||A Study of Implementing “Shadowing” as a Task on How Americans Learn Chinese
||Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
||There have seen a rising trend of CFL (Chinese as Foreign Language) among American since the emergence of China, but the difficulty in learning Chinese pronunciation has remained a daunting task. This study aims to tackle pronunciation related difficulties by implementing Shadowing, an effective method for training interpreters, to assist the participants acquire Chinese pronunciation and therefore enhance their oral fluency. This study involved a survey, comprised of two sets of questionnaires concerning background and motivation of learning Chinese. Ten Americans who work for cram school as English teachers were recruited in this study, participating in a three-day Shadowing experiment in which they concurrently listened to the audio file and uttered what they heard as quickly as they could. Their voice productions before and after the experiment were recorded for a close analysis, and the quantitative analysis of the experiment was conducted through descriptive statistics as well as paired sample t-test in order to indicate the relationship between the two variables of the outcome before and after the implementation of Shadowing. Results of this study showed a significant improvement in improving Chinese pronunciation as well as reading accuracy and oral fluency. The participants also found themselves more confident in speaking Chinese. To summarize, this study may be of importance in explaining the effectiveness of Shadowing implemented in the field of CFL, as well as in assisting CFL teachers and learners with a better alternative to overcome the difficulty lying in Chinese pronunciation.
||Table of Contents
CHAPER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 3
1.3 Significance of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Definition of Terms 6
1.5.1 Shadowing 6
1.5.2 Fluency 7
1.6 Features of Chinese 9
1.6.1 Tones 12
1.6.2 Chinese Characters 13
1.6.3 Grammar 14
1.6.4 Retroflex and Non-retroflex Pronunciation 16
CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE 18
2.1 Shadowing 19
2.1.1 The Origin of Shadowing 20
2.1.2 Shadowing is Effective in Interpreting Training 21
2.1.3 The Types of Shadowing 22
2.1.4 Shadowing Improves Listening and Reading Fluency 25
2.1.5 Shadowing Assists Second Language Acquisition 26
2.1.6 How to Perform Shadowing 28
2.1.7 Shadowing: Pros and Cons 30
2.2 Fluency 31
2.3 Cultural Barriers in Learning Chinese for Americans 34
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 Research Design 37
3.2 Subjects 37
3.2.1 Participants 37
3.2.2 Raters 39
3.3 Materials 40
3.3.1 Pre-questionnaire and Post-questionnaire 40
3.3.2 Reading Material 41
3.3.3 Audio File 41
3.3.4 Score cards 43
3.3.5 An Alternative Way to Evaluate 44
3.4 Procedures 46
3.4.1 Pre-Experiment Process 47
3.4.2 In-Experiment Process 48
3.4.3 Post-Experiment Process 49
3.5 Data Analysis 49
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 51
4.1 Results of Implementing Shadowing 51
4.1.1 Comparison of the Participants’ Pronunciation before and after Shadowing 52
4.1.2 Result of Total improvement with regard to Speed, Accuracy, and Fluency 53
4.2 Results of Questionnaires 54
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 59
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings 59
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 60
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Researchers 61
Appendix A 72
Appendix B 73
Appendix C 74
Appendix D 75
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