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系統識別號 U0002-1607201517134800
中文論文名稱 人行拱橋的氣動力分析
英文論文名稱 Aerodynamic Analysis of Pedestrian Arch Bridges
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生中文姓名 陳柏勳
研究生英文姓名 Bo-Xun Chen
學號 602380015
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2015-06-12
論文頁數 102頁
口試委員 指導教授-林堉溢
委員-鄭啟明
委員-陳振華
中文關鍵字 人行拱橋  斷面實驗  顫振  抖振 
英文關鍵字 Pedestrian arch bridge  Section Model Test  Flutter  Buffeting 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要   長跨徑人行拱橋近年來深受工程師青睞,此型橋梁除滿足交通需求外,更能扮演當地景觀地標角色。因人行橋面版窄大多採用單拱設計,由於單拱缺乏側向支撐,拱順風向之氣動力反應也越趨明顯。而傳統斜張橋或懸索橋氣動力分析只考慮橋面版風力,因此無法適用於拱橋上。所以本研究建立一數值分析模式,以主梁斷面及橋拱斷面之顫振導數及風力係數為基礎,推導整體橋梁顫振與抖振理論。並採用兩例題,分別為單面吊索及雙面吊索拱橋,利用所推導之數值分析模式,配合橋拱斷面實驗求得之實驗數據進行顫振與抖振分析,來探討加入橋拱氣動力參數對整體顫振臨界風速與抖振位移反應影響。
  例題結果顯示,橋梁顫振臨界風速主要受主梁氣動力控制,所以將橋拱順風向顫振導數(P1*、P4*)納入分析時,其對顫振影響並不顯著,兩例題之臨界風速提高不到1%。至於抖振分析,兩例題結果都顯示拱風力對拱及主梁順風向及扭轉向反應有顯著影響。當橋面高度之平均風速60m/s時,加入橋拱風力對例題一主梁順風向與扭轉向之抖振位移反應分別提高1.9%及44.11%;至於對橋拱本身順風向及扭轉向分別提高了764%及792%。由於此例題橋拱與主梁結構耦合不明顯,拱反應主要是作用於拱的風力貢獻,因此才有上述巨幅提升。例題二方面,風速60m/s時加入橋拱風力對橋面版順風向與扭轉向則分別提升了11.99%及133%;橋拱順風向及扭轉分別向則分別提高了57.87%及64.6%。此例題橋拱與主梁結構耦合較例題一明顯,作用於拱的風力對主梁及拱本身抖振反應都有明顯貢獻。由上述分析結果顯示,無論是單面吊索或雙面吊索橋,拱風力對主梁及拱本身抖振反應影響極為顯著,因此分析時須詳加考慮。
英文摘要 The long-span arch bridges have been a favorable choice for the design of pedestrian bridges during the past decades in Taiwan. This is because the type of bridges not only can satisfy the transportation needs but also may become the landmark in the local area. In these pedestrian bridges, a single arch is the only choice due to the narrow bridge deck. Since the single arch lacks lateral support and its height increases with the bridge span length, the drag responses in the arch become significant and cannot be negligible. To predict the aerodynamic responses of the arch, the traditional analysis used for cable-stayed and suspension bridges, considering wind forces acting on bridge decks only, cannot be used. In this thesis, an analytical approach based on flutter and buffeting theory associated with the information measured from section model tests is presented. Two examples are used to demonstrate the validity and applicability of this approach and to investigate the effects of the forces acting on the arch on the flutter wind speed and buffeting responses of bridge decks.

The results show that the critical flutter wind speeds in these two examples are dominated by the flutter derivatives of bridge decks. The increases of the critical flutter wind speeds considering flutter derivatives of arches are less than 1%. For the buffeting responses, the effects of the forces acting on arches are significant on both drag and torsional responses of arches and bridge decks. In Example 1 incorporating forces acting on the arch into the analysis, the drag and torsional responses of the bridge deck increase 1.9% and 44.1%, respectively. The increases of the drag and torsional responses of the arch are 764% and 792%, respectively. Since the structural coupling between the bridge deck and the arch is minor in this example, the main contribution to the responses of the arch is the forces acting on the arch itself. Therefore, the results with huge increases are expected. In Example 2 incorporating forces acting on the arch into the analysis, the drag and torsional responses of the bridge deck increase 11.99% and 133%, respectively. The increases of the drag and torsional responses of the arch are 57.87% and 64.6%, respectively. In this example, the structural coupling between the bridge deck and the arch is more obvious than in example 1. The effects of the forces acting on the arch on the responses of the arch and the bridge deck are significant. From the results stated above, the forces acting on the arch should be considered in the analysis.
論文目次 目錄 I
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究目的與方法 2
1-3 論文架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1人行拱橋發展歷史 4
2-2 橋梁氣動力效應 5
2-2-1 多振態顫振與抖振分析之研究 6
2-3顫振導數之研究 7
2-3-1 順風向顫振導數之研究 7
第三章 拱橋顫振及抖振理論推導 10
3-1 前言 10
3-2 運動方程式建立 10
3-3 拱橋顫振理論推導 13
3-3-1橋面版與橋拱自身擾動力 13
3-3-2顫振臨界風速 16
3-4 拱橋抖振理論推導 21
3-4-1主梁與橋拱抖振擾動力 21
3-4-2風力頻譜 25
3-4-3橋面版與橋拱風力頻譜 28
3-4-4抖振位移反應 36
第四章 實驗配置 39
4-1 前言 39
4-2 風洞實驗室與儀器介紹 39
4-2-1風洞實驗室特性 39
4-2-2皮托管 40
4-2-3 壓力轉換器 41
4-2-4 雷射位移計 41
4-3 實驗模型製作 42
4-4 實驗架構 42
4-4-1 實驗架設 42
4-4-2 實驗數據採樣分析 43
4-4-3 實驗分析方法 44
4-5 實驗結果 47
第五章 例題分析與結果 50
5-1前言 50
5-2人行吊索拱橋 51
5-2-1 結構形式與斷面性質 51
5-2-2 結構振態分析 51
5-3顫振臨界風速分析 53
5-4抖振位移反應分析 55
第六章 結論與建議 59
6-1結論 59
6-2建議 62
參考文獻 63
附表 66
附圖 73


表目錄
表5-1:人行拱橋之橋面版斷面性質 66
表5-2(a):單面吊索斷面性質 66
表5-2(b):雙面吊索斷面性質 67
表5-3:人行拱橋之橋拱斷面性質 67
表5-4(a):單面吊索之自然結構振態頻率 68
表5-4(b):雙面吊索之自然結構振態 68
表5-5(a):單面吊索之參與質量分布表 69
表5-5(b):雙面吊索之參與質量分布表 70
表5-6(a):單面吊索例題之顫振臨界風速分析 71
表5-6(b):雙面吊索例題之顫振臨界風速分析 71
表5-7:風速60m/s下橋面版三方向最大抖振位移反應 72
表5-8:風速60m/s下橋拱三方向最大抖振位移反應 72


圖目錄
圖2-1 Tsurumi bridge橋面版斷面【17】 73
圖2-2 Deer Isle bridge橋面版斷面【17】 73
圖4-1風力係數與顫振導數之實驗儀器配置流程圖 74
圖4-2斷面模型照片 75
圖4-3斷面模型照片 75
圖4-4力感應器作用於模型上之幾何示意圖 76
圖4-5風力係數實驗架構圖 77
圖4-6順風向顫振導數實驗架構圖 78
圖4-7橋拱斷面實驗之風力係數 79
圖4-9 B/D=1.6各風速下時間歷時 80
圖4-8 B/D=1.2各風速下時間歷時 81
圖4-10 B/D=1.6無風狀況下自由振動時間歷時放大圖 82
圖4-11 B/D=1.2顫振導數實驗結果 82
圖4-12 B/D=1.6顫振導數實驗結果 83
圖4-13(a)B/D=1.2顫振導數實驗結果與近似式 83
圖4-13(b)B/D=1.6顫振導數實驗結果與近似式 84
圖5-1(a)本研究單面吊索連接示意圖 85
圖5-1(b)本研究雙面吊索連接示意圖 85
圖5-2 邊界條件模擬示意圖 86
圖5-3(a)主梁斷面尺寸示意圖 86
圖5-3(b)B/D=1.2橋拱斷面尺寸示意圖 87
圖5-3(b)B/D=1.6橋拱斷面尺寸示意圖 87
圖5-4(a)單面吊索例題橋面版形狀函數圖(mode shape) 88
圖5-4(b)單面吊索例題橋拱形狀函數圖(mode shape) 89
圖5-5(a)雙面吊索例題橋面版形狀函數圖(mode shape) 90
圖5-5(b)雙面吊索例題橋拱形狀函數圖(mode shape) 91
圖5-6 參考文獻之主梁斷面模型實驗風力係數及顫振導數【28】 92
圖5-7(a)例題一各風速下橋面版三方向位移反應 93
圖5-7(b)例題一各風速下橋拱三方向位移反應 94
圖5-8(a)例題二各風速下橋面版三方向位移反應 95
圖5-8(b)例題二各風速下橋拱三方向位移反應 96
圖5-9(a)例題一在不同風速下橋面版垂直向最大位移比較 97
圖5-9(b)例題二在不同風速下橋面版垂直向最大位移比較 97
圖5-10(a)例題一在不同風速下橋面版順風向最大位移比較 98
圖5-10(b)例題二在不同風速下橋面版順風向最大位移比較 98
圖5-11(a)例題一在不同風速下橋面版扭轉向最大位移比較 99
圖5-11(b)例題二在不同風速下橋面版扭轉向最大位移比較 99
圖5-12(a)例題一在不同風速下橋拱垂直向最大位移比較 100
圖5-12(b)例題二在不同風速下橋拱垂直向最大位移比較 100
圖5-13(a)例題一在不同風速下橋拱順風向最大位移比較 101
圖5-13(b)例題二在不同風速下橋拱順風向最大位移比較 101
圖5-14(a)例題一在不同風速下橋拱扭轉向最大位移比較 102
圖5-14(b)例題二在不同風速下橋拱扭轉向最大位移比較 102
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