||Using Collaborative Team Teaching in an ESP Environment: A Case Study of College Tourism English
||Department of English
English for Specific Purposes
本研究為一學年的協同教學課程計畫，其目的是在於能深化技職教育之實務教學，培育具有實作力及就業力之優質專業人才，加強技職教育與產業接軌，提供學生零距離之產業科技認知以及縮短學校教育與業界人才需求之距離。本研究由教育部贊助指導，採用雙師制度，利用業界師資專業的知識來彌補語言師資課堂上不足的部分。本研究進行一年，業界師資採取課堂討論以及小組角色扮演的模式讓學生對觀光英語這門科目有更深一層的體認。透過課前問卷分析,業師以及語言老師得知學生的需求，根據需求設計上課的模式得到以下的結論:一、48個學生中有34個學生沒有出過國,但是學生仍然想要學習觀光英文文化相關的訊息而非只有課本上的知識。二、三分之一的課程由業界師資及語言老師共同授課，採取狀況劇角色扮演的模式在同學前面用英文演出來，之後全班在討論合理的解決方案，此方式有助於學生主動學習以及練習解決問題的方法同時也透過別組的解決方式真正了解到業界是怎麼解決問題的。三、學生在這樣的上課方式有什麼樣的改變或成長呢？大部分的學生都顯示了1.對口說英文是有進步且有信心2.有能力獨自用英文做一份三分鐘以上的英文報告3.從同儕及老師得到多元學習來源4.資料蒐集整合的進步與成長 5.對國外旅遊以及觀光英文有更寬廣的視野6.獲得許多專業的觀光英文產業知識 四、學生對協同教學的業界師資的上課互動反應等都持正面的肯定，學生也覺得透過協同教學能對產業界有更進一步的了解。從以上研究結果發現，協同教學可以補足學校與產業界的落差，也讓學生對未來從事的產業有更深一層的了解。
This study is a one academic year team teaching project. The purpose of the project is to consolidate the pragmatic learning in the university of technology, to cultivate students to become expertise with practical abilities for their future career market. It also
seeks to link the education market and to shorten the distance between school education and demands of the field. This project was sponsored and directed by the MOE, adopting the team teaching approach. It hopes to get help from the team teachers from the industry to compensate for the practical knowledge the language teacher lacks.
The conclusions are as follow: 1.Out of 48 students in the class, 34 of them have never been abroad in their lives. Still, they wanted to learn something more about the culture and festivals about other countries rather than just the information on the textbooks. 2. One-third of the classes were co-taught by the team teacher and the language teacher. The course formats were role-play scenario in group presentations for students to brainstorm the possible solutions. All the scenarios were chosen from the team teacher’s previous tour leading experiences. The scenarios were all real situations. In this role-play scenario, students learned how to learn actively and tried to solve problems with classmates. At the same time, they observed from the other group to discover the solutions.
They learned how the industry tries to solve problems in class situations. 3. What changes or perception the students have after this team teaching course? Most of the students showed the following impacts: progress and confidence in speaking English, the ability to make a complete PPT presentation in English, they had various learning input from their peers and their teachers, they showed progress in information gathering and data analysis, and most important of all, the students broadened their viewpoints about traveling abroad and had various aspects towards tourism English. 4. The majority of the students had positive ideas about team teaching. They considered they could have a further understanding toward the industry. From the above finding, team teaching could not only bridge the gap between the school and the industry, but also help students better nderstand the industry they would get involved in the future.
||Table of Content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
The Need for Conducting this Study 4
The Purpose of the Research 7
Significance of Study 7
Definition of Important Terms 8
Organization of the Dissertation 9
Research Questions 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 12
2.1 Team Teaching 12
2.1.1 Why Team Teaching 13
2.1.2 The History of Team Teaching 14
2.1.3 The Definition of Team Teaching 15
2.1.4 Models of Team Teaching 17
2.1.5 The Benefits of Team Teaching 20
2.1.6 The Current Situation and Problem of Team Teaching in Taiwan Higher Education 22
2.2 English for Specific Purposes 28
2.2.1 The Origin of ESP 29
2.2.2 Defining ESP 30
2.2.3 Classification of ESP 32
2.2.4 Needs Analysis 34
2.3 English for Tourism Purposes 38
2.3.1 Definition of ETP 39
2.3.2 Importance of ETP 41
2.4 Role-Play 42
2.4.1 Definition of Role Play 43
2.4.2 Benefits of Role Play 43
3.1 The Pilot Study 47
3.1.1 Participants 47
3.1.2 Material Selection 48
3.1.3 Procedures 49
3.1.4 Data Collection 51
3.1.5 Data Analysis 51
3.1.6 Findings and Implications for the Pilot Study 52
3.2 Main Study 57
3.2.1 Participants 58
3.2.2 Material Selection 58
3.2.3 The Team Teacher 59
3.2.4 Procedures 60
3.2.5 Data Collection 67
3.2.6 Data Analysis 70
CHAPTER FOUR: FINDING 73
Background Information for tourism needs and expectation 73
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 81
Research Question 1: What are the students’ needs and their perceptions of Tourism English? 81
Research Question 2: How do the team teacher and the language teacher deal with the approach of Tourism English? 84
The Role Play Scenarios 86
The PPT Presentation Content 100
Research Question 3: What changes or perspectives do the students have after this team teaching course? 102
Research Question 4: How are the students’ attitude toward and perceptions of the team teaching course and the team teacher? 108
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION 118
6.1 Overview of the Study 118
6.2 Conclusion 120
Research Question One: . 120
Research Question Two: 120
Research Question Three: . 121
Research Question Four: 122
6.3 Pedagogical Implications 122
6.4 Limitations of the study 124
6.5 Recommendations for Future Studies 124
ENGLISH REFERENCES 126
聯合報 (民107)。技職人才荒！職校積極引進業師 縮短學用落差。 132
Appendix A: ESP-Tourism English Orientation Questionnaire 133
Appendix B: TPCU the Team Teaching Satisfactory Questionnaires for students 134
Appendix C: Appendix C TPCU the Team Teaching Satisfactory Questionnaires for team teacher 136
Appendix D: Consent Form 137
List of Figures and Tables
FIGURE 1：ESP CLASSIFICATIONS BY PROFESSIONAL AREA (DUDLEY-EVANS AND ST. JOHN, 1998) P.6. 33
FIGURE 2: DUDLEY-EVAN & ST JOHN’S CONCEPT MAP OF NEEDS ANALYSIS 37
TABLE 1: SUMMARIES OF THE TEAM TEACHING STUDIES IN TAIWAN 28
TABLE 2: SYLLABUS FOR SOPHOMORE ESP: TOURISM-I 66
TABLE 3: SYLLABUS FOR SOPHOMORE ESP: TOURISM-II 67
TABLE 4: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS FOR RESEARCH QUESTIONS 71
TABLE 5: BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF THE STUDENTS 74
TABLE 6: STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FOUR SKILLS IN TOURISM ENGLISH 75
TABLE 7: STUDENTS’ FREQUENCY OF USING ENGLISH IN DAILY LIVES 78
TABLE 8: THE COUNTRIES STUDENTS HAD VISITED BEFORE THIS CLASS 79
TABLE 9: THE TEAM TEACHER FOCUSES ON INTERACTION AND ENCOURAGES STUDENTS TO ASK QUESTIONS 109
TABLE 10: THE TEAM TEACHER CAN CONTROL THE WHOLE CLASS AND ATTEND TO THE REACTIONS OF THE STUDENTS 109
TABLE 11: I’M SATISFIED WITH THE TEAM TEACHER’S’ PROFESSION KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNIQUES 110
TABLE 12: THE TEAM TEACHER IS WILLING TO SOLVE STUDENTS’ PROBLEMS IN OR OUTSIDE OF THE CLASS 111
TABLE 13: THE TEAM TEACHER’S TEACHING CONTENT CORRESPONDS WITH THE COURSE’S REQUIREMENT 112
TABLE 14: COMPARED WITH GENERAL LECTURE CLASS, I AM MORE SATISFIED WITH THE PRAGMATIC CONTENT 112
TABLE 15: I’M SATISFIED WITH THE OVERALL TEACHING STYLES AND ATTITUDE 114
TABLE 16: THE CONTENT HELP ENHANCE MY PROFESSIONAL SKILLS TO PRAGMATIC USAGE 114
TABLE 17: I HAD BETTER UNDERSTAND THE ENVIRONMENT OF TOURISM 115
TABLE 18: THE CONTENT HAVE POSITIVE HELP IN MY PRAGMATIC LEARNING 116
Anderson, L. & Landy, J. (2006). Team Teaching: Benefits and Challenges. Speaking of Teaching. The Center for Teaching and Learning. Stanford University, 16(1), 1-4.
Anderson, R. S., & Speck. B. W. (1998). “Oh what a difference a team makes”: Why team teaching makes a difference. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14, 671-686.
Armstrong, D.G. (1977). Team Teaching and Academic Achievement. Review of Educational Research. Vol. 47 (1) pp65-86
Basturkmen, H. (2006). Ideas and Options in English for Specific Purposes. New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, inc., Publishers.
Bauwens, J., & Hourcade, J.J. (1995).Cooperative Teaching Rebuilding the Schoolhouse for All Students. Austin PrLo-ed
Bhattacharjee, S., & Ghosh, S. (2013).Usefulness of Role-Playing Teaching in Construction Education, A Systematic Review. 49th Associated Schools of Construction Annual International Conference Proceedings
Blue, G. M., & Harun, M. (2003). Hospitality language as a professional skill. English for Specific Purposes,(22)73-91.
Blythe, H & Sweet. C. (2004) Total team teaching-Sharing teaching duties equally. The Teaching Professor. 18(3), 1, 5.
Buckley, F. J. (2003). Team Teaching: What, Why, and How? Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Brindley, G. (1989). The role of needs analysis in adult ESL program design. In: Johnson, R .K. (Ed). The second language curriculum (pp.63-78). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, J. D. (1995). The elements of language curriculum: A systematic approach to program development. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
Chang, R.L., (2016) The Effects to Students’ Learning Attitudes and Interests on Team Teaching between Local and Foreign English Teachers. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Da-Yeh University
Chen, L.C.(2007) A Study of Relationship Between EFL Reading Anxiety and Reading Strategy Usage. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Chen, S.T. (2012). Learning by teaching together: An exploratory study of TEFL student teachers’ team-teaching experiences in Taiwan. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
Chiang, Y. H. (2017). The Study of the Comprehensive Implementation of the Collaborative Swimming Teaching in the Elementary School: The Case of the Elementary Schools in Taipei City. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Chung Hwa University.
Chujo, K., Utiyama, M., & Oghgian, K. (2014). Selecting Level-Specific Kyoto Tourism Vocabulary Using Statistical Measures. Tokyo: Research Gate
Clapper, T. C. (2010). Role play and simulation-returning to teaching for understanding. The Education Digest, 75(8), 39-43.
Davis, J. R. (1995). Interdisciplinary Courses and Team Teaching: New Arrangements for Learning. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.
Dudley-Evans, T., & St. John, M. J. (1998). Developments in English for specific purposes. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Eisen, M. J. (2000). The many faces of team teaching and learning: An overview. New Direction for Adult and Continuing Education, 87, 5-14.
EPIK (1996). English Programs in Korea. Retrieved on 2018/03/16 from https://www.teachaway.com/teach-english-korea/epik-english-program-korea-public-school-jobs-korea
Friend, M., & Cook, L. (2007). Interactions: Collaboration skills for school professionals (5th ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Education. (Original work published (2000)
Goetz.K. (2000). Perspectives on Team Teaching. Egallery, 1(4) Retrieved December 22nd, 2017, from http://people.ucalgary.ca/~egallery/goetz.html
Hinton, S., & Downing J.E. (1998). Team Teaching a College Core Foundations Course: Instructors’ and Students’ Assessment. Eastern Kentucky University Richmond
Hsieh, P.H. (2015). Exploring EFL Taiwanese Pre-service Teachers’ Identity Formation through Team Teaching: An Exploratory Practice. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan.
Huang, H.P. (2013). The Impact of Team Teaching on English Teaching: A Case Study of An Elementary School in Central Taiwan. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Hua Fan University, Taiwan.
Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes: a learner-centered approach. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jasso-Aguilar, R. (2005). Sources, methods and triangulation in needs analysis: A critical perspective in a case study of Waikiki hotel maids. In H.M. Long (Ed.) Second language needs analysis. UK: Cambridge University Press
Johns, A.M.& Price-Machado, D. (2001). English for Specific Purposes (ESP): Tailoring courses to students’ need-and to the outside world. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.) Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed. 43-54). Boston MA : Heinle & Heinle.
Joseph S. C., III. (2010). English for Tourism Purpose: A New Approach in the Field of English for Specific Purposes, Journal of Osaka University of Tourism, 10, 99-105.
King, J. (2002). Preparing EFL learners for oral presentations. Dong Hwa Journal of Humanistic Studies,( 4), 401-418.
Kodotchigova, M.A. (2002). Role play in teaching culture: six quick steps for classroom implementation. The Internet TESL Journal, 8(7). Retrieved from
LaFauci, Horatio M., & Richer, Peyton E. (1970) Team Teaching at the College Level. New York: PERGAMON PRESS.,
Leslie, D., & Russell, H. (2006). The importance of foreign language skills in the tourism sector: A comparative study of student perceptions in the UK and continental Europe. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1397-1407. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.12.016
Liao, Z.Y. (2017). English Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions on English Co-teaching in Kaohsiung City. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. National Pingtung University, Taiwan
Lin, Y.F. (2014). What Are They Really Trying to Say? –Examing the Relationship Between Cultural Backgrounds and Language Use in EFL Team Teaching Projects. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan
Little, J. W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers' professional relations. Teachers College Record, 91(509-537).
Maxwell,C. (1997). Role play and foreign language learning. Based on the presentation, "Using Role Play in the Beginning-Level Language Classroom” in The 1997 International JALT Conference in Hamamatsu, Japan”. 1-8.
McKeachie, W.J. (2003). McKeachie’s Teaching Tips, Boston MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (2002). Handbook for Team-Teaching Revised Edition. Tokyo: Gyosei Corporation.
Nunan, D. (1992). Collaborative Language Learning and Teaching. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Quinn, S., & Karter, S. (1984).Team Teaching: An Alternative to Lecture Fatigue, Innovation Abstracts, 6, 1-10, Eric Document: ED 251169.
Raz. H. (1985). Role-play in foreign language learning, System, ISSN: 0346-251X, Vol: 13, Issue: 3, Page: 225-229
Richards, J. C., & Farrell, T.S.C. (2005). Professional development for language teachers: Strategies for teacher learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, P. (1991). ESP today: A practitioner’s guide. Prentice Hall. UK: Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.
Robinson, B., & Schaible, R. (1995). Collaborative teaching: Reaping the benefits. College Teaching, 43 (2), 57-60.
Rosenthal, J.W. (2000). ESL students in the mainstream: Observations from content area faculty. In L. Kasper (Ed.), Content-based college ESL instruction (pp.71-90). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Scarcella, R. (1983). Sociodrama for social interaction. In Oller and Richard-Amato (Eds), Methods that work, 239-245.
Scribner, J.P., Sawyer, R.K., Watson, S.T. & Myers, V.L. (2007). Teacher Teams and Distributed Leadership: A Study of Group Discourse and Collaboration. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43:67, 67-100.
Shannon, N.B., & Meath-Lang, B. (1992). Collaborative language teaching: A co-investigation. In D. Nunan (Ed), Collaborative language learning and teaching. NY: Cambridge University Press, 120-140
Simion, M.O. (2012). The importance of teaching English in the field of tourism in universities. Annals of the „Constantin Brâncuşi” University of Târgu Jiu, Economy Series, Issue 2
Slavin, R E. (1999). Comprehensive approaches to cooperative learning. Theory Into Practice, 38(2), 74.
Snyder, B., & DeSelms, C. (1983). Personal growth through student-centered activities. In A. Garfinkel (Ed.), The Foreign Language Classroom: New Techniques. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.
Song, X. (2011). Using Role-pay in Chinese Language and Culture Teaching: An Action Research Project. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Michigan State University
St. John, M. J. (1996). Business is booming: Business English in the 1990s. English for Specific Purposes, (15), 3-18.
Strevens, P. (1988). The learner and teacher of ESP. in Chamberlain, D. and B接RJ歐(Eds.), ESP in the classroom: Practice and evaluation, ELT Document 128, Modern English Publications in association with the British Council.
Tompkins, P.K. (1998). Role playing/ simulation. The Internet TESL Journal, 4(8). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Tomkis-RolePlaying.html
Tourism Bureau, M.O.T.C. Republic of China (Taiwan). (2009) Project Vanguard for Excellence in Tourism, Retrieved 2018/05/01 from http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/upload/public/20110621/b23580ef-1fcd-4050-af25-77611bc58b07.pdf
Wang, Y.C., (2004). Business English Courses at the Institute of Technology: Problems and a Tentative Model of Team Teaching. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Tamkang University.
Welch, M (1998). Collaboration: Saying on the bandwagon. Journal of Teacher Education, 49, 26-37
West, R. (1994). Needs analysis in teaching. Language Teaching, (27) 1-19.
Widdowson, H. G. (1987). English for Specific Purposes: criteria for course design. In Michel H. Long and Jack C. Richards (Eds.), Methodology in TESOL. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 96-104
Yardley-Matwiejczuk, K.M. (1997). Role play: theory and practice. London: SAGE Publications.
Yeh, C.S. (2005) Team Teaching in Life Promotion: Juvenile Literature Institution in Junior High School. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Yeh, C.Y. (2014) A Case Study of a Native and Non-Native Speaker Team Teaching Program in Kinmen. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.
Yeh, J.Y. (2017) The Effects of NEST, NNEST, and NEST-NNEST Team-Teaching on Secondary Learners’ Language Learning and Critical Thinking Skills. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
Yin, Y.W. (2011). The Impact of Team Teaching Assistant on College Students’ Learning. Unpublished Master’s Thesis from Ming Chuang University, Taiwan.
挑戰2008:國家發展重點計畫 retrieved from http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/upload/contentFile/auser/b/doublep/fight_2008_brief.pdf
Ministry of Education (2018) 各級學校名錄retrieved from
教育部 (2017) 專科以上學校產學合作實施辦法 發布日期: 民國 95 年 12 月 28 日修訂日期: 民國 106 年 09 月 22 日 retrieved from http://edu.law.moe.gov.tw/LawContent.aspx?id=FL041667
教育部 (2018) 106學年度大專校院一覽表。Retrieved 2018/05/06 from https://ulist.moe.gov.tw/Query/SimpleQuery
人間福報(民107)。 技職人才荒,職校積極邀業師上課。Retrieved 2018/04/10 from http://www.merit-times.com.tw/NewsPage.aspx?unid=504405
SERVAS TAIWAN (2018). 國際交換住宿組織 retrieved 2018/06/20 from http://www.servastaiwan.org/
聯合報 (民107)。技職人才荒！職校積極引進業師 縮短學用落差。