淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1701201101463400
中文論文名稱 自由與安全:申根資訊系統對歐盟內部安全的影響
英文論文名稱 Freedom and Security: The Impact of Schengen Information System on the Internal Security of the European Union
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 蔡宜瑾
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Ching Tsai
學號 696290393
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-01-14
論文頁數 238頁
口試委員 指導教授-張福昌
委員-汪毓瑋
委員-鄒忠科
委員-張福昌
中文關鍵字 人員自由流通  內部安全  申根合作  申根資訊系統  邊境管理  資料保護  簽證資訊系統  歐洲指紋系統 
英文關鍵字 European Union  Schengen Information System  Internal Security  Data Protection  Free Movement of Persons  Schengen Cooperation  Border Management 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 歐洲聯盟(以下簡稱歐盟)於2010年6月14日慶祝申根協定簽訂25周年。申根合作自1985年以來,藉著廢除內部邊境管制,建立共同外圍邊境,為歐盟帶來實質的人員自由流通。然而,人員自由流通的同時,犯罪與威脅亦於區內流竄。為了維持外圍邊境的威脅過濾功能,以補充廢除內部邊境管制所引起的安全赤字,申根會員國建立了「申根資訊系統」,負責儲存具有威脅或待尋人員與物件資訊,此資料庫為會員國邊境管制與司法機構所用,亦是歐盟警察合作中最重要的執法工具之一。

本論文首先闡釋自由與安全間的關係,並解析兩者於歐盟內部安全中的重要性。接著進入主題「申根資訊系統對歐盟內部安全的影響」。本論文探討「申根資訊系統」的內容、運作與問題:在內容方面,「申根資訊系統」是一個大型資料庫,儲存大量個人與物件資料,有效將具有威脅與不受歡迎的人員與物件資訊儲存其中;在運作方面,「申根資訊系統」利用放射狀的資訊傳輸方式,使得各會員國相關機構可快速取得最新資訊,將威脅阻擋於區域之外;在問題方面,由於「申根資訊系統」是一個大型資料庫,儲存之資訊的可取得性,以及警報的分發運用顯得格外敏感,甚至牽涉到人權與資料保護的議題。一個大型資料庫的最大貢獻在於能提供正確與合法之資訊,以利執法人員勤務所需。而「申根資訊系統」由於連線的會員國眾多,因此不易控管資訊來源,遂造成資訊相關人權益上的受損,此外,對於受損權利之後續補償程序亦不夠透明且因國而異。準此以觀,「申根資訊系統」為維護歐盟內部安全的重要輔助機制,然而,「申根資訊系統」實應進一步嚴密資料保護法規,以保護個人權利;並加強與歐盟其他資料庫的相容與合作,以避免資源與人力的重疊與浪費。唯有如此,才能夠提高「申根資訊系統」維護歐盟內部安全的功能。
英文摘要 On 14th June 2010, the European Union celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of the signature of Schengen Agreement. Since 1985, the European Countries have started Schengen cooperation. The Schengen area represents a territory where the free movement of persons is guaranteed. The internal bordors of the signatory states to the Schengen Agreement are abolished, then they build a common external border. At the heart of the Schengen coopertion, a so-called “Schengen Information System” (SIS) was set up. The national authorities for border control and judicial coopertion are allowed to obtain information on persons or objects.

In the beginning of this thesis, it clarifies the relationship between freedom and security, and explains the importance of these two concepts in internal security of the EU. Then it comes to analyse the impact of the SIS on the EU’s internal security. This thesis involves the content, operation and problems of the SIS. Basically, the SIS is a large database, which contains numerous personal and objective data. It operates 24 hours a day, and provides relevant information to the related authorities of the EU Member States. The access of the information and the transmission of the alerts are crucial, and it araises the issues of human rights and data protection. We conclude that the national authorities have the access to the SIS, in this circumstance, the right of the related person is indirectly infringed. Moreover, the legal systems within the EU Member States are quite differrent. To sum up, the SIS is the key mechanism for safeguarding the internal security of the EU. However, the EU has to coordinate the data protection laws with the purpose to protect personal rights; besides, the EU also has to enhance the cooperation and interoperability between SIS and other European databases. Only through this way, the SIS can really contribute to strenghten the internal security of the EU.
論文目次 目錄

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 問題意識與研究理論 5
一、 問題意識 5
二、 研究理論 7
第三節 研究範圍與研究限制 8
第四節 文獻探討與研究架構 10
一、 文獻探討 10
二、 研究架構 13
第二章 歐盟自由與安全概念的發展 14
第一節 政治學上的自由與安全 15
第二節 歐盟自由與安全概念的發展 22
一、 1958-1985年 24
二、 1985-1999年 29
三、 1999年-迄今 31
(一) 歐盟自由與安全領域中的挑戰 31
(二) 歐盟在歐洲內部安全的角色限制 36
第三章 申根合作的發展 41
第一節 從申根協定到申根協定執行公約 42
一、 申根協定 43
(一) 申根協定的內容 45
二、 申根協定執行公約的內容 46
(一) 邊境、簽證與警察合作 47
(二) 刑事司法互助 54
(三) 申根資訊系統與資料保護 55
(四) 申根合作的機構化 58
第二節 申根區域的擴大 63
一、 第1-4次申根擴大 64
二、 第5次申根擴大 64
三、 第6次申根擴大 65
四、 第7~8次申根擴大 68
五、 部分參與申根合作的國家 70
六、 申根合作與非歐盟會員國 72
(一) 冰島與挪威 73
(二) 瑞士 76
第三節 申根法規與歐盟法的結合 79
一、 申根既存法規 80
(一) 申根合作併入歐盟的過程 80
(二) 阿姆斯特丹條約之後的申根合作 86
(三) 申根合作的預算 89
(四) 申根決策程序的改變 90
二、 申根對會員國的影響 99
三、 申根區域對歐盟公民與第三國公民的影響 102
第四章 申根資訊系統的內容與功能 105
第一節 從申根資訊系統到第二代申根資訊系統的發展 105
一、 申根資訊系統的目的 105
二、 申根資訊系統的新功能 107
(一) 歐洲警政署與歐洲司法合作署 111
(二) 公共檢察署 112
(三) 簽證與戶政機構 112
(四) 國家資訊補充窗口 113
(五) 歐洲逮捕令架構決定 113
(六) 會員國與國際刑警組織的資訊交換 114
(七) 車輛登記局 115
(八) 申根綜合系統 116
三、 第二代申根資訊系統 117
(一) 第二代申根資訊系統的法律基礎 118
(二) 第二代申根資訊系統的功能 122
(三) 第二代申根資訊系統的延遲 126
第二節 申根資訊系統的架構與運作 131
一、 申根資訊系統的架構 131
(一) 國家資訊補充窗口 132
(二) 第二代申根資訊系統的架構 137
(三) 系統管理 139
二、 申根資訊系統的運作 141
第三節 申根資訊系統的資料類型 143
一、 申根資訊系統中的資訊分類 143
二、 申根資訊系統警報數據分析 147
三、 申根聯合監督機構的報告 153
第五章 申根資訊系統的執行與問題 160
第一節 申根資訊系統在邊境安全管理上的應用 160
一、 新邊境管理文化的出現 161
(一) 歐盟體制內邊境管理的談判 161
(二) 不定點抽查行動 165
二、 歐盟邊境管理 168
(一) 申根邊境法規 169
(二) 歐盟外圍邊境合作管制署 171
(三) 申根資訊系統在歐盟邊境管理的運用 174
第二節 申根資訊系統與泛歐大型資料庫的互動 177
一、 泛歐大型資料庫 178
(一) 歐洲警政署資訊系統 179
(二) 歐洲指紋系統 180
(三) 簽證資訊系統 182
二、 資訊相容性 189
三、 普呂姆公約(Prüm Convention) 195
(一) 普呂姆公約的發展 196
(二) 普呂姆公約的內容與問題 198
第三節申根資訊系統與資料保護法 203
一、 歐洲資料保護法的發展 204
(一) 1981年歐洲理事會個人資料保護公約 205
(二) 1995年個人資料保護指令 207
(三) 歐盟第三支柱下的資料保護法 210
(四) 資料保護原則 212
二、 申根合作在德國的實踐 214
(一) SIS國家資料庫與資料保護 215
(二) 資料保護機構的監督 219
(三) 不合法的警報輸入理由 221
三、 申根合作在法國的實踐 224
(一) 警報相關人知的權利 227
四、 其他案例 228
(一) Commission v. Spain 228
第六章 結論 230
參考文獻 232

圖表目次

<圖1-1> 研究架構圖 14
<圖2-1> 2006-2009年恐怖攻擊次數與逮捕人數 32

<圖3- 1> 申根機構架構圖 56
<圖3- 2> 阿姆斯特丹條約與尼斯條約下司法與內政事務決策程序圖 86
<圖3- 3> 里斯本條約下司法與內政事務決策程序圖 92

<圖4- 1> SIRENE資訊傳遞圖 127
<圖4- 2> 第二代申根資訊系統架構圖 129
<圖4- 3> 申根資訊系統警報傳遞圖 133

<表2- 1> 自由與安全三階段的發展特色 22
<表2- 2> 自由與安全三階段的發展內容 23

<表3- 1> 申根協定與申根協定執行公約比較表 57
<表3- 2> 申根區域的擴大進程 64
<表3- 3> 部份參與申根合作的國家 69
<表3- 4> 申根既存規範的內容 84

<表4- 1> 申根資訊系統的發展與特色一覽表 121
<表4- 2> 中央資訊系統資料庫每年收納資料件數統計* 138
<表4- 3> 被通緝(Wanted)人員之分析 140
<表4- 4> 2005-2008年警報吻合數據 141
<表4- 5> 警報吻合比例 143
<表4- 6> 2006年1月19日第99條警報各會員國分配數 146

<表5- 1> 歐盟大型資料庫比較表 175

參考文獻 參考文獻

一、 官方資料
2350th Council meeting - JUSTICE, HOME AFFAIRS AND CIVIL PROTECTION - Brussels, 28-29 May 2001, available from: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=PRES/01/203&format=HTML&aged=0&lg=es&guiLanguage=en. (Accessed 17.10.2010)
A Passport Union. Implementation of point 10 of the final communiqué issued at the European Summit held in Paris on 19 and 10 December 1974. Report presented by the Commission to the Council on 3 July 1975. COM (75) 322 final, 2 July 1975. Bulletin of the European Communities, Supplement 7/75.
Action Plan of the Council and the Commission on How Best to Implement the Provisions of the Treaty of Amsterdam on an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, Text adopted by the Justice and Home Affairs Council of 3 December 1998, OJ C19, 23.01.1999, p. 1-16.
Ad hoc Committee set up for examining the creation of a people’s Europe, report published in Bulletin of the European Communities, supplement 7/85, 1985.
Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis - Final Act, OJ L 176, 10,07.1999, pp. 36-62.
Annual Report 2003/2004 of the Federal Commissioner for Data Protection.
Authority of the House of Lords: After Madrid: the EU’s Response to Terrorism, 5th Report of Select Committee on the European Union, Session 2004-05, 8 March 2005.
Authority of the House of Lords: European Union Databases, 23th Report of Select Committee on the European Union, Session 1998-1999, 9 November 1999, pp. 1-28.
Authority of the House of Lords: Incorporating the Schengen Acquis into the European Union, 31st Report of Select Committee on the European Communities, Session 1997-98, 28. July 1998.
Authority of the House of Lords: Schengen Information System II (SIS II), 9th Report of the European Union Committee, Session 2006-07, London: The Stationery Office Limited, 2 March 2007.
C-150/05, Jean Leon Van Straaten v Staat der Nederlanden and Republiek Italie.
Commission Decision of 19.03.2010, establishing the Handbook for the processing of visa applications and the modification of issued visas (Only the Bulgarian, Czech, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish and Swedish texts are authentic), C(2010) 1620 final, pp. 15-16.
Commission Decision of 22 September 2006 on amending the Sirene Manual, OJ L 317, 16.11.2006, pp. 41-80.
Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Spain, C-503/03, Judgment of 31 January 2006, ECR I-1097.
Commission of the European Communities, Communication of the Commission on the abolition of persons at Intra-Community borders, COM (88) 640 final, 07.12.1988.
Commission proposal for a Council Framework Decision on the exchange of information under the principle of availability, Brussels, 12.10.2005, COM (2005)490 final.
Commission Staff Working Paper First annual report to the Council and the European Parliament on the activities of the EURODAC Central Unit, 5.5.2004, SEC(2004) 557.
Commission’s Communication on the development of the Schengen Information System II and possible synergy with a future Visa Information System, Brussels, 11.12.2003, COM (2003) 771 final.
Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament-Development of the Schengen Information System II, COM (2001) 720 final, Brussels, 18.12.2001.
Commission from the Commision to the Council and the European Parliament Development of the Schengen Information System II and possible synergies with a future Visa Information System (VIS), COM (2003) 771 final, 11.12.2003.
Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament- on improved effectiveness, enhanced interoperability and synergies among European databases in the area of Justice and Home Affairs, COM (2005) 597 final, Brussels, 24.11.2005.
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council - An area of freedom, security and justice serving the citizen, COM (2009) 262 final, Brussels, 10.6.2009.
Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Republic of Austria on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation particularly in combating terrorism, cross-border crime and illegal migration, Prüm (Germany), 27 May 2005, Council Secretariat, Brussels, 07.07.2005, 10900/05.
Council Common Position 2005/69/JHA of 24 January 2005 on exchanging certain data with Interpol, OJ L27, 29.01.2005, pp. 61-62.
Council Decision 2008/633/JHA of 23 June 2008 concerning access for consultation of the Visa Information System (VIS) by designated authorities of Member States and by Europol for the purposes of the prevention, detection and investigation of terrorist offences and of other serious criminal offences, OJ L 218, 13.08.2008, pp. 129-136.
Council Decision 2005/211/JHA of 24 February 2005 concerning the introduction of some new functions for the Schengen Information System, including in the fight against terrorism, OJ L 68, 15.03.2005, pp. 44-48.
Council Decision 2007/533/JHA of 12 June 2007 on the establishment, operation and use of the second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II), OJ L205, 07.08.2007, pp. 63-84.
Council Decision 2008/839/JHA of 24 October 2008 on migration from the Schengen Information System (SIS 1+) to the second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II), OJ L 299, 08.11.2008, pp. 43-49.
Council Decision of 20 May 1999 concerning the definition of the Schengen acquis for the purpose of determining, in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Community and the Treaty on European Union, the legal basis for each of the provisions or decisions which constitute the acquis, OJ L 176, 10.07.1999, pp. 1-16.
Council Decision of 20 May 1999 determining, in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Community and the Treaty on European Union, the legal basis for each of the provisions or decisions which constitute the Schengen acquis, OJ L 176, 10.07.1999, pp. 17-30.
Council Decision of 26 April 2005 designating the seat of the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, OJ L 114, 04.05.2005, p. 13.
Council Decision of 6 December 2001 on the development of the second generation of the Schengen Information System (SIS), OJ L 328, 13.12.2001, pp. 1-3.
Council Framework Decision 2008/977/JHA of 27 November 2008 on the protection of personal data processed in the framework of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, Official Journal L 350, 30.12.2008, pp. 60-71.
Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States, OJ L 190, 18.02.2002, pp. 1-19.
Council of EU: Information sheet-Enlargement of the Schengen Area, Brussels, 8 November 2007, Available from: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/jha/97021.pdf. (Accessed 03.01.2009)
Council of European Union: Table of hits recorded by the SIRENE Bureaux, Period : 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008, 5086/09, 06.03.2009.
Council of the European Union, Commission Recommendation establishing a common "Practical Handbook for Border Guards (Schengen Handbook)" to be used by Member States' competent authorities when carrying out the border control of persons, Brussels, COM (2006) 5186 final, 09.11.2006.
Council of the European Union, Justice and Home Affairs, 2768th Council Meeting, Brussels, 4-5.12. 2006, Press Release, 15801/06.
Council of the European Union: Analysis of the impact of SISone4ALL on the SIS1+ and SIS II projects, 14773/06, Brussels, 20 November 2006.
Council of the European Union: Austrian and German delegations to CATS: Further direction of SIS II, 10833/10, 07.06.2010.
Council of the European Union: Conclusions of the Council on the new requirements for the SIS, 9773/02. 02.06.2002, pp. 1-4.
Council of the European Union: EU Internal Security Strategy, Brussels, 25 February 2010.
Council of the European Union: New functionalities for SIS II, 10353/00, 13.07.2000.
Council of the European Union: SIS Database Statistics dd. 01/01/2008, 5441/08, 30.01.2008.
Council of the European Union: SIS Database Statistics dd. 01/01/2009, 5764.09, 28.01.2009.
Council of the European Union: SIS II functions/Open issues, 12573/2/04, 12.11.2004.
Council of the European Union: SIS/SIRENE Working Party: List of competent authorities which are authorised to search directly the data contained in the Schengen Information System pursuant to Article 101 (4) of the Schengen Convention, 16023/04, 10.12.2004, pp. 16-20.
Council Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004 of 26 October 2004 establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, OJ L 349, 25.11.2004, pp. 1-12.
Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 of 13 December 2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States, OJ, L 385, 29.12.2004, pp. 1-6.
Council Regulation (EC) No 2424/2001 of 6 December 2001 on the development of the second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II) , OJ L 328, 13.12.2010, pp. 4-6.
Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement, OJ L 81, 21.3.2001, pp. 1–7.
Council Regulation (EC) No 871/2004 of 29 April 2004 concerning the introduction of some new functions for the Schengen Information System, including in the fight against terrorism, OJ L 162, 30.04.2004, pp. 29-31.
Council Regulation (EU) No 542/2010 of 3 June 2010 amending Decision 2008/839/JHA on migration from the Schengen Information System (SIS 1+) to the second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II), OJ L 155, 22.06.2010, pp. 23-26.
Council Regulation No. 1683/95 of 29 May 1995 laying down a uniform format for visas, OJ L 164, 14.07.1995, pp. 1-4.
Council: Sirene Manual I, OJ C 38, 17.02.2003.
Decision No 1/2004 of the EU/Switzerland Mixed Committee established by the Agreement concluded between the European Union, the European Community and the Swiss Confederation concerning the latter's association in the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis of 26 October 2004, OJ C 308, pp. 2-4.
Decision of the Executive Committee of 16 September 1998 setting up a Standing Committee on the evaluation and implementation of Schengen, (SCH/ Com-ex (98) 26 def).
Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, OJ, No. L 281, 23.11. 1995, pp. 31-39.
European Commission: Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament – Towards Integrated Management of the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union, COM(2002) 233final, 07.05.2002.
European Council at Crofu, 24-25.06.1994, Presidency Conclusions.
European Data Protection Supervisor: Comments on the Communication of the Commission on interoperability of European data bases, 10.03.2006.
European Parliament resolution on crossing external borders and the development of Schengen cooperation, A5-0233/2001, OJ C 77E, 28.03.2002, pp. 141-147.
Europol: EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report TE-SAT 2007.
Europol: EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report TE-SAT 2010.
Eurostat: Fakten und Zahlen-über Europa und die Europäer.
Fountainebleau European Council, Reproduced from the Bulletin of the European Communities, No. 6/1984.
Frontex: the EU external borders agency: Minutes of Evidence, in: Frontex: the EU external borders agency, 9th Report of Session 2007-08, report from European Union Committee, Authority of the House of Lords, London, 25.10.2007.
German delegation to Council Working Party on the Schengen Informationa System: SIS II overall plan - Problems to be addressed, 10629/99, 20.08.1999.
Joint Supervisory Authority: Article 96 inspection: Report of the Schengen Joint Supervisory Authority on an inspection of the use of Article 96 alerts in the Schengen Information System, available from: http://www.cbpweb.nl/downloads_int/final_report_article_96_inspectionvers02_wob.pdf. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Joint Supervisory Authority: Article 99 inspection: Report of the Schengen Joint Supervisory authority on an inspection of the use of Article 99 alerts in the Schengen Information System, 18.12.2007, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2008/feb/JSA-art-99.pdf. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Klass and others v Federal Republic of Germany, European Court of Human Rights (Series A, NO 28) (1979-80) 2 EHRR 214, 6 September 1978.
Opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor on the proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing an Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice, and on the proposal for a Council Decision conferring upon the Agency established by Regulation XX tasks regarding the operational management of SIS II and VIS in application of Title VI of the EU Treaty, OJ C 70, 19.03.2010, pp. 13-20.
Presidency Conclusions: European Council Meeting in Laeken, 14-15.12.2001.
Proposal for a Council Decision on the establishment, operation and use of the second generation Schengen information system (SIS II), COM (2005) 230 final, 31.05.2005, pp. 1-49.
Proposal for a Council Framework Decision on the protection of personal data processed in the framework of police and judicial co-operation in criminal matters {SEC (2005) 1241} (presented by the Commission), Brussels, COM (2005) 475 final, 4.10.2005.
Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council on the establishment, operation and use of the second generation Schengen information system (SIS II), COM (2005) 236 final/2, 23.08.2005, pp. 1-49.
Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council regarding access to the Second Generation Schengen Information System (SIS II) by the services in the Member States responsible for issuing vehicle registration certificates, COM (2005) 237 final, 31.05.2005, pp. 1-10.
Recommendation No. R (87) of the Committee of Ministers to Member States Regulating the Use of Personal Data in the Police Sector (Adopted by the Committee of Minster on 17 September 1987 at the 410th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies)
Regulation (EC) No 1160/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2005 amending the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 on the gradual abolition of checks at common borders, as regards access to the Schengen Information System by the services in the Member States responsible for issuing registration certificates for vehicles, OJ L 191, 22.07.2005, pp. 18-21.
Regulation (EC) No 1986/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 regarding access to the Second Generation Schengen Information System (SIS II) by the services in the Member States responsible for issuing vehicle registration certificates, OJ L 381, 28.12.2006, pp. 1-3.
Regulation (EC) No 1987/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on the establishment, operation and use of the second-generation Schengen Information System (SIS II), OJ L 381, 28.12.2006, pp. 4-23.
Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2000 on the Protection of Individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Community Institutions and bodies and on the free movement of such data, OJ, L 8, 12.01.2001, pp. 1-22.
Regulation (EC) No 810/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 establishing a Community Code on Visas, OJ L 243, 15.09.2009, pp. 1-58.
Regulation (EEC) No 1612/68 of the Council of 15 October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers within the Community, OJ L 257, 19.10.1968, pp. 2-12.
Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code), EC/562/2006, 15.03.2006, OJ L 105, 13.04.2006, pp. 1-32.
Report by Mr Leo Tindemans, Prime Minister of Belgium to the European Council, Bulletin of the European Communities, Supplement 1/76.
Report from the Ad Hoc Working Group on International Organised Crime to the Council, Annex II: Systematic collection and analysis of information about international organised crime.
Resolution (73) 22 on the protection of the privacy of individuals vis-àvis electronic data banks in the private sector (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 26 September 1973 at the 224th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies).
Resolution (74) 29 on the protection of the privacy of individuals vis-à-vis electronic data banks in the public sector (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 20 September 1974 at the 236th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)
Schengen Information System (SIS II) Master Project Plan.
Supplementary Resolution to the Resolution adopted on 23 June 1981 concerning the adoption of a passport of uniform pattern, of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States of the European Communities, meeting within the Council on 30 June 1982, OJ C179, 1982, pp. 1-2.
The Commission on Global Governance: Our Global Neighborhood, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
The European Police Office: The Europol Convention, July 18, 1995, http://www.sachsen-anhalt.de/LPSA/fileadmin/Elementbibliothek/Bibliothek_Politik_und_Verwaltung/Bibliothek_LFD/PDF/binary/english_text/europol-convention.pdf. (Accessed 18.07.2009)
The Schengen acquis as referred to in Article 1(2) of Council Decision 1999/435/EC of 20 May 1999, OJ L239, 22.09.2000, pp. 1-479.

二、 專書與期刊論文
周慧蓮:資訊隱私保護争議之國際化,月旦法學雜誌,民國93.1,第104期,第112-132頁。
張福昌:歐盟司法與內政合作:反恐議題解析,台北:台灣商務印書館,2011年1月。
張福昌:歐盟東擴與外圍邊境安全:Frontex的角色與功能,發表於歐盟東擴研究學術研討會,中央研究院歐美研究所,2008年10月24-25日。
張福昌:邁向「歐盟」之路,台北:三民書局,2002年年1月。
許國賢:德性、干預與個人自由,政治科學論叢,第20期,2004年6月,頁1-28。
陳 美 娟:個人生物特徵資料保護初探 -以電子護照暨自動查驗快速通關發展為例,請參閱: http://163.25.6.227/foreign/seminar/paper/95student/doc/933159%E9%99%B3%E7%BE%8E%E5%A8%9F%E5%80%8B%E4%BA%BA%E7%94%9F%E7%89%A9%E7%89%B9%E5%BE%B5%E8%B3%87%E6%96%99%E4%BF%9D%E8%AD%B7%E5%88%9D%E6%8E%A2.doc. (Accessed 12.09.2010)
劉為軍:論申根協定體系與歐盟警務合作,刊載於:法學雜誌,第27卷,第6期,2006年。
盧情儀:發展中的「人類安全」概念及其在歐盟非法移民問題上之應用,問題與研究,2007年,第46卷,第4期,頁27-51。
Andersen, Svein S.: Norway: Insider AND Outsider, available from: http://www.arena.uio.no/publications/working-papers2000/papers/wp00_4.htm. (Accessed 09.10.2010)
Arteaga, Félix: The EU’s Internal Security Strategy, in: Real Instituto Elcano (ARI), no. 75, 22.06.2010.
Balzacq, Thierry et al.: Security and the Two-Level Game: The Treaty of Prüm, the EU and the Management of Threats, in: CEPS Working Document, No. 234, 01.2006.
BALZACQ, THIERRY: The Policy Tools of Securitization: Information Exchange, EU Foreign and Interior Policies, JCMS, vol. 46, no. 1, 2008, pp. 75-100.
Banks, Christopher P.: Protecting (or Destroying) Freedom through Law: The USA PATRIOT Act’s Constitutional Implications, in: David B. Cohen and John W. Wells(eds.): American National Security and Civil Liberties in an Era of Terrorism, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Barnard, Catherine: The substantive law of the EU: the four freedoms, New York : Oxford University Press, 2007.
Becher, Matthias: Eine permanente digitale Schleierfahndung, available from: http://www.heise.de/tp/r4/artikel/31/31297/1.html. (Accessed 14.10.2010)
Berlin, Isaiah: Four Essays on Liberty, London: Oxford University Press, 1969.
Bertozzi, Stefano: Schengen: Achievements and Challenges in Managing an Area Encompassing 3.6 million km², CEPS Working Document, No. 284, 02.2008.
Bigo, Didier and Jeandesboz, Julien: Border Security, Technology and the Stockholm Programme, in: INEX policy brief, no. 3, 11.2009.
Bigo, Didier: Liberty, whose Liberty? The Hague Programme and the Conception of Freedom, in: Thierry Balzacq and Sergio Carrera (eds.): Security Versus Freedom? A Challenge for Europe’s Future, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2006.
Bigo, Didier: The Changing Landscape of European Liberty and Security, in: Challenge Research Paper No. 4, 02.2007.
Brady, Hugo: The EU and the fight against organised crime, London: Centre for European Reform, April 2007 (CER Working Paper)
Brenkert, George G.: Political Freedom, London: Routledge, 1991.
Broeders, Dennis: The New Digital Borders of Europe: EU Databases and the Surveillance of Irregular Migrants, in: International Sociology, vol. 22, no.1, 2007.
Brouwer, Evelien: Data Surveillance and Border Control in the EU: Balancing Efficiency and Legal Protection, in T. Balzacq and S. Carrera (eds.): Security Versus Freedom?: A Challenge for Europe’s Future, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006, pp. 137-154.
Brouwer, Evelien: Digital Borders and Real Rights-Effective Remedies for Third-Country Nationals in the Schengen Information System, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008.
Brouwer, Evelien: The Other Side of Moon – The Schengen Information System and Human Rights: A Task for National Courts, in: CEPS Working Document No. 288, 04.2008.
Bunyan, Tony: Statewatch analysis EU data protection in police and judicial cooperation matters: Rights of suspects and defendants under attack by law enforcement demands, 10.2006, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2006/oct/eu-dp.pdf. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Bunyan, Tony: The EU state gears up for action: Internal Security Strategy & the Standing Committee on Internal Security (COSI), 12.02.2010, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2010/feb/02iss-cosi.htm. (Accessed 29.10.2010)
Caldeira, Igor: Security or Freedom, is it really the question? in: Freedom vs. Security-Can’t we have both? in: New Liberta, no. 6, 2008, available from: http://newlibertas.eu/06.pdf. (Accessed 07.09.2010)
Carrera, Sergio and Geyer, Florian: The Reform Treaty & Justice and Home Affairs-Implications for the common Area of Freedom, in: Elspeth Guild and Florian Geyer: Security versus Justice? Police and Judicial Cooperation in the European Union, Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2008.
Carrera, Sergio: The EU Border Management Strategy FRONTEX and the Challenges of Irregular Immigration in the Canary Islands, in: CEPS Working Document, no. 261, 03.2007.
Convey, Andrew and Kupiszewski, Marek: Keeping up with Schengen: Migration and Policy in the European Union, in: International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1995, pp. 939-963.
Cullen, Peter: The Schengen Agreement with Iceland and Norway: Its Main Features, in: ERA Forum, no. 4, 2001.
De Hert, Paul and Gutwirth, Serge: Interoperability of Police Databases within the EU: An Accountable Political Choice? in: International Review of Law Computers, Vol. 20, No. 1&2, 03-07.2006, pp. 21-35.
Den Boer, M.: The implementation of Schengen: First the widening, now the deepening, Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, 2000.
Den Boer, Monica and Corrado, Laura: For the Record or off the Record: Comments About the Incorporation of Schengen into the EU, in: European Journal of Migration and Law, no. 1, 1999, pp. 397-418.
Dinh, Viet D.: Freedom and Security after September 11, in: M. Katherine B. Darmer et all. (eds.): Civil Liberties vs. National Security In A Post-9/11 World, New York: Prometheus Books, 10.2004.
Drulakova, Radka: Post-democracy with the EU: Internal security vs. human rights – unavoidable conflict? paper prepared for the CEEISA 4TH Convention, Tartu, 25-27.06.2006.
Dumortier, Jos: The Protection of Personal Data in the Schengen Convention, in: International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, Mar97, Vol. 11, Issue 1, pp. 93-106.
Euskirchen, Markus: From Borderline to Borderland, in: Monthly Review: An Independent Socialist Magazine, 11.2007, Vol. 59 Issue 6.
Fandel, Marie-Helène: Projecting EU Regimes Abroad: The EU Data Protection Directive as Global Standard, paper presented at American Political Science Association, 2002 Annual Meeting, Boston, pp. 1-34.
Faure Atger, Anaïs: The Abolition of Internal Border Checks in an Enlarged Schengen Area: Freedom of movement or a web of scattered security checks? in: Challenge Research Paper, no. 8, 03.2008.
FICHE on possible implications of the Treaty of Lisbon provisions for the JHA working structures, 08.09.2009, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2009/sep/eu-jha-working-structures.pdf. (Assessed 31.10.2010)
Genson, Roland: The Schengen Agreements – Police Cooperation and Security Aspects, in: Humen Papers on Public Policy, Vol. 6, Issue 1-2, 1998, pp. 133-141.
Grössner, Rolf: Erste Rechts-Hilfe - Rechts- und Verhaltenstips im Umgang mit Polizei, Justiz und Geheimdiensten, Göttingen: Die Werkstatt, 1999.
Guild, Elspeth and Geyer, Florian: Getting local: Schengen, Prüm and the dancing procession of Echternach - Three paces forward and two back for EU police and judicial cooperation in criminal mattersm. Available from: http://www.ceps.eu/files/book/1411.pdf. (Accessed 14.07.2010)
Guild, Elspeth: Moving the Borders of Europe, 30.05.2001, available from: http://cmr.jur.ru.nl/cmr/docs/oratie.eg.pdf. (Accessed 07.11.2010)
Hayes, Ben: From the Schengen Information System to SIS II and the Visa Information System (VIS): the proposals explained, Statewatch, 02.2004, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2005/may/analysis-sisII.pdf. (Accessed 14.11.2010)
Hayes, Ben: SIS II: fait accompli? Construction of EU’s Big Brother database underway, Statewatch Analysis, 05.2005.
Hayes, Ben: Statewatch analysis EU-SIS Schengen Information System Article 99 report: 33,541 people registered in SIS for surveillance and checks, p. 3, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/analyses/no-67-sis-art99.pdf. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Herold, H.: Informationsverbund zwischen Polizei und Justiz, in: Kriminalistik, vol. 1, 1977, cited from: Paul De Hert and Serge Gutwirth: Interoperability of Police Databases within the EU: An Accountable Political Choice? in: International Review of Law Computers, Vol. 20, No. 1&2, 03-07.2006, pp. 21-35.
Hobbing, Peter: Integrated Border Management at the EU Level, in: CEPS Working Document, no. 227, 08.2005.
Hondius, Frits W.: The Last Frontier: Free Movement Of Persons In Greater Europe: The Role Of The Council Of Europe, in: Henry G. Schermers, C. Flinterman, et al (Eds.): Free Movement of Persons in Europe: Legal Problems and Experiences. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993.
Jandl, Michael: Estimates on the Numbers of Illegal and Smuggled Immigrants in Europe, presentation at workshop 1.6 at 8th International Metropolis Conference, 17.09.2003. Available from: http://mighealth.net/eu/images/5/5b/Icmpd.pdf. (Accessed 09.08.2010)
Kabera Karanja, Stephen: The Schengen Co-operation: Consequences for the Rights of EU Citzens, 2000, available from: http://www.personvern.uio.no/pvpn/artikler/M&R2Article.htm. (Accessed 10.10.2010)
Kabera Karanja, Stephen: The Schengen Information System in Austria: An Essential Tool in Day to Day Police and Border Control Work? in: Journal of Information, Law and Technology, issue 1, 2002.
Kabera Karanja, Stephen: Transparency and Proportionality in the Schengen Information System and Border Control Co-operation, Leiden: Nijhoff Publishers, 2008.
Kant, Martina: Verdachtsunabhängige Kontrollen – Migrant Innen im Netz der Schleierfahnfung, available from: http://www.safercity.de/2000/schleierfahndung_cilip.html. (Accessed 14.10.10)
Keohane, Robert O. / Martin, Lisa L.: The Promise of Institutionalist Theory, in: International Security, Vol. 20, No. 1, Summer 1995, pp. 39-51.
Keohane, Robert O. and Nye, Joseph S.: Power and Interdependence—World Politics in Transition, Boston/Toronto 1977.
Keohane, Robert O.: After Hegemony—Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy, Princeton, 1984.
Keohane, Robert O.: International Institutions and State Power—Essays in International Relations Theory, Boulder/San Francisco/London, 1989.
Keohane, Robert O.: The demand for international regimes, in: International Organization, Vol. 36, No. 2, Spring 1982, pp. 325-355.
Kingsbury, Benedict: THE CONCEPT OF ‘LAW’ IN GLOBAL ADMINISTRATIVE LAW, in: IILJ Working Paper (Global Administrative Law Series), vol. 1, 02.27.2009, pp. 23-57.
Koslowski, Rey: Information Technology and Integrated Border Management, available from: http://kms2.isn.ethz.ch/serviceengine/Files/RESSpecNet/106367/ichaptersection_singledocument/4A76D2D6-753E-433F-A8FB-DFF5791477F8/en/ch4_Koslowski.pdf (Accessed 08.07.2010)
Krasner, Stephen D. (ed.): International Regimes, Ithaca/London 1983.
Lange, Hans-Jürgen: Innere Sicherheit im Politischen System der Bundersrepublik Deutschland, Opladen: Leske und Budrich, 1999.
Lavenex, Sandra: Switzerland: Between Intergovernmental Co-operation and Schengen Association, in: Marina Caparini, Otwin Marenin (eds.): Borders and security governance: managing borders in a globalised world, London: Transaction Publishers, 2006.
Lodge, Juliet: Internal Security and Judicial Co-operation Beyond Masstricht, in: Terrorism & Political Violence, vol. 4, Issue 3, 1992.
Lord Wallace of Saltaire: National and European Parliamentary Control of Schengen: Gains and Outstanding Deficits, in: Monica den Boer (eds.): Schengen Still Going Strong – Evaluation and Update, Maasticht: European Institute of Public Administration, 2000, pp. 121-129.
Luif, Paul: The Treaty of Prüm: A Replay of Schengen? paper presented at the Tenth Biennial International Conference, 17-19.05.2007, Montreal, Canada, in the Panel “Subgroups of member states in the EU’s external and internal security: Does flexibility work?, European Union Studies Association.
MAHMOOD, SHIRAZ: The Schengen Information System: An Inequitable Data Protection Regime, in: International Journal of Refugee Law, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 179-200.
Maas, Willem: Freedom of movement inside “fortress Europe, available from: http://aei.pitt.edu/6894/01/Maas-Schengen.pdf. (Accessed 20.12.2010)
Mathiesen, Thomas: On globalization of control: Towards and integrated surveillance system in Europe, London: A Statewatch Publication, 1999.
Melis, Barbara: Negotiating Europe’s Immigration Frontiers, The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001.
Michael, K. and Michael, M. G.: "Schengen Information System II: The balance between civil liberties, security and justice" in: Katina Michael and M.G. Michael (eds.): Australia and the New Technologies: Evidence Based Policy in Public Administration, Wollongong: University of Wollongong, 2008, pp. 173-182.
Monar, Jörg: Schengen, Closer Cooperation and the Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion, in: Clotilde Marinho (eds.): Asylum, Immigration and Schengen Post-Amsterdam - A First Assessment, Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, 2001.
Monar, Jörg: The EU and Internal Security: Origins, Progress, Limits and Prospects of a Growing Role, in: Analysis of Real Instituto Elcano (ARI), No. 112, 15.07.2009.
Monar, Jörg: The European Union’s ‘Intergrated Management’ of External borders, in: Joan DeBardeleben (eds.): Soft or Hard Borders? Managing the Divide in an Enlarged Europe, Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 2005.
Monar, Jörg: The Impact of Schengen on Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union : An Assessment on the Threshold to its Incorporation, in: Monica den Boer (eds.): Schengen Still Going Strong – Evaluation and Update, Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, 2000, pp. 21-35.
NEAL, ANDREW W.: Securitization and Risk at the EU Border: The Origins of FRONTEX, JCMS, vol. 47, no. 2, 2009, pp. 333-346.
Nogala, Detlef: Policing Across a Dimorphous Border: Challenge and Innovation at the French-German Border, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, vol. 9, no. 2, 2001, pp. 130-143.
Occhipinti, John D.: The Politics of EU Police Cooperation-TOWARD A EUROPEAN FBI? London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003.
Papagianni, Georgia: Institutional and policy dynamics of EU migration Law, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2006.
Peers, Steve: EU JUSTICE AND HOME AFFAIRS LAW, Edinburgh Gate: Pearson Education Limited, 2000.
Peers, Steve: Human Rights and the Third Pillar, in: Philip Alston: The EU and Human Rights, London: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Peers, Steve: Key Legislative Developments on Migration in the European Union: SIS II, in: European Journal of Migration and Law, vol. 10, 2008, pp. 77-104.
Peers, Steve: Statewatch summary: Schengen Information System (SIS) II, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2006/jun/statewatch-summary-SIS-II.pdf. (Accessed 12.11.2010)
Perignon, Isabelle and Dauce, Constance: The European Arrest Warrant: a growing success story, in: ERA Forum, no.8, 14.06.2007, pp. 203-214.
Pijpers, Roos and Van Der Velde, Martin: Mobility across Borders: Contextualizing Local Strategies to Circumvent Visa and Work Permit Requirements, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 31.4, Dec 2007, pp. 819-835.
Poullet, Yves: The Directive 95/46/EC: Ten years after, in: Computer Law & Security Report, vol. 22, 2006, pp. 206-217.
Rifkind, Malcolm: Foreign Secretary, in: House of Commons Debates, vol. 287, 12.12.1996 columns 433-434. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199697/cmhansrd/vo961212/debtext/61212-13.htm. (Accessed 18.08.2010)
Rittberger, Volker (ed.): Regime Theory and International Relations, Oxford, 1995.; James N.Rosenau/Ernst-Otto Czempiel (eds.): Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics, Cambridge 1995.
Rothschild, Emma: What Is Security? in: Daedalus, vol. 124, no. 3, 1995, pp. 53-98.
Schutte, Julian: The Incorporation of the Schengen Acquis in the European Union, in: Hume Papers on Public Policy, 1998, Vol. 6 Issue 1-2.
Scirocco, Alfonso: The Lisbon Treaty and the Protection of Personal Data in the European Union, available from: http://www.edps.europa.eu/EDPSWEB/webdav/shared/Documents/EDPS/Publications/Speeches/2008/08-09-19_Scirocco_Lisbontreaty_DP_EN.pdf. (Assessed 31.10.2010)
Sokol, Bettina: Fünfzehnter Datenschutzbericht der Landesbeauftragten für den Datenschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen für die Zeit vom 1. Januar 1999 bis zum 31. Dezember 2000.
Storbeck, Jürgen and Toussaint, Mascia: Outline of a Balanced and Effective Internal Security Strategy for the European Union, European Journal of Crime, in: Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 2004, Vol. 12/1, pp. 1-13.
Thatcher, Margaret: Speech delivered at the College of Europe, Bruges, 20 September 1988, in: Ronald Tiersky (eds.): Euro-skepticism, Boston: Rowman & Little field Publishers, 2001
Thym, Daniel: The Schengen Law: A Challenge for Legal Accountability in the European Union, European Law Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, 06.2002, pp. 218-245.
VAN DER MEI, A.P.: Free Movement of Persons Within the European Community-Cross-Border Access to Public Benefits, Oregon: Hart Publishing, 2003.
Van der Rijt, W.: Le Fonctionnement des Institutions Schengen: Pragmatisme, toujours, in: M. Den Boer(ed.): Schengen‘s Final Days? The Incorporation of Schengen into the New TEU, External Borders and Information Systems, Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, 1998.
Vermeulen, Gert: Mutual Legal Assistance in Schengen and the EU: An Update, in: Monica den Boer (eds.): Schengen Still Going Strong – Evaluation and Update, Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, 2000.
Wallace, Helen: Policy-Making in the European Union, 5th Edition, New York: Oxford, 2005.
Wallwork, A. and Baptista, J.: Understanding interoperability, in J Backhouse (ed.): Structured Account of Approaches on Interoperability, chapter 4, ReportD4.1, Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS), 6th Framework Programme, European Commission, 2005.
Walters, William: Mapping Schengenland: denaturalizing the border, in: Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 20, 2002, pp. 561-580.
Weiss, Friedl and Wooldridge, Frank: Free Movement of Persons within the European Community Second Edition, AH Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2007.
Wichmann, Nicole: ‘More in than out’ – Switzerland’s Association with Schengen, paper presented at the EUSA Biennial Conference, 23-25 April, Los Angeles, available from: http://www.unc.edu/euce/eusa2009/papers/wichmann_08C.pdf. (Accessed 10.10.2010)
Yi-Vakkuri, Laura: Building upon the Schengen Acquis, in: ERA Forum, vol. 2, no. 2, 2001.
Young, Oran R.: International Regimes: Toward a New Theory of Institutions, in: World Politics, Vol. 39, No. 1, 10. 1986, pp. 104-122.
Zaiotti, Ruben: Cultures of Border Control: Schengen and the Evolution of Europe’s Frontiers, thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Political Science University of Toronto, 2008.

三、 網路資料
台灣個人資料保護現況,台灣個人資料保護協會,available from: http://www.elite-it.com.tw/TWPDA/company00_1_2.asp. (Accessed 15.12.2010)
唐淑美:刑事DNA資料庫之擴增與隱私權之探討,東海大學法學研究第二十三期,2005年12月,頁83-122。
簡榮宗:個人資料保護法修正後之運用,available from: http://www.lawtw.com/article.php?template=article_content&area=&job_id=160331&parent_path=,1,777,&article_category_id=806&article_id=87919. (Accessed 15.12.2010)
「比荷盧經濟聯盟條約」。Available from: http://www.benelux.be/en/rgm/rgm_vdg_deel1.asp. (Accessed 06.04.2010)
1981年1月28日在史特拉斯堡簽署「個人資料保護公約」。Available from: http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ChercheSig.asp?NT=108&CM=1&DF=&CL=ENG. (Accessed 18.08.2010)
A Development Co-operation Lens on Terrorism Prevention, Key Entry Points for Action, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, 2003, available from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/4/16085708.pdf. (Accessed 19.09.2010)
Aloys Rigaut: Security and freedom: part of the European dream? Available from: http://newlibertas.eu/06.pdf. (Accessed 28.07.2010)
Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/policies/borders/borders_intro_en.htm. (Accessed 18.01.2009)
Available from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-461518/European-police-access-DNA.html. (Accessed 10.07.2010)
Council of EU: Information sheet-Enlargement of the Schengen Area, Brussels, 8 November 2007, Available from: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/jha/97021.pdf .(Accessed 03.01.2009)
Data Protection in Germany, available from: http://www.aip-bg.org/lichnidanni/pdf/germany.pdf. (Accessed 14.09.2010)
DATA SECURITY SCANDAL: SENSITIVE SIS-FILES FOUND AT RAILWAY STATION, available from: http://www.fecl.org/circular/5203.htm. (Accessed 16.10.2010)
EU Information System Aids Czech Police in Tracing Missing, Wanted Persons, World News Connection, 29.09. 2008.
EU Official Website. Facts about SIS. Available from: http://www.goteborg.com/25939.epibrw (Accessed 31.12.2008)
European Union-Background to Schengen Agreement, BBC NEWS, 28.11.1997. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1997/schengen/13508.stm. (Accessed 05.06.2007)
EU-SIS: Three-quarters of a million "illegal aliens" banned from Schengen area, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2005/apr/08SISart96.htm. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Facts about SIS. Available from: http://www.goteborg.com/25939.epibrw. (Accessed 31.12.2008)
From Schengen to Prüm: Data Protection under 3rd pillar a prerequisite, 28.02.2007, available from: http://www.edri.org/edrigram/number5.4/prum. (Accessed 09.11.2010)
General Secretariat of the Council of the EU: The Lisbon Treaty's impact on the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) Council: More co-decision and new working structures, 12.2009, available from: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/NewsWord/en/ec/111615.doc. (Accessed 29.10.2010)
http://www.liechtenstein.li/en/fl-portal-aktuell?newsid=16565 (Accessed 22.01.2009)
Joint Supervisory Authority: Article 99 inspection: Report of the Schengen Joint Supervisory authority on an inspection of the use of Article 99 alerts in the Schengen Information System, 18.12.2007, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2008/feb/JSA-art-99.pdf. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Liechtenstein Official Website.
Mutual legal assistance in criminal matters introduced at European Union level, available from: http://blade.eurodyn.com/justice_home/fsj/criminal/assistance/fsj_criminal_assistance_en.htm. (Accessed 18.11.2010)
New Benelux Treaty, available from: http://www.benelux.be/en/bnl/act_nieuwVerdrag.asp. (Accessed 06.04.2010)
Norway chairs the Mixed Committee, available from: http://www.eu-norway.org/news/Norway_chairs_Mixed_Committee/. (Accessed 09.10.2010)
Police cooperation and access to information, available from: http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/police/schengen/fsj_police_schengen_en.htm. (Accessed 03.01.2009)
Press Release: EDPS sees adoption of Data Protection Framework for police and judicial cooperation only as a first step, 28.11.2008, available from: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=EDPS/08/11&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Press Releases: More than 1 700 suspects arrested in Europe in 2005: Commission’s second report confirms effectiveness of European arrest warrant, Brussels, 11 July 2007, available from: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/1064&format=HTML&age. (Accessed 16.10.2010)
Prüm's Treaty is now included into the EU legal framework, 20.06.2007, available from: http://www.edri.org/edrigram/number5.12/prum-treaty-eu. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Romania Will Join Schengen Area On March 27, 2011 – Interior Minister, available from: http://www.mediafax.ro/english/romania-will-join-schengen-area-on-march-27-2011-interior-minister-6099156. (Accessed 09.10.2010)
Schengen Borders Code evaluated: Commission concerned about reported difficulties for travelers, 13.10.2010, available from: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/10/1329&type=HTML. (Assessed 29.10.2010)
Secretive “SIRENE”: Maintaining Public Order and State Security, FECL no. 49, December 1996/January 1997, available from: http://www.fecl.org/circular/4904.htm. (Accessed 21.10.2010)
SIS II takes ominous shape, Statewatch News, 04.04.2002, available from: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2002/apr/01sis.htm. (Accessed 01.11.2010)
Statement of the European Commissioner for Home Affairs, Cecilia Malmström, on the 25th Anniversary of Schengen: "Twenty-five years of removing borders", Available from: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/10/251&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en. (Accessed 17.06.2010)
Statistics Suggest Joining Schengen Has Not Raised Crime Level in Estonia, World News Connection, 02.04. 2008.
The EU is wasting millions of Euros in a system that does not work, available from: http://europeanjournal.typepad.com/my_weblog/2009/01/the-eu-is-wasting-millions-of-euros-in-a-system-that-does-not-work.html. (Accessed 21.08.2010)
The EU Visa Code will apply from 5 April 2010, 30.03.2010. Available from: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/10/111&type=HTML. (Accessed 21.08.2010)
The Lisbon Treaty and Privacy, available from: http://epic.org/privacy/intl/lisbon_treaty.html. (30.10.2010)
The Schengen area and cooperation, available from: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/justice_freedom_security/free_movement_of_persons_asylum_immigration/l33020_en.htm. (Accessed 24.01.2009)
Van der Heijden, Toon: MEASURING ORGANIZED CRIME IN WESTERN EUROPE ,available from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/mea313.htm. (Accessed 11.08.2010)
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2011-02-11公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2011-02-11起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信