||健康管理行動裝置之一概念設計 ─ TRIZ與ANP支援三階段品質機能展開
||A Conceptual Design of a Mobile Healthcare Device – The Use of Three-Stage QFD, ANP and TRIZ
||Master’s Program, Department of Management Sciences
Mobile healthcare device
House of quality
本論文採用品質機能展開 (Quality Function Deployment, QFD) 、分析網路程序法 (Analytic Network Process, ANP)、TRIZ創新理論等多重技術，運用於健康管理行動裝置概念設計上。研究中首先以三階段品質屋 (House of Quality, HOQ) 展開於設計流程中，其中透過專家訪談、問卷調查、情境分析、以及既有事例等，將顧客需求、產品系統功能、元件項目與成本項目資料代入不同品質屋中進行分析。再利用ANP可解決內部相依性的決策問題，能更準確評估QFD中顧客需求與技術需求之間的權重，來達成新產品的開發。為使產品的設計概念更為完備與創新，在第二階段品質屋(功能展開)中本文利用TRIZ產生出創新概念的方案以及消除矛盾。而透過第一階段品質屋(需求展開品質屋)及第三階段品質屋(成本展開)所得到之重要度權重，本文可分析出需重點開發的產品功能以及最佳的成本分配。
||The research sets up a conceptual design of a future mobile healthcare device by applying quality function development (QFD) with the analytic network process (ANP) and the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ). Integrating the three techniques generates a draft of the device for the benefit of people. The device also keeps the health care system more efficient and provides a better service for an aging society.
QFD is a structured approach for integrating the “voice of the customer” into a new product design. We propose a sequence for the house of quality (HOQ) with three stages of development: product deployment, component deployment, and cost deployment. We conduct ANP in order to prioritize the importance or weights for the left-side items of each “house” (or “what” items). Some contradictions on the top-side items of each “house” (or “how” items) will be overcome by TRIZ. The detailed process generates a feasible conceptual design draft of the mobile healthcare device for managing people’s healthy condition in one’s daily life, especially for monitoring blood glucose and pressure, body temperature, heartbeats, etc. In addition, customer requirements are factored into every aspect of the process.
The deployment process executes questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and scenario analysis in order to obtain data on customer requirements, product functions, component items, and costs. The data are then supplied to each HOQ. The first-stage HOQ is for product deployment, whereby a list of the customer requirements is assigned to the left side of the first house and the items of product functions are put at the top side of the house. The items of the product functions are then transferred to the left side of the second-stage HOQ, i.e., component deployment, while the items of the component are allocated to the top side of the second-stage HOQ. In a similar way, the items of the components are relocated to the left side of the third-stage HOQ, i.e., cost deployment, while items of the costs are set at the top of the HOQ. In each house, the priorities of the left-side items with dependence and feedback are obtained by ANP.
After acquiring the what-how relationship from experts, we set up a process of combining the priority and the relationship to the final score of the top-side items of each HOQ so as to determine where to deploy the greatest effort. In order to let the whole conceptual design become more complete and innovative, we consider TRIZ to eliminate the contradiction among the top-side items of the second-stage HOQ, which helps find a better solution to improve the design of the mobile healthcare device. Through the final scores of the first-stage and the third-stage HOQs, we can analyze the product functions and suggest the best cost deployment, respectively.
In conclusion, this research not only provides a draft of the mobile healthcare device, but also points out some important features: accuracy, privacy, and after-sales service are the top three customer requirements; compatibility of medical systems, emergency helping function, and privacy authorization function are the important functions of the device; central processing unit, professional medical support system, and wireless sensor network are the essential technical specifications of the device. This information provides some major characteristics of the future device and also shows the future needs of the healthcare industry. Moreover, the proposed model for the new product design can reduce the time of development, ensure customer requirements in the specifications, and guarantee cost savings.
||Table of Contents
Table of Contents I
List of Tables III
List of Figures IV
Chapter One Introduction 1
1-1 Research Background 1
1-2 Purpose of Research 1
1-3 Method of Research 2
1-4 Research Content and Process 2
Chapter Two Literature Review 4
2-1 Literature Review on Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 4
2-1-1 Introduction of QFD 4
2-1-2 Introduction of HOQ 5
2-1-3 The QFD process 7
2-2 Integration of QFD and ANP 8
2-3 Integration of QFD and TRIZ 8
2-4 QFD in healthcare 9
Chapter Three The Proposed Model 10
3-1 Research Framework 10
3-2 Identify the items of three HOQs 11
3-3 Calculate the priorities of the left-side items 12
3-3-1 Procedure of ANP 12
3-3-2 Procedure of arithmetic mean 13
3-4 Acquiring what-how relationship 13
3-5 Obtain the important ratings of the column items (the total scores of HOWs) 14
3-6 Eliminate the contradictions of the components 14
Chapter Four Case Study 16
4-1 The case of conceptual design for a mobile healthcare device 16
4-2 The outcome of the research 37
Chapter Five Conclusions 39
5-1 Conclusions 39
5-2 Management Implications 40
5-3 Suggestions for future studies 40
Appendix 1. 44
Appendix 2. 46
Appendix 3. 58
Appendix 4. 60
Appendix 5. 62
List of Tables
Table 3-1. Conventional relationship matrix 14
Table 4-1. HOQ1: Product deployment 17
Table 4-2. HOQ2: Component deployment 18
Table 4-3. HOQ3: Cost deploymen 19
Table 4-4. Unweighted supermatrix of HOQ1 left-side item 22
Table 4-5. Weighted supermatrix of HOQ1 left-side item 23
Table 4-6. Limit supermatrix of HOQ1 left-side item 24
Table 4-7. Unweighted supermatrix of HOQ2 left-side item 25
Table 4-8. Weighted supermatrix of HOQ2 left-side item 26
Table 4-9. Limit supermatrix of HOQ2 left-side item 27
Table 4-10. The items of the designated numbers 28
Table 4-11. The priorities of the left-side items of HOQ1 and HOQ2 28
Table 4-12. Information of HOQ1 30
Table 4-13. Information of HOQ2 31
Table 4-14. Information of HOQ3-1 33
Table 4-15. Information of HOQ3-2 34
Table 4-16. Description of the negative correlation 36
Table 4-17. Collation of the contradictions 36
List of Figures
Figure 2-1. House of Quality 6
Figure 2-2. Linking house of quality 7
Figure 3-1. Research Framework 10
Figure 3-2. A three-stage HOQ 11
Figure 3-3. The network structure for the left-side items of HOQ1 13
Figure 3-4. The correlation of HOQ2 15
Figure 3-5. The TRIZ process of generating ideas 15
Figure 4-1. ANP structure of HOQ1 left-side 20
Figure 4-2. ANP structure of HOQ2 left-side 20
Figure 4-3. Correlation matrix of HOQ2 35
Figure 4-4. Draft of the mobile healthcare device 38
||Altshuller, G.S. (1984), Creativity as an Exact Science: The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems. (Translated by Anthony Williams.) New York: Gordon and Breach.
Adiano, C., and Roth, A.V. (1994), Beyond the house of quality: dynamic QFD. Transactions of the fifth symposium on QFD, 450-458.
Buyukozkan, G., and Berkol, Ģ. (2011), Designing a sustainable supply chain using an integrated analytic network process and goal programming approach in quality function deployment. Expert Systems with Applications, 38, 13731-13748.
Bouchereau V., and Rowlands H. (2000), Methods and techniques to help quality function deployment (QFD). An International Journal, Vol. 7 Iss: 1, 8 – 20.
Carnevalli, J.A., and Miguel, P. (2008), Review, analysis and classification of the literature on QFD - Types of research, difficulties and benefits. International Journal of Production Research, 114, 737-754.
Chan, L.-K. and Wu, M-L. (1998), Prioritizing the technical measures in quality function deployment. Quality Engineering. 10(3), 467-469.
Chan, L.-K. and Wu, M-L. (2002), Quality function deployment: A literature review. European Journal of Operational Research, 143, 463-497.
Dixon, B.E. ( 2007) . A roadmap for the adoption of e-health. e-Service Journal, 5 (3), 3–13.
Eldin, N. (2002). A promising planning tool: quality function deployment. Cost Engineering, Vol. 44 Issue 3, 28.
Geng, X., Chu, X., Xue, D., and Zhang, Z. (2010), An integrated approach for rating engineering characteristics’ final importance in product-service system development. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 59(4), 585-594.
Hauser, J. and Clausing, D. (1988), The house of quality. Harvard Business Review, May-June, 63-73.
Ho, W. (2008), Integrated analytic hierarchy process and its applications - A literature review. European Journal of Operational Research, 186, 211-228.
Ilevbare, I.M., Probert, D., and Phaal, R. (2013), A review of TRIZ, and its benefits and challenges in practice. Technovation, 33, 30-37.
Karsak, E.E., Sozer, S., and Alptekin, S.E. (2002), Production planning in quality function deployment using combined analytic network process and goal programming approach. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 44, 171-190.
Lee, Y.-T., Wu, W.-W., and Tzeng, G.-H. (2008), An effective decision-making method using a combined QFD and ANP approach. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics, 12(5), 541-551.
Liu, C., Zhu, Q., Holroyd, K.A., Seng, E.K. (2011), Status and trends of mobile-health applications for iOS devices: A developer’s perspective. The Journal of Systems and Software, 84(11), 2022-2033.
Melgoza, E.L., Sereno, L., Rosell A., Ciurana J. (2012), An integrated parameterized tool for designing a customized tracheal stent. Computer-Aided Design, 44, 1173-1181.
Partovi, F.Y., and Corredoira, R.A. (2002), Quality function deployment for the good of soccer. European Journal of Operational Research, 137, 642-656.
Partovi, F.Y. (2006), An analytic model for locating facilities strategically. Omega, 34, 41-55.
Partovi, F.Y. (2007), An analytical model of process choice in the chemical industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 105, 213-227.
Raharjo, H., Aarnout, C., Brombacher, B.C., and Xie, M. (2008), Dealing with subjectivity in early product design phase: A systematic approach to exploit quality function deployment potentials. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 55, 253-278. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Saaty, T.L. (2004), Decision making - The analytic hierarchy and network process (AHP/ANP). Journal of Science and Systems Engineering, 13(1), 1-35.
Stevenson, W.J. (2009), Operations Management. 10th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Sullivan L.P. (1986), Quality function deployment. Quality Progress, 19(6), 39-50.
Vezzetti, E., Moos, S., and Kretli, S. (2011), A product lifecycle management methodology for supporting knowledge reuse in the consumer packaged goods domain. Computer-Aided Design, 43(12), 1902-1911.
Vivonoetics, Inc. website: http://vivonoetics.com/products/sensors/equivital/, retrieved on Feb. 20, 2013.
Wang, H., Chen, G., Lin, Z., and Wang, H. (2005), Algorithm of integrated QFD and TRIZ for the innovative design process. International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, 23(1), 41-52.
Yamashina, H., Ito, T, and Kawada, H. (2002), Innovative Product Development Process by Integrating QFD and TRIZ. International Journal of Production Research, 40(5), 1031-1050.
Yan, H., Huo, H., Xu, Y., Gidlund, M. (2010). Wireless sensor network based E-health system—implementation and experimental results. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 56 (4), 2288–2295.
Yeh, C.H., Huang, J.C.Y., and Yu, C.K. (2011), Integration of four-phase QFD and TRIZ in product R&D: A notebook case study. Research in Engineering Design, 22(3), 125-141.