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系統識別號 U0002-1607200820384800
中文論文名稱 道德意識、架構效應與順序效應對道德判斷之影響:以作弊舉發與盈餘管理為例
英文論文名稱 The Influence of Ethical Ideology, Framing Effect and Order Effect on Moral Judgment
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 會計學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Accounting
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 謝玉婷
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Ting Hsieh
學號 695600477
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-19
論文頁數 118頁
口試委員 指導教授-顏信輝
委員-楊孟萍
委員-莊嘉建
中文關鍵字 道德意識  架構效應  順序效應  信念調整 
英文關鍵字 Ethical Ideology  Framing Effect  Order Effect  Belief-Adjustment 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學商學
中文摘要 Forsyth (1980) 提出理想主義 (idealism) 與相對主義 (relativism) 用以解釋個人之道德判斷,而架構效應 (framing effect) 與順序效應 order effect) 係心理學家提出個人處理資訊之兩個重要認知特性。本研究由兩實驗組成,分別以學生考試作弊與企業盈餘管理為道德判斷之實驗情境,實驗一與實驗二分別以119位、142位學生為受試者,探討個人道德意識與認知特性對道德判斷之影響。
本研究以問卷調查方式進行,各實驗之研究結果如下:
一、實驗一之研究結果發現,在不同道德判斷情境下,均證實道德意識對道德判斷具有顯著之影響,且高理想主義者(低相對主義者)對道德議題之判斷較低理想主義者(高相對主義者)為嚴格。對於相同經濟意義之資訊,以不同之陳述方式對道德判斷呈現顯著之影響,而在不同資訊陳述順序方面,受試者對舉發作弊意願(贊同盈餘管理程度)呈現顯著之時近效應,即採先有利後不利之陳述順序者,其舉發作弊意願(贊同盈餘管理程度)會顯著高(低)於採先不利後有利之陳述順序者。架構效應與順序效應在實驗一獲得證實,本實驗結果發現個人進行道德判斷時,確實會受到個人道德意識、資訊陳述方式與陳述順序不同所影響。
二、實驗二之研究結果發現,高理想主義者(低相對主義者)對道德議題之判斷較低理想主義者(高相對主義者)為嚴格。對於相同經濟意義之資訊,以不同之資訊陳述方式雖未對道德判斷呈現顯著之影響,但受試者在不同資訊陳述方式下,其信念調整之方向與幅度,均符合本研究預期,而不同之資訊陳述順序亦對道德判斷呈現顯著之影響。
本研究以道德意識出發,並結合心理學家提出人類處理資訊之兩個重要認知特性,提出更接近真實世界情境之研究貢獻。
英文摘要 Recent research has supported Forsyth’s study conclusions about the taxonomy of ethical ideology: (a) Relativism, (b) Idealism in 1980. The typology of ethical ideologies explains this variation by suggesting that in general people take particular stances regarding ethics and that the position taken will influence the judgment reached. Psychologist suggested that framing effect and order effect can explain the cognitive bias on decisions. Experiment one and two respectively have 119 and 142 students as experimenters, which discuss the influence of ethical ideology and cognitive bias on moral judgment. Results indicate that:
1. Experiment one finds that ethical ideology have significantly different from moral judgments. Idealist (non-relativist) exhibits higher ethical standards for moral judgments than non-idealist (relativist). It also demonstrated that the moral judgments were influenced by framing effect and order effect.
2. Experiment two finds that idealist, non-idealist, relativist and non-relativist have different moral judgments. The order in which information is received that it is a recency effect occurs. Although these observation do not imply that the moral judgments were influenced by framing effect, but the belief-adjustments of experimenters were consistent with our anticipation.
The study outlines the possible explanations for the moral judgments that influenced by cognitive bias and contribute to the empirical evidences were more complied with reality.
論文目次 目錄
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究流程 5
第貳章 文獻回顧與研究假說 7
第一節 道德哲理與道德意識 7
第二節 架構效應 13
第三節 順序效應 19
第參章 研究方法 26
第一節 研究設計 26
第二節 研究對象及施測程序 33
第三節 統計分析方法 36
第肆章 實證結果與討論 37
第一節 實驗一 37
第二節 實驗二 57
第三節 研究假說之驗證結果與討論 70
第伍章 結論、研究限制與建議 74
第一節 結論 74
第二節 管理意涵之建議 75
第三節 未來研究之建議與研究限制 77
參考文獻 78
附錄A-1 85
附錄A-2 94
附錄B-1 103
附錄B-2 111

表目錄
表2-1 Forsyth個人道德哲學觀分類 10
表2-2 逐步反應與最終反應之程序與反應模式 21
表3-1 實驗一資訊陳述方法之操弄 31
表3-2 實驗二資訊陳述方法之操弄 32
表3-3 本研究之問卷回收情形 33
表3-4 本研究問卷之清晰度、困難度與真實性之平均值 34
表3-5 實驗一之有效樣本基本資料(N=119) 35
表3-6 實驗二之有效樣本基本資料(N=142) 35
表4-1 道德哲理相關文獻之問卷信度比較表 37
表4-2 道德哲理之主成分因素分析(實驗一) 38
表4-3 道德哲理構面之敘述性統計分析表(實驗一) 38
表4-4 道德哲理相關文獻之各構面平均數比較表 39
表4-5 道德哲理對道德判斷之t檢定分析表(實驗一) 41
表4-6 實驗一架構效應與順序效應交互作用敘述性統計表-平均數(標準差) 42
表4-7 架構效應與順序效應對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗一) 42
表4-8 架構效應對道德判斷之t檢定分析表(實驗一) 44
表4-9 架構效應與相對主義高低對道德判斷之敘述性統計表(實驗一) 45
表4-10 架構效應與相對主義高低對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗一) 46
表4-11 架構效應與理想主義高低對道德判斷之敘述性統計表(實驗一) 47
表4-12 架構效應與理想主義高低對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗一) 48
表4-13 順序效應之敘述性統計分析表(實驗一) 49
表4-14 陳述順序對道德判斷之t檢定分析表(實驗一) 50
表4-15 順序效應與相對主義高低對道德判斷之敘述性統計表(實驗一) 52
表4-16 順序效應與相對主義高低對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗一) 53
表4-17 順序效應與理想主義高低對道德判斷之敘述性統計表(實驗一) 54
表4-18 順序效應與理想主義高低對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗一) 55
表4-19 實驗一中兩個案之相關分析 56
表4-20 道德哲理之主成分因素分析(實驗二) 57
表4-21 道德哲理構面之敘述性統計分析表(實驗二) 58
表4-22 道德哲理對道德判斷之t檢定分析表(實驗二) 60
表4-23 實驗二架構效應與順序效應交互作用敘述性統計表-平均數(標準差) 60
表4-24 架構效應與順序效應對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗二) 61
表4-25 架構效應對道德判斷之t檢定分析表(實驗二) 62
表4-26 架構效應與相對主義高低對道德判斷之敘述性統計表(實驗二) 63
表4-27 架構效應與相對主義高低對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗二) 63
表4-28 架構效應與理想主義高低對道德判斷之敘述性統計表(實驗二) 64
表4-29 架構效應與理想主義高低對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗二) 64
表4-30 順序效應之敘述性統計分析表(實驗二) 65
表4-31 陳述順序對道德判斷之t檢定分析表(實驗二) 65
表4-32 順序效應與相對主義高低對道德判斷之敘述性統計表(實驗二) 67
表4-33 順序效應與相對主義高低對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗二) 67
表4-34 順序效應與理想主義高低對道德判斷之敘述性統計表(實驗二) 68
表4-35 順序效應與理想主義高低對道德判斷之二因子變異數分析表(實驗二) 68
表4-36 研究假說檢定結果彙總表 73

圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程圖 5
圖2-1 展望理論以編輯程序解釋產生架構效應之心理歷程 15
圖2-2 價值函數曲線 15
圖2-3 信念修正過程 20
圖2-4 不一致資訊下時近效應之信念修正過程 22
圖4-1 架構效應與順序效應交互作用圖(實驗一之個案一) 43
圖4-2 架構效應與順序效應交互作用圖(實驗一之個案二) 43
圖4-3 架構效應與相對主義交互作用圖(實驗一之個案一) 46
圖4-4 架構效應與相對主義交互作用圖(實驗一之個案二) 46
圖4-5 架構效應與理想主義交互作用圖(實驗一之個案一) 48
圖4-6 架構效應與理想主義交互作用圖(實驗一之個案二) 49
圖4-7 混合資訊之信念調整(實驗一之個案一) 51
圖4-8 混合資訊之信念調整(實驗一之個案二) 51
圖4-9 順序效應與相對主義交互作用圖(實驗一之個案一) 53
圖4-10 順序效應與相對主義交互作用圖(實驗一之個案二) 53
圖4-11 順序效應與理想主義交互作用圖(實驗一之個案一) 55
圖4-12 順序效應與理想主義交互作用圖(實驗一之個案二) 56
圖4-13 架構效應與順序效應交互作用圖(實驗二) 61
圖4-14 架構效應與相對主義交互作用圖(實驗二) 63
圖4-15 架構效應與理想主義交互作用圖(實驗二) 64
圖4-16 混合資訊之信念調整(實驗二) 66
圖4-17 順序效應與相對主義交互作用圖(實驗二) 67
圖4-18 順序效應與理想主義交互作用圖(實驗二) 69

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