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系統識別號 U0002-1701200722370300
中文論文名稱 美國二OO二年麥肯與范戈選舉改革法案之立法過程及成效評估
英文論文名稱 The U. S. Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002(The McCain-Feingold Act): Its Legislative Process and Effects
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 95
學期 1
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 彭子倫
研究生英文姓名 Chih-Lung Peng
學號 691220072
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-12-29
論文頁數 130頁
口試委員 指導教授-戴萬欽
委員-蔡瑋
委員-吳玲君
中文關鍵字 美國選舉改革  麥肯與范戈法案  軟錢  議題提倡 
英文關鍵字 campaign finance reform  soft money  issue advocacy 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本論文將就美國近三十年來最重大的聯邦選舉改革法案-麥肯與范戈法案(The McCain-Feingold Act)進行深入剖析。提案的參議員麥肯(John McCain)與范戈(Russ Feingold)矢志淨化聯邦選舉,矯正利益團體以政治獻金賄賂聯邦公職人員的不當行為。自一九九O年代開始,政黨擅長使用「黨務建設」的軟錢資助聯邦選舉,企業界和利益團體也樂於捐助鉅款,藉以和總統與國會議員拉近距離,以介入公共政策的制定。麥肯與范戈法案的立法過程備受責難,適逢美國政壇爆發多起政治獻金醜聞,龐大的輿論壓力衝擊白宮及國會,才使得反對立法的勢力瓦解。麥肯與范戈法案的首要改革對象為:「軟錢」(soft money)、「獨立支出」(independent expenditures)和「議題提倡」(issue advocacy)。二OO四年美國總統選舉為麥肯與范戈法案生效後的首次聯邦選舉,筆者藉此檢視法案的施行成果,並進行初步評估。
英文摘要 The main purpose of this thesis is to analyze the McCain-Feingold Act, which has been the most significant campaign finance reform for the past thirty years. Since the 1990s, political parties have begun using the unregulated “soft money” donations to finance federal elections. Corporations and unions are willing to provide party officials with “soft money” to have access to the White House and the Congress. Senators John McCain and Russ Feingold proposed the bill in order to sever the link between large political contributors, federal elected officials and party leaders. The McCain-Feingold Act was designed to address three issues: the increased role of soft money in campaign financing, the proliferations of issue advocacy, and the misuse of independent expenditures. The McCain-Feingold Act was stalled in both Houses until the occurrence of the scandal. The bankruptcy of Enron refocused national attention on the power of money in politics and underscored the need for reform. The 2004 presidential election was the first campaign season operating under the new rule. This thesis evaluates the impacts of the McCain-Feingold Act.
論文目次 第一章 緒論.................................................................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的.....................................................................1
第二節 文獻回顧…………………………………………………….4
第三節 研究範圍與限制…………………………………………….7
第四節 研究架構…………………………………………………… 8
第二章 麥肯與范戈法案之立法背景……………………………………10
第一節 參議員麥肯與范戈的提案動機……………………………10
第二節 當時的政治環境……………………………………………19
第三章 麥肯與范戈法案之主要內容……………………………………26
第一節 美國聯邦選舉法規…………………………………………27
第二節 政黨主導的聯邦選舉活動…………………………………32
第三節 民間主導的聯邦選舉活動…………………………………34
第四節 聯邦公職人員、候選人和黨職人員之選舉活動規範…....36
第五節 政治獻金的捐款限制………………………………………39
第四章 麥肯與范戈法案之立法過程……………………………………43
第一節 麥肯與范戈法案面臨的批評………………………………44
第二節 小布希總統簽署法案的關鍵因素…………………………50
第五章 麥肯與范戈法案和二OO四年總統大選………………………60
第一節 軟錢禁令與二OO四年大選的政黨財務…………………63
第二節 二OO四年大選中募集硬錢的組織和動員…………… ... 69
第三節 二OO四年大選中五二七組織的關鍵角色……………….73
第六章 麥肯與范戈法案之成效評估……………………………………80
第一節 預期目標的達成……………………………………………80
第二節 對未來聯邦選舉的影響……………………………………94
第七章 結論……………………………………………………………..106
表次
表3-1 麥肯與范戈法案提高硬錢的額度.......................................42
表5-1 二OO四年普選階段選舉花費...........................................65
表6-1 二OOO年至二OO四年民主黨和共和黨募款金額……82
表6-2 二OO三年至二OO四年全美排名
前二十大五二七組織………………………………………85
表6-3 一九八四年至二OO四年美國民眾參與
政治捐款的人口比例………………………………………90
表6-4 一九八O年至二OO四年總統與國會選舉的獨立支出.. 93
表6-5 二OOO年和二OO四年聯邦選舉的總花費…………….95
表6-6 二OOO年至二OO四年政黨獻金的來源……………….97
表6-7 參議員范戈改革五二七組織所作努力…………………...99
表6-8 二OO三年「麥康納對聯邦選舉委員會」一案的
判決結果…………………………………………………..103
表6-9 二OO四年政黨、總統候選人和五二七組織的
資金流向…………………………………………………..104
附錄………………………………………………………………………115
參考書目
中文部份……………………………………………………………124
英文部份……………………………………………………………124
參考文獻 壹、中文部份
一、書籍
王國璋。當代美國政治論衡。台北市:三民書局,民國八十二年。
李月華。買通美國國會。台北市:平氏出版有限公司,民國八十四年。
郭岱君譯注、詹姆士•梭伯&坎迪斯•納爾遜主編。選戰必勝方程式。台北市:智庫股份有限公司,民國八十八年。
彭錦鵬主編。美國政黨與利益團體。台北市:中央研究院歐美研究所,民國八十三年。
張明貴譯、拉瑞。艾洛維茲著。美國政府與政治。台北市:桂冠圖書股份有限公司,民國八十四年。
二、期刊
彭錦鵬。「中華民國與美國國會議員競選經費之比較」。歐美研究,第二十五卷第一期,民國八十四年三月,頁一∼頁三五。
焦興鎧。「美國勞工組織與政黨關係之研究」。歐美研究,第二十二卷第四期,民國八十一年十二月,頁三七∼頁九九。
鄭端耀。「一九九六年美國民主黨政治獻金案與選舉經費制度改革之探討」。歐美研究,第二十八卷第四期,民國八十七年十二月,頁六三∼頁一O二。

三、博、碩士論文:
宋傳明。「政治行動委員會與美國選舉-運作、策略及評估」。淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文。民國八十九年六月。
陳怡安。「美國總統大選中公共基金之理論與實際」。淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文。民國九十一年六月。
趙家寶。「美國總統選舉經費來源與支出研究」。淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文。民國六十八年六月。

貳、英文部份
Ⅰ. Books
Ackerman, Bruce, and Ian Ayres. Voting with Dollars: A New Paradigm for Campaign Finance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
Alexander, Herbert E. Financing Politics: Money, Elections, and Political Reform. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1984.
Anderson, Annelise. ed. Political Money: Deregulating American Politics. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2000.
Arterton, Christopher. Media Politics: The New Strategies of Presidential Campaigns. Washington, D.C.: Lexington Books, 1984.
Bauer, Robert F. More Soft Money Hard Law: The Second Edition of the Guide to the New Campaign Finance Law. Washington, D.C.: Perkins Coie, 2004.
Bennett, Lance. The Governing Crisis: Media, Money, and Marketing in American Elections. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.
Bike, William S. Winning Political Campaigns: A Comprehensive Guide to Electoral Success. Juneau: The Denali Press, 1998.
Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. The Money Man: The Real Story of Fund-raising’s Influence on Political Power in America. New York: Crown Publishers, 2000.
Ceaser, James W. and Andrew E. Busch. Red Over Blue: The 2004 Elections and American Politics. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005.
Corrado, Anthony. Paying for Presidents: Public Financing in National Elections. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1993.
Corrado, Anthony., Thomas E. Mann, and Trevor Potter, eds. Inside the Campaign Finance Battle: Court Testimony on the New Reforms. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.
Drew, Elizabeth. The Corruption of American Politics: What Went Wrong and Why. New York: The Overlook Press, 1999.
Dye, Thomas R., Harmon Zeigler, and Robert Lichter. American Politics in the Media Age. Pacific Grove: Brook and Cole Publishing Company, 1992.
Goidel, Robert K., Donald A. Gross, and Todd G. Shields. Money Matters: Consequences of Campaign Finance Reform in U.S. House Elections. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1999.
Green, Mark. Selling out: How Big Corporate Money Buys Elections, Rams Through Legislation, and Betrays Our Democracy. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2002.
Gunlicks, Arthur B. ed. Campaign and Party Finance in North America and Western Europe. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.
Holbrook, Thomas M. Do Campaign Matter. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1996.
Hrebenar, Ronald J., Matthew J. Burbank, and Robert C. Benedict. Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Political Campaigns. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999.
Lewis, Charles. The Buying of the President 2000. New York: Avon Books, 2000.
Magleby, David B., Anthony Corrado, and Kelly D. Patterson. eds. Financing the 2004 Election. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 2006.
Malbin, Michael J. ed. Money and Politics in the United States: Financing Elections in the 1980s. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1984.
Malbin, Michael J. ed. The Election After Reform: Money, Politics, and the Bipartisan Reform Act. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
McChesney, Robert W. Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Nelson, Michael. ed. The Elections of 2004. Washington, D. C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2005.
Newman, Bruce. The Marketing of the President: Political Marketing as Campaign Strategy. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 1994.
Patterson, Thomas E. The Mass Media Election: How Americans Choose Their President. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980.
Polsby, Nelson W., and Aaron Wildavsky. Presidential Elections: Contemporary Strategies of American Electoral Politics. New York: The Free Press, 1988.
Reichley, James. Election American Style. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institute, 1987.
Schneider, Jerrold E. Campaign Finance Reform and the Future of the Democratic Party. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Shea, Daniel M. Campaign Craft: The Strategies, Tactics and Art of Political Campaign Management. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
Smith, Bradley A. Unfree Speech: The Folly of Campaign Finance Reform. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Thomas, Evan. Election 2004: How Bush Won and What You Can Expect in the Future. New York: Public Affairs, 2004.
Thomas, Norman C., Joseph A. Pika, and Richard A. Watson. The Politics of the Presidency. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1994.
Trent, Judith S. and Robert V. Friedenberg. Political Campaign Communication: Principles and Practices. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2000.
Wayne, Stephen J. The Road to the White House: The Politics of Presidential Elections. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984.
Weaver, David H., Doris A. Graber, and Maxwell E. McCombs. Media Agenda-Setting in a Presidential Election. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1981.
West, Darrell M. Checkbook Democracy: How Money Corrupts Political Campaigns. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000.
Ⅱ. Periodicals
Adams, Greg D. and Peverill Squire. “Incumbent Vulnerability and Challenger Emergence in Senate Elections.” Political Behavior, Vol. 19, No. 2. (Jun., 1997), pp. 97-111.
Ansolabehere, Stephen and James M. Snyder. “Soft Money, Hard Money, Strong Parties.” Columbia Law Review, Vol. 100, No. 3. (April, 2000), pp. 598-619.
Ayres, Ian and Jeremy Bulow. “The Donation Booth: Mandating Donor Anonymity to Disrupt the Market for Political Influences.” Stanford Law Review, Vol. 50, No. 3. (Feb., 1998), pp.837-891.
Basham, Patrick and Dennis Polhill. “Uncompetitive Elections and the American Political System.” Cato Policy Analysis, (June 30, 2005), pp.1-11.
BeVier, Lillian R. “The Issue of Issue Advocacy: A Economic, Political, and Constitutional Analysis.” Virginia Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 8. (Nov., 1999), pp.1761-1792.
Cochran, John. “Murky Campaign Finance Ruling Puts Soft Money Raising on Hold.” Congressional Quarterly, Vol. 61, Issue 19, (May 10, 2003), p.1093.
Cochran, John. “Campaign Finance Law’s Future Uncertain After Day in Court.” Congressional Weekly, Vol. 61, Issue 35, (Sep 13, 2003), p. 2210.
Cochran, John. “Senate Adds Election Funds.” Congressional Weekly, Vol. 61, Issue 41, (Oct 25, 2003), p. 2643.
Cochran, John, David Nather, and Allison Stevens. “Less-Than-Hard Ruling on Soft Money Sets Off Race to Supreme Court.” Congressional Quarterly, Vol. 61, Issue 18, (May 3, 2003), p.1036.
Cochran, John and John Cranford. “Any Change in High Court Critical to Campaign Finance.” Congressional Weekly, Vol. 61, Issue 14, (April 5, 2003), p. 800.
Cooper, Matthew, Karen Tumulty, and James Carney. “Bring on the Cash.” Time, Vol. 163, Issue 8, (Feb 23, 2004), p.18.
Davis, Susan. “Interest Groups War of Words Over BCRA Impact.” Congress Daily, (December 10, 2003), pp.3-4.
Eisenberg, Arthur N. “Civic Discourse, Campaign Finance Reform, and Virtues of Moderation.” Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature, Vol. 12, No.1. (Summer, 2000), pp. 141-166.
Glover, Daniel. “Blog Swarm Stings the FEC.” National Journal, (April 26, 2005), pp.993-995.
Isikoff, Michael. “Cash and Kerry.” Newsweek, (February 9, 2004), pp.34-39
Jost, Kenneth. “Challenge to Campaign Finance Law Is Eleven Lawsuits in One.” Congressional Weekly, Vol. 61, Issue 33, (Aug 30, 2003), p. 2097.
Klein, Alyson. “FEC Affirms Corzine Must Abide By BCRA Regulations.” Congress Daily, (April 22, 2005), pp.2-3.
Krasno, Jonathan and Kenneth Goldstein. “The Facts about Television Advertising and the McCain-Feingold Bill.” Political Science and Politics, Vol. 35, No. 2. (Jun., 2002), pp.207-212.
Laden, Anthony. “Democratic Legitimacy and the 2000 Election.” Law and Philosophy, Vol. 21, No. 2. (Mar., 2002), pp. 197-220.
Lemieux, Dotty E. “Ten Secrets for a Successful Political Fund-Raiser.” Campaigns and Elections, Vol. 25, Issue 1, (Feb 2004), p. 56.
Logan, Charles W. “Getting beyond Scarcity: A New Paradigm for Assessing the Constitutionality of Broadcast Regulation.” California Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 6. (Dec., 1997), pp. 1687-1747.
Nelson, Justin A. “The Supply and Demand of Campaign Finance Reform.” Columbia Law Review, Vol. 100, No. 2. (Mar., 2000), pp. 524-557.
Roane, Spencer. “Freedom of Speech Now Illegal.” American Spectator, Vol. 37, Issue 1, (Feb 2004), p.10.
Smith, Bradley A. “Faulty Assumptions and Undemocratic Consequences of Campaign Finance Reform.” Yale Law Journal, (January, 1996), p.1060.
Starr, Alexandra, Paula Dwyer, and Mike McNamee. “Capital Wrap-up.” Business Week, Issue 3863, (Dec 22, 2003), p.51.
Walczak, Lee, Richard S. Dunham, and Lorraine Woellert. “John Kerry: Already on the GOP Firing Line.” Business Week, Issue 3870, (Feb 16, 2004), p. 36.
Walsh, Kenneth T. “It’s My Party and I’ll Run If I Want To: Is Russ Perot Leading A Lamb to the Slaughter?” U. S. News and World Report, (July 29, 1996), p.30.
Wegner, Mark and April Fulton. “Dems, GOP Say They Are Prepared to Live Under BCRA.” Congress Daily, (December 10, 2003), pp.2-3.
Wegner, Mark. “Small Donors Fill Soft Money Void, Campaign Experts Say.” Congress Daily, (June 25, 2004), pp.3-4.
Williams, Patricia J. “Money, Money, Money.” Nation, Vol. 278, Issue 1, (May 1, 2004), p.10.
Woellert, Lorraine, Paula Dwyer, and Richard S. Dunham. “Will Bush and Dean Kill Public-Financed Race?” Business Week, (November 24, 2003), p. 53.
Ⅲ. Newspapers
Balz, Dan and Thomas B. Edsall. “Democrats Forming Parallel Campaign.” The Washington Post. March 10, 2004, p. A1.
Edsall, Thomas B. “FEC Moves to Regulate Groups Opposing Bush.” The Washington Post. February 19, 2004, p. A6.
Edsall, Thomas B. “McCain Says FEC Is Not Enforcing Law.” The Washington Post. March 11, 2004, p. A04.
Edsall, Thomas B. “Democrats’ Financing Plan Challenged.” The Washington Post. January 16, 2004, p. A04.
Edsall, Thomas B. “McCain-Feingold Helps GOP.” The Washington Post. February 7, 2004, p. A08.
Edsall, Thomas B. “FEC Chairman Backs Organizations’ Use of Soft Money.” The Washington Post. (February 16, 2004), p. A04.
Edsall, Thomas B. “GOP Urges Wider Ban on Soft Money.” The Washington Post. January 13, 2004, p. A04.
Gitell, Seth. “The Democratic Party Suicide Bill.” The Atlantic. July 1, 2003.
Greenhouse, Steven. “A.F.L.-C.I.O. Plans to Spend $44 Million to Unseat Bush.” The New York Times. March 11, 2004.
Henderson, Stephen. “Justices appears divided on Campaign finance law.” Salt Lake Tribune. September 9, 2003.
Justice, Glen. “Election Rules Proposed by Panel May Curb Interest Groups’ Work.” The New York Times. March 5, 2004.
Justice, Glen. “Kerry Faces a New Climb: Bush’s Mountain of Cash.” The New York Times. March 4, 2004.
Justice, Glen. “Newcomers Provide Fuel for Bush Money Machine.” The New York Times. March 14, 2004.
Justice, Glen and Jim Rutenberg. “Senators Say Political Groups Are Circumventing Finance Law.” The New York Times. March 11, 2004.
Justice, Glen and Jim Rutenberg. “Political Groups Spending Millions to Take on Bush in Ad Campaign.” The New York Times. March 10, 2004.
Seelye, Katharine Q. “Democrats Arrange Rare Convergence of Party’s Star for Fund-Raiser.” The New York Times. March 25, 2004.
Ⅳ. Web Pages Sources
http://www.fec.gov/pages/bcra/bcra_update.htm
(美國聯邦選舉委員會的官方網站)
http://mccain.senate.gov/
(參議員麥肯國會辦公室網站)
http://feingold.senate.gov/index.html
(參議員范戈國會辦公室網站)
http://www.brookings.edu/default.htm
(布魯金斯研究機構網站)
http://www.cato.org/research/crg/finance.html
(凱托研究機構網站)

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