淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1607201220004900
中文論文名稱 英語低成就學生對遠距英語學習困難及因應策略之研究
英文論文名稱 Difficulties Encountered and Strategies Used by Low-Achieving Learners of English in Distance Courses
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 許睿育
研究生英文姓名 Jui-Yu Hsu
學號 698110052
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-06-08
論文頁數 90頁
口試委員 指導教授-王藹玲
委員-施佑芝
委員-薛玉政
中文關鍵字 英語低成就學生  遠距課程  線上學習困難  線上學習策略  英語畢業門檻 
英文關鍵字 Low-achieving learners of English  Distance courses  On-line learning difficulties  On-line learning strategies  English graduation benchmarks 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本研究旨在於探討英語低成就學生在遠距課程中所面臨的學習困難及因應策略。近年來,國內大專院校逐步開始以設定英語畢業門檻來檢視學生的英語能力,而本研究對象為北區一所私立大學一百六十六位未能通過畢業門檻需進行補救教學的學生,並以Moodle線上平台作為進行為期十八週英語線上課程的媒介。此質性研究的資料蒐集來源為課堂觀察、討論區訊息、電子郵件、線上學習問卷以及訪談。
研究結果顯示,英語低成就學生最常面臨以下五項線上學習困難:科技問題;英文相關問題包括字彙、文法、文化與聽力;無法按時繳交線上作業;無法聽從教師線上作業指示;對於線上互動感到挫折。此外,四項線上學習策略包含運用線上翻譯軟體、於討論區提問或回應、寄信給課程助教與教師、尋求同儕協助。總結而言,此研究希望能提供英語低成就學生所面臨的線上學習困難與因應策略,以讓線上教師更了解學生需求並提供最有效的幫助。
英文摘要 The current study attempts to explore how low-achieving learners of English deal with difficulties faced and their use of online learning strategies on a distance learning environment. In recent years, schools in Taiwan have used the standardized English proficiency tests (SELP) as a graduation benchmark to access students’ English abilities. In the present study, participants were low-achieving learners of English, as indicated by the fact that all participants failed to meet the requirement of English graduation benchmarks. For those who did not meet this requirement, the school offered an on-line course entitled “English Tutorial”. Also, Moodle, a free, open-source management system was utilized during the semester.
Data collection in the qualitative research included classroom observation, participants’ responses on the Moodle discussion boards, e-mails, online learning questionnaire, and interviews. A total of 166 students enrolled in an 18 week course participated in the study.
Results of this study showed that low-achieving learners of English most encountered the following five difficulties: (a) technical problems, (b) problems related to English, including vocabulary, grammar, culture issues and, listening skills, (c) problems with finishing homework on time, (d) difficulties with following the instructor’s online assignment instructions, and (e) frustrations from lack of interactions between teachers and classmates. Also, a total of four online learning strategies used include (a) use online translation softwares, (b) post and respond to questions on the discussion board, (c) e-mail to the instructor and the TAs, and (d) seek for peer assistance. It is indicated that online students need more help from teachers and should be provided with additional learning resources. The current study hopes to provide a clearer picture for teachers to understand the real needs of students, and then be able to provide beneficial instructions in distance learning course.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................I
CHINESE ABSTRACT..........................................II
ENGLISH ABSTRACT.........................................III
TABLE OF CONTENTS..........................................V
LIST OF TABLES..........................................VIII
LIST OF FIGURES...........................................IX

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION
Background and Motivation..................................1
Statement of the Problem...................................2
Purpose of the Study.......................................3
Research Questions.........................................4
Significance of the Study..................................4
Overview of the Thesis.....................................5

CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW
Distance Education.........................................6
Students' Perceptions toward Online Learning..............8
Limitations of Online Education............................9
The Teacher's Perspectives...............................10
The Students' Perspectives...............................12
Online Learning Strategies................................14
Graduation English Language Proficiency Benchmarks........17

CHAPTER THREE:METHODOLOGY
Participants..............................................20
Instruments...............................................21
Ethical Consideration.....................................25
Settings..................................................25
Introduction to the Moodle................................25
Introduction to the Course................................31
Introduction to the Three TAs, Instructor and Researcher..32
Procedure.................................................35
Pilot Study...............................................35
Main Study................................................36
Data Collection...........................................38
Data Analysis.............................................39
Trustworthiness...........................................40

CHAPTER FOUR:FINDINGS
Online Learning Difficulties..............................43
Technical Problems........................................43
Problems Related to English...............................44
Problems with Finishing Homework on Time..................49
Difficulties Following Instructor's Online Instruction about the Assignments.....................................50
Frustrations From Lack of Interaction between Teachers and Classmates................................................51
Online Learning Strategies................................52
Use Online Translation Software...........................52
Seek for Peer Assistance..................................53
E-mail the Instructor and the TAs.........................54
Post and Respond to Questions on the Discussion Boards....55
Additional Findings.......................................57
The Needs of Students.....................................57
Online Interactions.......................................58

CHAPTER FIVE:DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
Discussions and Conclusion................................59
Online Learning Difficulties..............................59
Online Learning Strategies................................64
Pedagogical Implications..................................66
Limitations of the Study..................................67
Suggestions for Future Research...........................68

REFERENCES................................................69

APPENDICES................................................77
Appendix A: Comparison Table of Standardized English Tests Scoring...................................................77
Appendix B: Online Learning Questionnaire (Pilot Study)...78
Appendix C: Online Learning Questionnaire (Chinese Version)..................................................79
Appendix D: Online Learning Questionnaire (English Version)..................................................82
Appendix E: Instructor's Interview Questions (Chinese & English Version)..........................................85
Appendix F: TA's Interview Questions (Chinese & English Version)..................................................86
Appendix G: Learners’ Interview Questions (Chinese and English Version)..........................................87
Appendix H: Examples of Online Reading Article and Assignment................................................88
Appendix I: The Times of Post and Replies from Students on the Moodle................................................90

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Participants' Major of Study.....................21
Table 2: Participants' Level of Study.....................21
Table 3: Interviewee's Background Information.............24

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Variables on student learning (Kennedy,2000)....16
Figure 2. The overall outline of the Moodle platform after students' login...........................................27
Figure 3. The page for changing personal information......28
Figure 4. The students' view of homework submission.......29
Figure 5. Weekly discussion board.........................29
Figure 6. The page of setting block of teachers' view.....30
Figure 7. The page of grading homework of teachers' view..30
Figure 8. The procedure of the main study.................36
參考文獻 Anderson, D., Imdieke, S., & Standerford, N. (2011). Feedback Please: Studying Self in the online classroom. International Journal of Instruction,4(1), 3-15.
Angiello, R. (2010). Study Looks at Online Learning vs. Traditional lnstruction.Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed For Quick Review, 76(2), 56-59.
Angelino, L. M., Williams, F., & Natvig, D. (2007). Strategies to engage online students and reduce attrition rates. Journal Of Educators Online, 4(2).
Beatty, B., & Ulasewicz, C. (2006). Faculty perspectives on moving from blackboardto the Moodle learning management system.TechTrends: Linking Research&Practice to Improve Learning, 50(4), 36-45.
Barr, H., Gower, B., & Clayton, J. (2007). Faculty response to the implementation of an open source learning management system in three tertiary institutions in New Zealand. Computers in the Schools, 24(3/4), 125-137.
Bolliger, D. U., & Wasilik, O. (2009). Factors influencing faculty satisfaction with online teaching and learning in higher education. Distance Education, 30(1), 103-116.
Beem, K. (2010). Virtual classes, real policy. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed For Quick Review, 76(1), 20-26.
Cifuentes, L, & Shih, Y-C. D. (2001). Teaching and learning online: A collaboration between U.S. and Taiwanese students. Journal of Research on Technology in Education,33(4), 456-474.
Clary, R. M., & Wandersee, J. H. (2009). Can teachers "learn" in an online environment?. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 46(1), 34-38.
Cronje, J. C., Adendorff, D. E., Meyer, S. M., & van Ryneveld, L. (2006). Surviving the shipwreck: what makes online students stay online and learn? Educational Technology & Society, 9(4), 185-193.
Chen, Y. (2004). Building an online learning community. Association For Educational Communications And Technology, 119-125.
Denzin, N. K. (1970). The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods. Chicago: Aldine.
Dennis, K., Bunkowski, L., & Eskey, M. (2007). The little engine that could--How to start the motor? Motivating the online student. Insight: A Collection Of Faculty Scholarship, 237-49.
Dowell, D. J., & Small, F. A. (2011). What is the impact of online resource materials on student self-learning strategies? Journal of Marketing Education, 33(2), 140-148.
Ellis, R. A., Goodyear, P. P., Prosser, M. M., & O'Hara, A. A. (2006). How and what university students learn through online and face-to-face discussion: Conceptions, intentions and approaches. Journal Of Computer Assisted Learning, 22(4), 244-256.
Fish, W. W., & Wickersham, L. E. (2009). Best practices for online instructors: Reminders. Quarterly Review Of Distance Education, 10(3), 279-284.
Fillion, G., Limayem, M., Laferriere, T., & Mantha, R. (2009). Integrating information and communication technologies into higher education: Investigating onsite and online students' points of view. Open Learning, 24(3), 223-240.
Gold, R. (1969). Roles in sociological field observation // Issues in Participant Observation. Ed. by G. J. McCall and J. L. Simmons. Eddison-Wesley.
Graf, S. S., Liu, T. C., & Kinshuk. (2010). Analysis of learners' navigational behaviour and their learning styles in an online course. Journal Of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(2), 116-131.
Gaspar, A., Langevin, S., Boyer, N., & Armitage, W. (2009). Self-perceived and observable self-direction in an online asynchronous programming course using peer learning forums. Computer Science Education, 19(4), 233-255.
Hall, D., & Knox, J. (2009). Issues in the education of TESOL teachers by distance education. Distance Education, 30(1), 63-85.
Keller, J. M. (2008). First principles of motivation to learn and e[superscript 3]-Learning. Distance Education, 29(2), 175-185.
Kushnir, L. (2009). When knowing more means knowing less: Understanding the impact of computer experience on e-learning and e-learning outcomes. Electronic Journal Of E-Learning, 7(3), 289-300.
Kennedy, C. A. (2000). What Influences Student Learning in an Online Course?.
Liauh, Y-H. (2010). A Preliminary Study of Students' Attitudes toward the Exit English Examination in Technological and Vocational Higher Education in Taiwan, Journal of National Huwei University of Science & Technology,29(3), 41-60.
Marshall, C., Rossman, G. B (2006). Designing Qualitative Research. London, England: Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
Moore, M. G. (1989). Editorial: Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6.
Media Wiki. (2012). About Moodle. Retrieved April 26, 2012, from http://moodle.org/
Oliver, R., Herrington, A., Herrington, J., & Reeves, T. C. (2007). Representing authentic learning designs supporting the development of online communities of learners. Journal Of Learning Design, 2(2), 1-21.
Oliver, K., Osborne, J., & Brady, K. (2009). What are secondary students' expectations for teachers in virtual school environments? Distance Education, 30(1), 23-45.
Pelz, B. (2010). (My) Three principles of effective online pedagogy. Journal Of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 14(1), 103-116.
Palmer, S. R., & Holt, D. M. (2009). Examining student satisfaction with wholly online learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(2), 101-113.
Rodriguez, M. C., Ooms, A., Montanez, M., & Yan, Y. L. (2005, April). Perceptions of online learning quality given comfort with technology, Motivation to learn technology skills, satisfaction, and online learning experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Association, Montreal, Canada.
Rabe-Hemp, C., Woollen, S., & Humiston, G. (2009). A comparative analysis of student engagement, learning, and satisfaction in lecture hall and online learning settings. Quarterly Review Of Distance Education, 10(2), 207-218.
Sansone, C., Fraughton, T., Zachary, J. L., Butner, J., & Heiner, C. (2011). Self-Regulation of Motivation when Learning Online: The importance of who, why and how. Educational Technology Research And Development, 59(2), 199-212.
Shih, Y-C. D., & Cifuentes, L. (2001). One tale of why and how to teach on line. TechTrends. 45(6), 8-13 & 46.
Simonson, M., Schlosser, C., & Orellana, A. (2011). Distance education research: A review of the literature. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 23(2-3), 124-142.
Shieh, R. (2010). A case study of constructivist instructional strategies for adult online learning. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 41(5), 706-720.
Sansone, C., Fraughton, T., Zachary, J. L., Butner, J., & Heiner, C. (2011). Self-regulation of motivation when learning online: the importance of who, why and how. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59(2), 99-212.
Singh, D. K., & Stoloff, D. L. (2007). Effectiveness of Online Instruction: Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers. International Journal of Technology, 6(2), 121-123
Simonson, M. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of Distance Education. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Su, S-W. (2009). A study of graduation threshold of English competency from the perspective of EFL teachers of technological institutions in southern Taiwan. Kaohsiung Normal University Journal 27, 37-60.
Tsai, Y., & Tsou, C.H. (2009). A standardised english language proficiency test as the graduation benchmark: Student perspectives on its application in higher education. Assessment in Education, 16(3), 319-330.
Tang, C-J. (2011). The impact of university exit exams on students’ English learning experience. Foreign Language Studies, 14(1), 1-24.
Tanyeli, N. (2008, March). The efficiency of online English language instruction on students' reading skills. Paper presented at the International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain.
Tsai, S-N.,Lin C-H,. (2011). The analysis of English ability and proficiency test for college freshmen-A case study for I-Shou University. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(7), 29-42
Umpstead, B. (2009). The rise of online learning. Principal Leadership, 10(1), 68-71.
Van Rooij, S. (2009). Adopting open-source software applications inU.S. Higher education: A cross-disciplinary review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 682-701.
Watson, J., Gemin, B.(2009). Funding and policy frameworks for online learning. promising practices in online learning. International Association For K-12 Online Learning.
Wang, Y., Chen, N., & Levy, M. (2010). Teacher training in a synchronous cyber face-to-face classroom: characterizing and supporting the online teachers' learning process. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(4), 277-293.
White, C. (2000). Learn online: Students and faculty respond to online distance courses at Grant MacEwan Community College. T.H.E. Journal, 27(9), 66-68.
Wu, W., & Marek, M. (2010). Making English a "habit": Increasing confidence, motivation, and ability of EFL students through cross-cultural, computer-assisted interaction. Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology - TOJET, 9(4), 101-112.
Wong, M. (2009). Language anxiety and motivation to learn English: A glimpse into the form 4 classroom. Paper presented at the UPALS International Conference on Languages (Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, May 27-28, 2009).
Zarkoskie, L. (2010). Using Moodle forums to increase middle school student participation and level of detail in student responses. Proquest Dissertations And Theses.
Z. Erlich; Erlich-Philip. I & Gal-Ezer-J.(2005). Skills required for participating in CMC courses: An empirical study. Computers & Education 44, 477–487.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2017-07-17公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-07-17起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信