||Time Factors on Writing Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency: A Case Study of Taiwanese University-level EFL Student Writers
||Department of English
||在以英語為第二語言或外語（ESL/EFL）的領域中，寫作是重要的研究議題之一，也因此許多學者投入檢視可能影響ESL/EFL學生寫作表現的潛在因素。在眾多的變項研究中，許多學者發現時間因素似乎左右著「有限注意力容量配置」（LACM: Limited Attentional Capacity Model）的運作，並推論其對寫作能力表現的影響。LACM據信對於記憶處理機制具有一定的影響力，而透過時間壓力的催化，寫作複雜度（Complexity）、正確度（Accuracy）及流暢度（Fluency）（簡稱寫作CAF）彼此之間將產生不同的聯繫關係。然而，當前對LACM與CAF三者間的互動模式之了解仍相當有限，尤其是時間因素對於臺灣EFL大專學生寫作CAF的影響更是匱缺。因此，為能釐清時間因素對於LACM與寫作CAF的影響，本實驗以推論及描述統計對43位臺灣EFL大專學生受試者進行於不同時限（30分鐘及50分鐘）的寫作文本分析。研究結果顯示，複雜度與正確度及複雜度與流暢度之間皆存在顯著的抵換機制（trade-off model）：當寫作時間匱乏時，受試者傾向於發展寫作流暢度；寫作時間充裕時，受試者則致力發展寫作正確度。本研究最後以英語寫作教學啟示及未來研究之建議進行結論。
||Writing has been an important research issue in the domain of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). Many investigations have been deployed to survey the latent factors that could affect ESL/EFL learners’ writing performance. Amongst them, time has been identified as one of the major causes, which may activate the Limited Attentional Capacity Model (LACM)—a framework considered to be potent over the memory processing system—and could result in possible turbulence in the interactive relationship between writing complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF). Still, the current understanding towards this aspect, particularly the influence of time on Taiwanese university-level EFL students’ writing CAF, is still limited. To throw clear light on how time variables alone may have an impact on LACM and hence writing CAF, the researcher of this study scrutinized the textual outputs created by 43 EFL participants, who wrote under two different time frames (i.e., 30 minutes versus 50 minutes). Both inferential and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data garnered. The results reveal explicit trade-off models between complexity and accuracy/fluency. Specifically, when writing with limited time resources (i.e., 30 minutes), student writers were inclined to develop writing fluency; in contrast, when writing with more time resources (i.e., 50 minutes), they would apply themselves to the development of writing accuracy. This research finishes with pedagogical implications and suggestions for future investigations.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT…… VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS…… X
LIST OF TABLES…… XII
LIST OF FIGURES…… XIII
LIST OF APPENDICES…… XIV
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…… 1
1.1 Background of the Study…… 1
1.2 Research Questions…… 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study…… 7
1.4 Significance of the Study…… 7
1.5 Outline of the Chapters…… 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW…… 10
2.1 Definition and Measures of CAF…… 10
2.1.1 Complexity…… 10
2.1.2 Accuracy…… 11
2.1.3 Fluency…… 12
2.2 Reviews of the Relevant Research…… 12
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY…… 19
3.1 Participants…… 19
3.2 Writing Tests and Time Implemented…… 20
3.3 CAF Measures…… 21
3.4 Raters…… 24
3.5 Data Analysis…… 25
3.6 Technical Problems for CAF Measures…… 26
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…… 28
4.1 Inter-rater Reliability…… 28
4.2 Interaction between CAF…… 29
4.3 Descriptive Statistics…… 34
4.4 Discussion…… 36
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION…… 41
5.1 Conclusion…… 41
5.2 Limitation and Suggestions…… 42
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Inter-rater Reliability between the Raters…… 29
Table 4.2 Basic Information of the Writing Samples…… 30
Table 4.3 Inferential Statistics (30-Minute Writing Test)…… 33
Table 4.4 Inferential Statistics (50-Minute Writing Test)…… 33
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1 Example of Complexity Assessment (Original Passage)…… 21
Figure 3.2 Example of Complexity Assessment (Paraphrased Passage)…… 22
Figure 3.3 Example of Accuracy Assessment (Error-free T-unit)…… 23
Figure 3.4 Example of Accuracy Assessment (Erroneous T-unit)…… 23
Figure 3.5 Descriptive Statistical Display of Each Numerical Counts Using WordList…… 24
Figure 4.1 CAF Interaction in the 30-Minute Writing Test…… 35
Figure 4.2 CAF Interaction in the 50-Minute Writing Test…… 36
Figure 4.3 Overall Trade-off Relationship between CAF…… 37
Figure 4.4 Trade-off Relationship between CAF (30 Minutes)…… 38
Figure 4.5 Trade-off Relationship between CAF (50 Minutes)…… 38
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Enlarged Image of Figure 4.1…… 55
Appendix 2 Enlarged Image of Figure 4.2…… 56
Appendix 3 Basic Information of the English Majors’ 30-Minute Writing Samples (Rater 1)…… 57
Appendix 4 Basic Information of the English Majors’ 50-Minute Writing Samples (Rater 1)…… 59
Appendix 5 Basic Information of the English Minors’ 30-Minute Writing Samples (Rater 1)…… 61
Appendix 6 Basic Information of the English Minors’ 50-Minute Writing Samples (Rater 1)…… 63
Appendix 7 Basic Information of the English Minors’ 30-Minute Writing Samples (Rater 2)…… 65
Appendix 8 Basic Information of the English Minors’ 50-Minute Writing Samples (Rater 2)…… 67
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