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系統識別號 U0002-1612201017264500
中文論文名稱 多目標遺傳演算法求解供應鏈整合性庫存控制與設施定址問題
英文論文名稱 A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Approach for an Integrated Location-Inventory Distribution Network System
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Management Science
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 謝佳琳
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Lin Hsieh
學號 893560028
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-01-08
論文頁數 168頁
口試委員 指導教授-廖述賢
委員-蔣明晃
委員-陳正綱
委員-陳穆臻
委員-阮金祥
委員-羅惠瓊
委員-張春桃
中文關鍵字 供應鏈管理  整合性多目標庫存與定址網路分派問題模式  多目標基因遺傳演算法  敏感性分析  情境分析 
英文關鍵字 Supply Chain Management  Integrated Location-Inventory Distribution Network Problem  Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm  Trade-off Analysis  Scenario Analysis 
學科別分類
中文摘要 供應鏈配送網路系統在提供一個最佳化的平台來追求供應鏈需求者的時間效率與供應者的成本效益,以期追求在成本上有效率以及在時間上可快速回應的供應鏈管理。有效率的供應鏈管理主要目的在於減少並降低作業時的成本:例如設施定址成本,庫存作業成本與運輸配送成本等。快速回應的供應鏈管理主要目的,則是為了能快速回應市場上需求的急速變化,以滿足大多數的顧客。然而,成本與顧客滿意度這兩個目的之間常常是互相抵觸的。
我們的研究主要是將一個包含設施定址、庫存控制與網路配送等三種供應鏈決策規劃的議題,並以兩種相互衝突目標:需求者時間效率與供應者成本效益為追求最佳化的標竿,設計了一個整合性的多目標規劃模式稱為多目標定址庫存問題此數學模式,簡稱為MOLIP。該數學模式同時包含了三個目標函數:分別為供應鏈總成本,顧客服務水準(或訂單達交率)與供應鏈彈性(或顧客回應水準),因此,我們所建立的模式乃是一個包含非線性混合整數規劃的最佳化的問題。此問題乃是在求解最佳的分派中心設址地點並將所有不同地區的顧客與需求,指派到最適當的分派中心,並找出最佳的柏拉圖最適解。
本研究探索以多目標遺傳演算法中稱為「菁英式非支配排序遺傳演算法」(NSGA-II) 來求解MOLIP模式的可行性。為了有效求解此問題,我們以接近實際供應鏈分銷網路問題設計了模擬的問題,包含了15間分銷中心位址與50位潛在顧客,並進行相關的數值分析以驗證求解方法的成效,結果發現,該方法所獲得的答案是令人滿意的。另外,本研究亦進行了相關的敏感性分析與情境分析,用來評估該模式所呈現的不同結果,並提出相關的管理意涵給決策者作為決策參考之用。
英文摘要 Supply chain distribution network system provides an optimal platform for efficient and effective supply chain management. There are trade-offs between demand time efficiency and supply cost effectiveness. In this dissertation, an integrated two-echelon distribution network system consisting of one supplier, multiple distribution centers, and multiple customer zones is formulated under a vendor managed inventory (VMI) setup which simply assumes the vendor (supplier) manages the inventory of the customers and stores them at different distribution centers. The system also integrates the effects of facility location, distribution, and inventory issues and includes conflicting objectives such as cost (for effectiveness), volume fill rate and responsiveness level (for efficiency). With these considerations, we present a Multi-Objective Location-Inventory Problem (MOLIP) which results in a Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) formulation.
The MOLIP model consists of two steps. The first step makes the strategic decisions to determine the optimal number, sites and capacity of opening distribution centers (DCs) to be used, as well as the establishment of distribution channels and the amount of products to distribute from the supplier to assigned buyers via DCs. In the second step, the model in turn determines the inventory levels and safety stocks, economic order quantities of different facilities in the tactical level. However, the model is difficult to solve with existing optimization algorithms due to the considerable number of decision variables and constraints resulting from the integration. To obtain feasible and satisfactory solutions to the integrated MOLIP model, a hybrid multi-objective evolutionary approach is presented which is preliminarily based on a well-known NSGA-II evolutionary algorithm with a non-dominated sorting mechanism and an elitism strategy. To facilitate the genetic search and improve the search results, a heuristic method is designed to generate a well-adapted initial population.
To investigate the possibility of the proposed evolutionary approach for MOLIP model, we implemented on three experiments. First, an experimental study using practical data was then illustrated for the efficacy of the proposed approach. The hybrid approach has been successfully applied for providing promising solutions on a base-case problem with 50 buyers and 15 potential DCs. Computational analyses has presented a promise solution in solving such a practical-size problem.
Second, we implemented several scenario analyses to understand the model performance and to illustrate how parameter changes influences its output. The scenario analysis illustrates that excess capacity in the supply chain network design is beneficial for volume fill rate and responsiveness level and has only little expense of total costs. In additions, the results of the scenario analyses implied that the distribution network flexibility and competitiveness level sought by the supply chain managers is warranted. The model proposed in this research is helpful in adjusting the distribution network to these changes.
Finally, we tested and compared our NSGAII-based algorithm with the one based on the improved Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) by developing a test set of random problem instances of the MOLIP model to understand the efficiency between two approaches. In these test instances, two algorithms obtained similar approximations of their Pareto frontiers but NSGAII algorithm outperformed in terms of the diversity quality of the approximation to the Pareto frontier. However, the SPEA2-based algorithm was more efficient in terms of execution time in small or tight capacity instances. This suggested that the propose hybrid algorithm can be an efficient approach for providing feasible and satisfactory solutions to large-scale difficult-to-solve problems.
論文目次 Table of Contents
LIST OF TABLES III
LIST OF FIGURES IV

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1
1.2 RESEARCH SCOPE 7
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 11
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 12
1.5 OUTLINE OF THE DISSERTATION 15

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 18
2.1 REVIEW OF INTEGRATED DECISION MODELS 18
2.1.1 Location-Routing (LR) Models 19
2.1.2 Inventory-Routing (IR) models 21
2.1.3 Location-Inventory (LI) models 22
2.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM 24
2.2.1 The Evolution of Integrated Location-Inventory Models 24
2.2.2 Key Aspects of Location-Inventory Models 29
2.2.3 Summary and Comments of Previous Optimization Models 38
2.3 EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS IN MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION 40
2.3.1 Introduction of MOEAs 40
2.3.2 Summary of MOEAs 46
2.4 SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS 48

CHAPTER 3 DESIGNING AN INTEGRATED LOCATION-INVENTORY SUPPLY CHAIN DISTRIBUTION NETWORK MODELS 49
3.1 PROBLEM DESCRIPTIONS 50
3.1.1 Overview of Our Research Problem 50
3.1.2 Sourcing Strategies for Distribution Network Design 53
3.1.3 Coordination Mechanism for Distribution Network Design 55
3.2 ANALYTICAL COMPARISONS OF SPECIFIC SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEMS 60
3.2.1 Buyer-Supplier Channel Structure 60
3.2.2 Cost Structures 61
3.3 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORK MODELS 68
3.3.1 Problem Statement and Model Assumptions 68
3.3.2 Bi-Objective Facility Location Problem (BOFLP) 71
3.3.3 Mathematical Models 73
3.5 SUMMARY 81

CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY OF SOLVING THE INTEGRATED LOCATION-INVENTORY DISTRIBUTION MODEL 82
4.1 BASIC CONCEPTS 83
4.1.1 Multiobjective optimization problem 83
4.1.2 Multiobjective optimization Evolutionary Algorithms 84
4.2 OVERVIEW OF NSGAII 85
4.2.1 Background 86
4.2.2 NSGAII-based Genetic Algorithm 88
4.3 SOLVING MOLIP MODEL WITH NSGAII-BASED GENETIC ALGORITHM 91
4.3.1 Solution Encoding 91
4.3.2 A Hybrid Genetic Approach for MOLIP 94
4.4 SUMMARY 97

CHAPTER 5 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES AND COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIENCE 98
5.1 TEST PROBLEM 1 AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 98
5.1.1 Model Parameters of Test 1 Problem 99
5.1.2 Computational Results of Test 1 Problem 101
5.1.3 Performance Evaluation of the Genetic Algorithm 105
5.1.4 Model experiments with sensitivity analysis 107
5.2 TEST 2 PROBLEMS AND SCENARIO ANALYSIS 113
5.2.1 Base Case Scenario of Test 2 Problems 113
5.2.2 Scenario Analysis of Test 2 Problem 119
5.3 SUMMARY 138

CHAPTER 6 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 140
6.1 PERFORMANCE METRICS 140
6.1.1 Evaluation metrics 140
6.1.2 Dominated-Space metric 141
6.2 COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIMENTS 145
6.3 COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS 146
6.4 SUMMARY 149

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH 150
7.1 CONCLUSION 150
7.2 FUTURE RESEARCH 154

BIBLIOGRAPHY 157

List of Tables

Table 2.2 Classification of Typical MOEA Approaches 47
Table 3.1 Model Notations for Analytical Cost Comparison 61
Table 5.1 Model Parameters for Test Problem 1 100
Table 5.2 Test 1 Problem Computational Results 102
Table 5.3 A Sensitivity Analysis with Varying Coverage Distances of DCs 107
Table 5.4 Cost Structure with Varying Coverage Distances 109
Table 5.5 Sensitivity Analysis with Varying Inventory Holding Cost 110
Table 5.6 Sensitivity Analysis with Varying Capacity Tightness of DCs 112
Table 5.7 Basic Model Parameters for Test 2 Problems 113
Table 5.8 Performance Results for Test 2 Problems (Base-Case Scenario) 116
Table 5.9 Pearson Correlations and P Values among CL and Objective Measurements 117
Table 5.10 Pearson Correlations and P Values among CL and Cost Components 119
Table 5.11 Parameter Values for Scenarios 120
Table 5.12 Comparative Results of Tight Capacity Scenario (Scenario 2) 122
Table 5.13 Comparative Results of Excess Capacity Scenario (Scenario 3) 125
Table 5.14 Comparative Results of Dominated Facility-Cost Scenario (Scenario 4) 127
Table 5.15 Comparative Results of Dominated Transportation-Cost Scenario (Scenario 5) 130
Table 5.16 Comparative Results of Dominated Inventory-cost Scenario (Scenario 6) 133
Table 5.17 Comparative Results of Dominated Lead Time Scenario (Scenario 7) 136
Table 5.18 Pearson Correlations and P Values among CL and Cost Components 137
Table 6.1 Metrics for evaluating solutions to multi-objective problems 141
Table 6.2 Comparisons between NSGAII and SPEA2-based Approaches 147

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Four Strategic Planning Issues in Distribution Network Design 4
Figure 1.2 The Dissertation Framework 15
Figure 3.1 Overview of the Strategic Design and Tactical Planning Models 51
Figure 3.2 Two-Echelon Supply Chain Distribution Network Problem 54
Figure 3.3 System Diagram of Traditional Supply Chain System 55
Figure 3.4 System Diagram of VMI System 59
Figure 3.5 Cost Structure of Traditional Supply Chain System 62
Figure 3.6 Cost Structure of VMI System 65
Figure 3.7 Two-Echelon Distribution Network Problem 69
Figure 3.8 The VMI Diagram of our Distribution Network Problem 70
Figure 3.9 Set Coverings of an Illustrative Example 72
Figure 4.1 A Nondominated Sorting Process 87
Figure 4.2 The Crowding Distance Calculation 87
Figure 4.3 Graphical Representation of the NSGAII Algorithm 91
Figure 4.4 Solutions Encoding of the MOLIP Problem 92
Figure 4.5 The Block Diagram of MOLIP via Hybrid Genetic Approach 94
Figure 4.6 Uniform Crossover for the MOLIP Problem 96
Figure 5.1 Geographical Locations of Test Problem 1 99
Figure 5.2 Graphical Display of the Base-line Solution of Alternative 33 104
Figure 5.3 Approximate Pareto Frontier of the Test 1 Problem 105
Figure 5.4 Evolution Procedure of the Proposed Genetic Algorithm 105
Figure 5.5(a) The Approximate Pareto Frontier of TC and VFR 106
Figure 5.5(b) The Approximate Pareto Frontier of TC and RL 106
Figure 5.6 Results with Changes in GA Parameters 106
Figure 5.7 Sensitivity Analysis with Varying Dmax 108
Figure 5.8 Cost Components with Varying Dmax 109
Figure 5.9 Sensitivity Analysis with Varying hj 111
Figure 5.10 Sensitivity Analysis with Varying μj 112
Figure 5.11 Clustered Bar Chart with Cost Components118
Figure 5.12 Scatter Plot of Cost Components against Competitiveness Level118
Figure 5.13 Percentage Gaps of Objective Differences (S2 vs. S1)121
Figure 5.14 Percentage Gaps of Cost Components (S2 vs. S1)123
Figure 5.15 Percentage Gaps of Objective Differences (S3 vs. S1)124
Figure 5.16 Percentage Gaps of Cost Components (S3 vs. S1)126
Figure 5.17 Percentage Gaps of Objective Differences (S4 vs. S1)128
Figure 5.18 Percentage Gaps of Cost Components (S4 vs. S1)129
Figure 5.19 Percentage Gaps of Objective Differences (S5 vs. S1)131
Figure 5.20 Percentage Gaps of Cost Components (S5 vs. S1)132
Figure 5.21 Percentage Gaps of Objective Differences (S6 vs. S1)132
Figure 5.22 Percentage Gaps of Cost Components (S6 vs. S1)134
Figure 5.23 Percentage Gaps of Objective Differences (S7 vs. S1)135
Figure 5.24 Percentage Gaps of Cost Components (S7 vs. S1)137
Figure 6.1 Examples of the Dominated Space Metric142
Figure 6.2 Formulation of the Dominated-Space Metric (Z1 v.s. Z2)143
Figure 6.3 Formulation of the Dominated-Space Metric (Z2 v.s. Z3)144
Figure 6.4 Approximate Pareto Tradeoff Curves for Problem Instance A100_500_F3_C1149
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