
Moser, David. (1991). Why Chinese Is So Damn Hard, Department of Asian Languages and Cultures, University of Michigan, MI.
Moser-Mercer, B. (1985). Screening potential interpreters. Meta: Journal des traducteursMeta:/Translators' Journal, 30(1), 97-100.
Mufwene, Salikoko S. (2002). Colonisation, Globalisation, and the Future of Languages in the Twenty-first Century, International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 4(2), UNESCO.
Murphey, Tim. (2001). Exploring conversational shadowing, Language Teaching Research, 5(2), 128-155.
Nation, Paul. (1989). Improving Speaking Fluency. System, 17(3), 377-384, 1989.
Nassaji, Hossein. (2003). Higher-Level and Lower-Level Text Processing Skills in Advanced ESL Reading Comprehension, The Modern Language Journal, 87(2), article first published online: 30 APR 2003
Neal, E. A. Kroll et al. (1970). Short-term memory while shadowing: Recall of visually and of aurally presented letters. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 85(2), 220-224.
Nicholson, Schweda N. (1986). Screening interpretation candidates at Delaware: A comparative study” in Proceedings of the First North American Translators Congress, Patricia Newman, Alejandro Zenker, and Jean Francois Joly, Eds. 213-229. Medford, N.J.: Learned information, Inc
Nicholson, Schweda N. (1990). The role of Shadowing in interpreter training. The Interpreters’ Newsletter, 3.
Ogbu, John U. (1992). Understanding Cultural Diversity and Learning. Educational Researcher, 21(8) (Nov., 1992), 5-14, 24
Onaha, H. (2004). Effect of Shadowing and Dictation on Listening Comprehension Ability of Japanese EFL Learners Based on the Theory of Working Memory. JACET Bulletin, 39, 137-148.
Overath T, Cusack R, Kumar S, von Kriegstein K, Warren JD, et al. (2007). An information theoretic characterisation of auditory encoding. PLoS Biol, 5(11): e288. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050288
Oxford, R. L. (1993). Instructional Implications of Gender Differences in Second/Foreign Language (L2) Learning Styles and Strategies. Applied language learning, 4(1), 65-94.
Oxford, R. L., Talbott, V., & Halleck, G. (1990). Language learning strategies, attitudes, motivation, and self-image of students in a university intensive ESL program. In annual meeting of International Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, San Francisco, CA.
Palfreyman, D.; McBride, D. (2007). Learning and Teaching Across Cultures in Higher Education. Palgrave Macmillan, U.K.
Peacock, M. and Ho, B. (2003). Student language learning strategies across eight disciplines. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13: 179–200. doi: 10.1111/1473-4192.00043
Perng, H. (2006). Chinese-English Interpreter Training Procedure and Text Exercise Sample Designs. NCUE Studies in Language, Literature, Translation, and Interpretation, 1, 185-203.

Pochhacker, F. (2004). Introducing Interpreting Studies. London and New York: Routledge.
Rasinski, T. V. (1990). Investigating measures of reading fluency. Educational Research Quarterly.
S. Foster-Cohen. (2009). Language acquisition. Palgrave Macmillan, U.K.
Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading, revisited. In R. B. Ruddell, M. R. Ruddell, and H. Singer (Eds), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed.) Newark, DE : Internaitonal Reading Association.
Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated reading. The Reading Teacher, 32, 403-488
Selmer, Jan. (2000). Psychological barriers to international adjustment: North American vs. Western European business expatriates in China, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 7(3), 13 – 18.
Service, E & Kohonen, V. (1995). Is the relation between phonological memory and foreign language learning accounted for by vocabulary acquisition? Applied Psycholinguistics, 16, 155-172.
Shiota, Kazsuko. (2012). The Effectiveness of Shadowing on Students’ Psychology in Language Learning, Accents Asia, 5(1), 71-83.
Therrien, W. J., & Kubina, R. M. (2006). Developing reading fluency with repeated reading. Intervention in school and clinic, 41(3), 156-160.
Tian, C. (2005). Notes on teaching translation between Chinese and English. Translation Journal, 9(1), 1-9.
Tsu, John B. (1971). The Teaching of Chinese in Colleges and Schools of the United States, Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 6(1), 6-22.
Walton, A. Ronald. (1989). Chinese Language Instruction in the United States: Some Reflections on the States of the Art, Journal of Chinese Language Teacher's Association, 24(2), 1-42.
Weber, Wilheim K. (1984). Training translators and conference interpreters. Language in Education: Theory & Practice 58, Center for Applied Linguistics, NJ.
World’s Most Difficult Languages. (2010, November 10), Asian Offbeat, 2006, November 10. < http://www.asianoffbeat.com/default.asp?display=66>
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2014-03-07公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2014-03-07起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信