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中文論文名稱 台商外派人員績效評估制度與組織績效之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study On the Performance Appraisal System and Organizational Performance of Enterprises in Taiwan
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學研究所企業經營碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Executive Master's Program of Business Administration in Management Sciences
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 廖貴珍
研究生英文姓名 Kuei-Chen Liao
學號 790590250
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-05-30
論文頁數 84頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳海鳴
委員-陳海鳴
委員-吳秉恩
中文關鍵字 外派人員  績效評估  組織績效  平衡計分卡 
英文關鍵字 Expatriate  Performance appraisal  Organizational performance  Balanced Score Card (BSC) 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 跨國企業為因應全球化熱潮與海外公司營運管理之需要,相對外派人員的需求和人數與日俱增,以扮演全球企業成功的中心角色引導企業面對複雜的國際競爭,其工作表現攸關海外企業之成敗,因此有效地管理外派人員是相當重要的。

績效評估是針對個人或團隊的量度(能力、技術、態度、意願和方法等),所量度的是個人或團隊對組織本身的生存與發展的貢獻度。換言之,個人或團隊績效評估的總合值是組織績效的總合值,也等於組織所創造的利益和價值,有好的績效評估制度可促進組織績效目標之達成。

組織績效是根據擬定的近、中與長期組織發展目標方向,建立具體的組織資源管理控制重點,並定期評估其努力成效,再運用評估資訊提供組織和員工工作目標方向和調整的參考依據,以及激勵與能力的改善計劃,組織績效也就是建立組織發展的策略方向和目標。由此觀之,外派人員績效評估制度是跨國企業調整組織績效和指導外派人員績效的主要策略工具。

平衡計分卡乃促使公司的願景與策略能轉化成一套環環相扣之績效衡量指標體系,並強調同時兼顧四大構面(財務、顧客、企業內部流程、學習與成長)。透過平衡計分卡之建置與運作,企業可以使組織和員工之績效評估制度,同時兼顧財務性與非財務性之績效,達成創造企業競爭優勢之終極目的。

本研究瞭解到台商外派人員績效評估制度對企業國際競爭力和組織整體目標有所影響,經由相關文獻和報章雜誌之資料整理,擬出台商外派人員績效評估與組織績效之理論架構,進而以個案訪談方式進行歸納整理與分析,最後提出結論與管理意涵列示如下:
(一)外派人員績效評估制度的第一步驟必須先確立清楚的方向作為組織發展的策略方向和目標。組織績效就是建立組織發展的策略方向和目標,目標應該取得企業和員工的共識並非妥協,是大家有共同的認知和瞭解,以儘速達成共同的目標。
(二)外派人員績效評估制度與獎酬制度之間緊密關係越公開明確,則績效評估制度越具激勵作用。
(三)組織可塑造配合支持績效評估的組織文化,以獲得員工支持而增進推行效果。
(四)組織可重視外派人員的生涯規劃和回任管理,將未來的規劃與外派人員的生涯管理結合,提高外派成功,促使企業創造競爭優勢。
(五)組織可提供外派人員持續學習的機會,使企業員工有一流的表現,就必須不斷施以訓練和培養工作能力,維繫企業永續經營 的推動力。
(六)組織可鼓勵家庭遷移到外派地,提供生活津貼及配套措施,讓外派人員無後顧之憂,以達企業組織與員工雙贏之局面。 (七)組織可調整管控機制來減少因地制宜策略之疏失,同一營運類型的子公司可進行比較,以全公司的總績效成果搭配各項報償措施,才能發揮管理控管的效能。

關鍵字:外派人員、績效評估、組織績效、平衡計分卡



英文摘要 To comply with the demand of globalization and operation management of overseas affiliates, the multi-national corporations are consequently in need of numerous staffs to reside in the overseas affiliates. Most of them have played the key roles to lead the corporations on a successful road to face the complicate competition internationally. Their performance is thus to concern the success of the overseas affiliates. As a result, it is very important to manage efficiently those staffs to reside in the overseas affiliates.

Performance appraisal is to measure the contribution of personal or group to their organization including their capability, technology, attitude, ambition and method. In other word, the total value of personal and group equal to the overall organizational performance and also the benefit/value created by the organization. A better performance appraisal system could urge the organization to reach its target.

The organizational performance is drawn, according to the short, medium and long term developing target of a organization, to set up a concrete control points for organization resource management and also to evaluate the performance periodically. Furthermore, the performance appraisal system could be utilized to provide a reference for the organization and employee’s working target and adjustment; an improvement plan for rewarding and capability. Organizational performance is in fact to set up the strategy and goal of organization development. In view of the above, the performance appraisal system is the major strategic tool for multinational corporations to adjust their organizational performance and instruct the expatriate staffs in the overseas affiliates.

Balanced Score Card (BSC) is to urge the organization’s prospect and strategy to transform to a lock step system of performance measurement. It also emphasizes to consider four sides including financial, customer, internal process and learning/growing. By way of establishing and running of BSC, the enterprises could use the performance appraisal system for organization and employees to consider both financial and non-financial performance to achieve the final target of a better competition status.

According to this investigation, we understood the effect what performance appraisal system for those expatriate staffs made to the enterprise’s competition internationally and integral target of organization. After reviewing the literature, articles on the news and magazine to draw up the framework of performance appraisal of expatriate staffs and organization performance. And then, cases studied by in-depth interview. Finally, to submit the conclusion and management implication as below:

1. The first step of performance appraisal system is to ascertain the guidance for the goal. The organizational performance is to establish the strategy/goal of organization development. The goal means to get a common consensus but not a compromise between employer/employees to reach the common goal in a short time.
2. A clear/open relation between performance appraisal system and reward system for those expatriate staffs will be more effective to motivation.
3. To take the advantage, the organization could create a support culture of performance appraisal and also to get the support from the employees
4. To emphasize the career and returning planning of expatriate staffs to match the organizational future plan. Finally, the organization can get a competitive advantage on the global market.
5. The organization could provide those expatriate staffs a chance for continuous studying. It not only encourages the staffs to upgrade their abilities but also to support the organization’s long-term survive.
6. The organization could encourage the family to move with those expatriate staffs with a complete package of allowance in daily life. It helps the staffs to work without worrying their families and to get a win-win between the employee and the organization.
7. The organization could adjust the control and audit system to avoid the neglect in different locations. However, the branch offices with similar operation type could be audited under the same standard. To utilize the overall organizational performance with reward system, it could then get a better effectiveness of management control.


論文目次 目 錄

表目錄 Ⅲ
圖目錄 Ⅳ
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與目的 ………………………………………. 1
第二節 研究範圍 ………………………………………………. 4
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 績效評估制度 …………………………………………. 6
第二節 組織績效 ……………………………………………… 22
第三節 台商外派人員績效評估 ……………………………… 32
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究流程 ……………………………………………… 45
第二節 研究對象 ……………………………………………… 46
第三節 次級資料收集和訪談重點 …………………………… 46
第四章 資料分析
第一節 個案公司基本資料 …………………………………… 53
第二節 個案公司外派人員績效評估制度之推行狀況 ……… 54
第三節 個案公司推行外派人員績效評估制度之影響因素 … 55
第四節 個案組織績效管理方法之推行狀況 ………………… 57
第五節 個案公司外派制度和海外適應之影響因素 ………… 58
第六節 個案公司之母、子公司的管理方法和績效評估制度之差異性 60
第七節 個案公司彙整分析 …………………………………… 61
第五章 結論與管理意涵
第一節 研究結論 ……………………………………………… 68
第二節 管理意涵 ……………………………………………… 70
第三節 研究限制 ……………………………………………… 73
參考文獻 75
附錄一:研究問卷 82
附錄二:訪談綱要 84


表 目 錄

表2.1 績效評估演進史 …………………………………………… 6
表2.2 績效評估目的一覽表 …………………………………….… 10
表2.3 績效評估目的、評估準則、評估方法的關聯性 ………… 11
表2.4 組織因素一覽表 …………………………………………… 12
表2.5 評估者的認知偏差一覽表 ………………………………… 13
表2.6 評估者的特質一覽表 ……………………………………… 13
表2.7 績效評估影響因素與改進之道一覽表 …………………… 15
表2.8 績效評估方法一覽表 ……………………………………… 16
表2.9 企業績效評估制度的差異比較—美商、日商、台商 ……. 21
表2.10 組織績效之衡量指標一覽表 ……………………………… 23
表2.11平衡計分卡之衡量指標一覽表 …………………………… 31
表2.12 學者對外派人員海外適應的觀點 ………………………… 37
表2.13 影響外派人員成功與否之因素 …………………………… 38
表2.14影響外派人員生涯規劃之因素 …………………………… 40
表2.15 績效評估制度之構面因素分析 …………………………… 42
表4.1 個案公司基本資料 ………………………………………… 53
表4.2 個案公司訪談內容之彙總表 ……………………………… 62


圖 目 錄

圖2.1 認知模式下之績效評估程序 ………………………………… 9
圖2.2 績效評估程序 ………………………………………………… 17
圖2.3 績效評估步驟 ………………………………………………… 18
圖2.4 組織績效四大要素關聯圖 …………………………………… 27
圖2.5 平衡計分卡之策略轉變為行動方案的架構圖 ……………… 29
圖2.6 將平衡計分卡當為付諸行動的策略性架構圖 ……………… 29
圖2.7 內部企業程序之價值鏈層面圖 ……………………………… 30
圖2.8 平衡計分卡各層面之因果關係圖 …………………………… 30
圖2.9 跨國企業績效評估程序 ……………………………………… 34
圖3.1 研究流程圖 …………………………………………………… 45
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