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系統識別號 U0002-1607201310411500
中文論文名稱 蓋瑞‧史耐德作品與療癒能量觀
英文論文名稱 Visions of Healing Energy Inspiring/Illuminating Gary Snyder’s Works
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 陳維
研究生英文姓名 Wei Chen
學號 895110145
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
第二語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-17
論文頁數 270頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊銘塗
委員-Darrel Doty
委員-高天恩
委員-楊鎮魁
委員-蔡振興主任
中文關鍵字 蓋瑞‧史耐德生態詩  療癒能量  心氣不二  悲空不二  量子力學 
英文關鍵字 Snyder’s eco-poetry  healing energy  prana  emptiness  quantum physics 
學科別分類
中文摘要 「生命力」的概念,普見於永恆哲學與療癒傳統中。如中國宇宙觀中的「氣」,首出自易經的「宇宙氣化觀」,而在印度教與佛教,則稱為「普拉納」。「生命力」、「氣」、「普拉納」,由現代術語,或可稱之為能量。
現代量子力學中,證實宇宙並非物質/能量二分而成,萬物皆是能量的不同表達形式。傳統看法,能量是以波的流動形式表現,物質,則是粒子的形式。
而量子力學家證實,組成物質的最基本粒子──次原子粒子,被稱為「上帝粒子」,在未受觀察的情形下,竟以波的能量形式存在,只在觀察者投射意念注視時,才固定為粒子的物質形式。此革命性的「波粒二象性」發現,證實了心念也是一種能量,也證實佛法「萬法唯心造」、「心氣不二」,世界在不同觀察者眼中除了呈現不同視野,世界本質竟只是一虛空存有,由不同觀察者不同的心念能量創生,也呼應了Gary Snyder「山即是心」的詩學觀點。
時空相對論之父愛因斯坦曾說:「宇宙只是一個場」,對史耐德而言,宇宙亦是能量場的展現。這個場,量子力學家稱為量子真空零點場,那是宇宙暗能量,即宇宙空性能量所在。那裡非無亦非有,卻能「空生萬法」,是宇宙一切創造力的根源,「悲空不二」的療癒力,堅如金剛,無堅不摧,能破執人類對宇宙的一切虛妄觀,應時而生更新的視野觀點。

佛教、中國哲學、印地安傳統,皆感受到人和宇宙自然間這有形無形的連結。如瑜珈,本意便是連結。人類社會文化文明的一切病恙,皆由於和自他身心靈之
間,失去了和諧連結。於是在佛教靜坐中,便藉由冥想淨化七個脈輪,以及種種修為,使負面能量恢復正常頻率運轉,道家亦藉由呼吸吐納,將正負能量由呼吸轉換,身心靈療癒因此產生。
大自然中,萬物皆有其獨特的頻率,但萬物之間的頻率,卻是能互相產生影響的連結網絡,花的能量多曇花一現,樹的能量卻亙古長在,於是站在不同樹下,便能受其穩定的能量影響,進而安頓都市焦慮不安的生存狀態,這也是何以Snyder致力於保存荒野的初衷,因「身土不二」:大自然本具生命健康存續的能量頻率,只待人類走向他,受其影響。
本書第一到四章,分別闡發生態桂冠詩人Gary Snyder,如何由中國儒道哲學、佛教、與印地安傳統中,發現自然療癒的能量,以療西方文明之疾。
本書第五章與結論章更欲從現代科學觀點,將佛學、中國哲學和印地安傳統的療癒能量觀點,和量子力學、混沌效應、碎形理論做連結,以証Gary Snyder中西交匯的詩學觀點,不只使東方哲學走入西方,更能使古典文化走向現代科學文明,在萬物連結的整體觀中,探求療癒人類文明的可能性。
英文摘要 The idea of an “animating force” appears in almost every major wisdom and healing tradition. For example, in Chinese cosmology, it is called “chi,” which originated from The Book of Changes, in whose worldview the whole universe is imbued with “chi,” while in Hinduism and Buddhism, it is called “prana.” “Animating force,” “chi” and “prana,” in modern terms, can signify [subtle] energy.
Quantum Theory has demonstrated that our universe is composed of energy in different forms rather than the binary opposition of energy/matter. In classic science, while energy exists in the form of moving wave, matter exists in the form of particle respectively. However, Quantum theorists have proved that the basic particle of matter—Subatomic Particle, which is also called the “God particle”—can exist in the form of flowing wave when it is not being observed; only when it is under observation will it be fixed into the form of matter! This revolutionary discovery of Wave-Particle duality has confirmed that “mind” is also a kind of energy; such a phenomenon also conforms to the Buddhist view that all phenomena are created by our mind and “the non-duality of prana and mind.” The world is not merely represented in different ways from different viewpoints; the nature of the world is nothing but “emptiness.” Moreover, the world is even created by different energies of our different minds. Such a cosmology also echoes Gary Snyder’s eco-poetics.
Einstein once declared that our universe was nothing but a “field,” which also echoed Snyder’s outlook of a cosmos as the field of energy. Quantum theorists further assume a “quantum vacuum zero-point field,” where the invisible energy of “emptiness” in the universe comes from. Though there exists neither everything nor nothing in the field, this vacuum zero-point field could bring all possible states into concrete existence. It is the source of the universal creativity. The power of “the non-duality of compassion and emptiness” is as solid as diamond that it can conquer all, and it is also such power that could wipe out all human illusions and engender newer insights in the metaphysical level.
Buddhism, Chinese philosophy and Indian tradition all affirm the visible or invisible connections between humankind and the universe. The Buddhist practice of Yoga means “connection.” The root of diseases in human civilization is caused by the disharmony of our body, mind and soul. Thus Buddhist sitting meditation could restore our energy from negative into positive frequency through purifying the seven chakras. Taoists also adjust our state of energy through the practice of breathing. The healing of our body, mind, and soul thus becomes possible through the harmonious re-connection.
Every creature has its own frequency, though our unique frequency could affect each other in the network of life simultaneously. While the energy of flowers is mostly temporary, the energy of trees is often enduring. Thus when we sit under the trees quietly, we could be affected by their stable energy to ease our anxiety in an urban city. The healing energy of the flora also supports Gary Snyder’s devotion to the preservation of the wilderness for “the non-duality of body and earth.” Nature itself has its innate healing energy; it only awaits our approaching before it can exert away influence and help us realize our inner automatic healing energy in turn.
Chapter One to Chapter Four in this dissertation tries to make explicit how Gary Snyder, the “poet laureate of Deep Ecology,” strives to heal the disease of Western civilization through his cultural translation of the healing energy visions in Chinese culture, Buddhism, and Indian tradition. And Chapter Five and Conclusion further aim at interpreting Gary Snyder’s eco-poetry through connecting the visions of healing energy in Chinese Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism, and Indian aboriginal tradition with modern scientific theories such as Quantum Theory, Chaos Theory, and Fractal Theory. This dissertation endeavors to reveal that Gary Snyder has not only connected Eastern and Western cultures, but has also made classical heritage anew into the modern worldview. In his holism of universal connection, the healing of human civilization would thus become possible.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Introduction
Snyder’s Depth Ecology and Visions of Healing Energy....…………………..1
Chapter One
Visions of Healing Energy in Confucianism and Taoism Inspiring Gary Snyder’s Works..……….………………………….….……………………….12
Chapter Two
Visions of Healing Energy in Hinduism and Tantrayana (Tibetan Buddhism) Inspiring Gary Snyder’s Works.………….….………………...……………..44
Chapter Three
Visions of Healing Energy in Sutrayana Inspiring Gary Snyder’s Works..…………………………………..……………………………………..78
Chapter Four
Visions of Healing Energy in Western Counterculture
Inspiring/Illuminating Gary Snyder’s Works..………..………...…………135
Chapter Five
Visions of Healing Energy in Counterscience
Inspiring/Illuminating Gary Snyder’s Works……………………………...184
Conclusion
A Planetary Culture: Snyder’s Solutions to the Ecological Crisis…...……231
Notes…………………………………………………..……………………………246
Works Cited…………………………….………………………………………….249
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