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系統識別號 U0002-1607200716415900
中文論文名稱 在隨建即連網路下以不同觀點來探討隱藏節點問題及其解決策略
英文論文名稱 Different Aspects of Hidden Terminal Problems in Wireless Ad Hoc Network: Problems and Solutions
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 陳彥達
研究生英文姓名 Yen-Da Chen
學號 892190124
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-06-15
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-石貴平
委員-王三元
委員-趙志民
委員-游國忠
委員-石貴平
委員-張志勇
中文關鍵字 無線隨建即連網路  電量控制  分時多工存取  隱藏節點  曝露節點 
英文關鍵字 Wireless Ad Hoc Network  Power Control  TDMA  Hidden Terminal  Exposed Terminal 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 在多步的無線隨建即連網路(Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks)環境中,隱藏節點(Hidden Terminal)問題對以競爭方式為設計要點的MAC機制,可說是影響甚大。眾所熟知的解決隱藏節點問題為RTS與CTS封包交換機制。然而隱藏節點問題仍存在某些運作場景中。例如在IEEE 802.11多步的無線隨建即連網路中,若兩個無線通訊裝置(Mobile Host)彼此相互隱藏,且亂數倒數計數不同,RTS控制封包仍可能發生碰撞。若運作場景為高流量或是密度較高的多步的無線隨建即連網路此控制封包碰撞問題將顯更加嚴重。此外電量控制機制(Power Control)可用於節省無線通訊裝置的電量消耗。然而若是無線通訊裝置採用剛好的電量通訊,則隱藏節點問題仍將會發生。甚至在以時槽分割(TDMA)為基礎的無線隨建即連網路中,如果無線通訊裝置選擇不恰當的時槽作為傳輸資料,隱藏節點問題仍會發生。因此本論文將在以下三種場景中著重探討。第一:IEEE 802.11多步的無線隨建即連網路。第二:以電量控制機制為基礎的多步無線隨建即連網路。第三:以時槽分割為基礎的無線隨建即連網路。
在IEEE 802.11多步的無線隨建即連網路中,RTS封包的碰撞不但會造成接下來的CTS與ACK封包的碰撞,甚至造成網路傳輸被抑止的現象。在本論文中我們提出了一個只需一個頻道(Channel)與收發器(Transceiver)的改善機制。此一改善機制可大幅的改善RTS碰撞的問題,進而減少重傳資料時所需的成本。
在以電量控制機制為基礎的多步無線隨建即連網路中,電量控制機制是一普遍的節省無線通訊裝置的電量消耗並進而延長無線隨建即連網路的生命週期(Lifetime)機制。本論文提出並驗證了一個因採電量控制機制所引發的隱藏節點問題。此外本論文亦提出一機制以解決因採電量控制機制所引發的隱藏節點問題。
在以時槽分割為基礎的無線隨建即連網路中,如果無線通訊裝置只參考一步鄰居的時槽使用資訊來做時槽選擇的依據,則無線通訊裝置將可能選擇到不恰當的通訊時槽,進而造成隱藏節點問題。本論文亦提出一時槽限制策略以決定通訊對所需的時槽。
如上所述,在多步的無線隨建即連網路上隱藏節點問題是一重要的議題。雖然RTS與CTS交換機制用於解決隱藏節點問題,然而隱藏節點問題仍會發生於IEEE 802.11多步的無線隨建即連網路、以電量控制機制為基礎的多步無線隨建即連網路、以時槽分割為基礎的無線隨建即連網路中。此外本論文亦提出了改善機制以解決在此三種場景中所發生的隱藏節點問題。在未來我們將著重於另一著名問題曝露節點(Exposed Terminal)問題,以進一步的改善網路效能,並在傳輸上能更有效率與更貼近現實網路環境。
英文摘要 Hidden terminal problem is a notorious problem in contention-based MAC protocol for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. RTS/CTS exchange is the well-know solution to hidden terminal problem. However, hidden terminal problem still happens in some particular situations. For example, in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc network, for two mobile hosts (MHs) hidden from each other, RTS frames are also possible to collide with each other, even that their backoff counters are different. The situation will be getting worse in high traffic load or in a dense network. On the other hand, power control is a common and popular mechanism used to save energy for MHs in wireless ad hoc networks. Unfortunately, hidden terminal problem is very likely to happen if the exactly power is used to transmit between the sender and the receiver. In addition, on TDMA-based mobile ad hoc networks, if an MH selects an unsuitable slot to send, the hidden terminal problem will occur as well. As a result, the major focus of this dissertation is to solve hidden terminal problem for the three environments: 1) IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks, 2) power-control-based wireless ad hoc networks, and 3) TDMA-based mobile ad hoc networks.

In IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks, RTS collisions not only result in the following CTS or ACK collisions, but also induce false blocking problem, even dead locks of transmissions. In the dissertation, an improvement mechanism protocol is also devised, which only uses a single channel and one transceiver to reduce RTS collisions. This improvement mechanism provides a type of fast collision detection and decreases the probability of RTS collisions, which is benefit for RTS/CTS exchange scheme. Meanwhile, this improvement mechanism can reduce the retransmission cost and have lower control overhead than that of IEEE 802.11 DCF.

Power control mechanism which can save power consumption of station and prolong the network lifetime is a common technology in power-control-based wireless ad hoc networks. However, collisions are very likely to happen if exact power level is used. Thus, the dissertation identifies a power control induced hidden terminal problem and takes the interference range into consideration to propose a collision avoidance power control MAC scheme which uses the appropriate power to exchange packets, instead of the exact power in order to resist the interference of other stations for avoiding interference due to the reduced power in power control mechanism.

On TDMA-based mobile ad hoc networks, if an MH depending on one-hop neighboring information may select an unsuitable slot to send, the hidden terminal problem will occur as well. In this dissertation, a Slot Inhibited Policies is proposed to determine which slots are valid to use in a communication link.

As mentioned above, hidden terminal problem is a serious and important issue in multihop wireless ad hoc networks. Although RTS/CTS exchange mechanism is used for avoiding hidden terminal problem, hidden terminal problem may still happen in IEEE 802.11-based, power-control-based, or TDMA-based ad hoc networks. Consequently, this dissertation proposes some mechanisms to avoid the hidden terminal problems in these three particular situations. In the future, we will study and focus on another famous problem, exposed terminal problem, to improve the network performance. Thus, the protocols will be more effective and practical for real situations.
論文目次 Contents I
List of Figures VII
List of Tables XIII

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Organization 2
2 Background 3
2.1 Hidden Terminal Problem 3
2.2 IEEE 802.11 DCF Overview 4
2.3 Power Control Access Scheme Overview 6
2.4 TDMA Channel Model Overview 7
3 Hidden terminal problem in IEEE802.11-based ad hoc networks 9
3.1 Problem Statement 9
3.2 Related Work 14
3.3 RCA:The MAC Protocol 16
3.3.1 Basic Idea 16
3.3.2 Details of the RCA Protocol 17
3.3.2.1 RCA/2 18
3.3.2.2 RCA/1 19
3.3.3 Protocol Enhancement 21
3.3.3.1 Blocking Policy 21
3.3.3.2 Channel Utilization Improvement Policy 22
3.4 Simulation Results 23
3.4.1 Grid topology 24
3.4.2 Random topology 26
3.5 Summary 27
4 Hidden terminal problem in power-control-based wireless ad hoc networks 29
4.1 Problem Statement 29
4.1.1 Transmission Range, Carrier Sensing Range, and Interference Range in Power Control Model 29
4.1.2 Verification of the POINT Problem 34
4.2 Related Work 37
4.3 Range Cover Mechanisms 38
4.3.1 Sender’s Transmission Range Cover Mechanism (STRC) 38
4.3.1.1 Concept of STRC 38
4.3.1.2 Derivation of Transmission Power and Restriction 39
4.3.1.3 STRC MAC Protocol 40
4.3.2 Receiver’s Transmission Range Cover Mechanism(RTRC) 41
4.3.2.1 Concept of RTRC 41
4.3.2.2 Derivation of Transmission Power and Restriction 41
4.3.2.3 RTRC MAC Protocol 42
4.3.3 Sender’s Carrier Sensing Range Cover Mechanism(SCRC) 42
4.3.3.1 Concept of SCRC 42
4.3.3.2 Derivation of Transmission Power and Restriction 43
4.3.3.3 SCRC MAC Protocol 43
4.3.4 Receiver’s Carrier Sensing Range Cover Mechanism(RCRC) 44
4.3.4.1 Concept of RCRC 44
4.3.4.2 Derivation of Transmission Power and Restriction 46
4.3.4.3 RCRC MAC Protocol 47
4.3.5 Comparisons of the Four MAC Protocols 48
4.4 Adaptive Range-Based Power Control(ARPC) MAC Protocol 50
4.5 Performance Evaluations 50
4.5.1 Linear Topology 51
4.5.2 Random Topology 54
4.6 Summary 58
5 Hidden terminal problems on TDMA based mobile ad hoc networks 59
5.1 Problem statement 59
5.2 Related Work 61
5.3 Preliminaries 63
5.3.1 The System Model and Terminology 63
5.3.2 Challenges of QoS Routing on TDMA-Based MANETs 64
5.4 Slot Selection Policies 66
5.4.1 Slot Inhibited Policies(SIPs) 66
5.4.1.1 3-Hop Backward Decision Policy(3BDP) 69
5.4.1.2 Least Conflict First Policy(LCFP) 70
5.4.1.3 Most Reuse First Policy(MRFP) 71
5.5 The Distributed Slots Reservation Protoco(DSRP) 74
5.5.1 QoS Route Discovery Phase 74
5.5.2 QoS Route Reply and Reservation Phase 77
5.5.2.1 Slot Adjustment Protocol(SAP) 77
5.5.2.2 Slot Adjustment Algorithm(SAA) 78
5.5.3 QoS Route Maintenance and Improvement 84
5.6 Simulation Results 86
5.6.1 Call Success Rate 86
5.6.2 Network Throughput 88
5.6.3 Control Overhead 88
5.6.4 Average Delay Time 89
5.6.5 Average Storage for Each Node 91
5.7 Summary 91
6 Conclusions 93
6.1 Contributions 93
6.2 Future Work 94
Bibliography 95

List of Figures


2.1 Hidden terminal problem. 4
2.2 IEEE 802.11 DCF scheme. 5
2.3 The benefit of the power control mechanism 6
2.4 TDMA channel model 8
3.1 The illustrations of hidden terminal problem and 4-way handshaking mechanism. (a) Hidden terminal problem. (b) 4-way handshaking mechanism 10
3.2 RTS frame 11
3.3 Illustrative examples of RTS collisions. (a) The topology. (b) The timing diagram of IEEE 802.11 DCF, where tA and tC are the random backoff interval counters of A and C, respectively. (c) An example that no STA succeeds the RTS/CTS exchange. 11
3.4 An illustrative example of CTS collisions due to an RTS collision 12
3.5 An illustrative example of ACK collisions due to an RTS collision 13
3.6 The timing diagram of RCA/2 corresponding to the example shown in Fig. 3.3. . 19
3.7 The pulse/tone exchange in RCA/1. 20
3.8 The illustration of the Blocking Policy. 22
3.9 The 4 * 4 Grid topology. 24
3.10 The number of RTS collisions of the RCA protocol in comparison with the IEEE 802.11 DCF under different traffic load in the grid topology. 25
3.11 The throughput of the RCA protocol in comparison with the IEEE 802.11 DCF under different traffic load in the grid topology. 25
3.12 The number of RTS collisions of the RCA protocol in comparison with the IEEE 802.11 DCF under different traffic load in the ransom topology. 26
3.13 The throughput of the RCA protocol in comparison with the IEEE 802.11 DCF under different traffic load in the random topology. 27
4.1 The POINT problem. (a) If DSR ‧ 0.56TR(Pmax). S and R use Pmax to exchange TS/CTS. The gray area is IR(Pmax), which is smaller than TR(Pmax) since DSR ‧ 0:56TR(Pmax). S0, a source of interference, is outside both TR(Pmax) and IR(Pmax). (b) S and R use the exact power, PS, to xchange Data/ACK. IR(PS) will be larger than TR(Pmax) due to the reduction of the sender's power strength. As a result, S0 is within IR(PS). 35
4.2 The concept of STRC. (a) S and R use Pmax to exchange RTS/CTS. The gray area is IR(Pmax), which is covered by RTS since DSR ‧ 0:36TR(Pmax). S0, a source of interference, is outside both TR(Pmax) and IR(Pmax). (b) S and R use PSTRC to exchange DATA/ACK, where PSTRC is set to the power level that satisfies TR(Pmax) = DSR+ IR(PSTRC) . 40
4.3 The concept of RTRC. (a) S and R use Pmax to exchange RTS/CTS. The gray area is IR(Pmax), which is covered by CTS since DSR ‧0:56TR(Pmax). S0, a source of interference, is outside both TR(Pmax) and IR(Pmax). (b) S and R use PRTRC to exchange DATA/ACK, where PRTRC is set to the power level that satis¯es TR(PRTRC)=IR(PRTRC). 42
4.4 The concept of SCRC. (a) S and R use Pmax to exchange RTS/CTS. The gray area is IR(Pmax), which is covered by CR(Pmax) since DSR ‧0:72TR(Pmax). S0, a source of interference, is outside both TR(Pmax) and IR(Pmax). (b) S and R use PSCRC to exchange DATA/ACK, where PSCRC is set to the power level that satis¯es CR(PSCRC) =DSR + IR(PSCRC). 44
4.5 The restriction of RCRC. 47
4.6 The concept of RCRC. (a) S uses Pmax to send RTS and R adopts PRCRC for CTS, where PRCRC is set to the power level that IR(Pmin) =CR(PRCRC). S0 is outside IR(PRCRC). (b) S use Pmin to send DATA and R uses Pmax to reply ACK. S0 is still outside IR(Pmin). 48
4.7 Comparisons of energy consumption among STRC, RTRC, SCRC and RCRC in terms of DSR. 49
4.8 A linear topology, where four STAs A, B, C, and D form a line. The distances between A and D as well as C and D are respectively ¯xed to 800 m and 250 m. The distance between A and B, denoted DAB, is varied from 10 m to 250 m. 52
4.9 Comparisons of the energy consumption of RTRC, SCRC, RCRC, ARPC, and IEEE 802.11 DCF in terms of DAB varied from 10 m to 250 m. 52
4.10 Comparisons of the throughput of RTRC, SCRC, RCRC, ARPC, and IEEE 802.11 DCF in terms of DAB varied from 10 m to 250 m. 53
4.11 Comparisons of the energy efficiency of RTRC, SCRC, RCRC, ARPC, and IEEE 802.11 DCF in terms of DAB varied from 10 m to 250 m. 55
4.12 The throughput of SCRC, RCRC, ARPC, and IEEE 802.11 DCF are compared to different traffic load since the length of Data packet is (a) 50bytes, (b) 500bytes, and (c) 2000 bytes, respectively. 56
4.13 The energy consumption of SCRC, RCRC, ARPC, and IEEE 802.11 DCF are compared to different traffic load since the length of Data packet is (a) 50bytes, (b) 500bytes, and (c) 2000 bytes, respectively. 57
4.14 The power throughput of SCRC, RCRC, ARPC, and IEEE 802.11 DCF are compared to different traffic load since the length of Data packet is (a) 50bytes, (b) 500bytes, and (c) 2000 bytes, respectively. . 57
5.1 An illustrative example for the hidden terminal, exposed terminal, SSSR, and SSNR problems. 60
5.2 TDMA frame structure. 63
5.3 Demonstration of Slot Inhibited Policies (SIPs) 69
5.4 Demonstration of 3-Hop Backward Decision Policy (3BDP). 70
5.5 The number of hops of backward decision vs. the call success rate. 71
5.6 Illustration of the MRFP to alleviate the SSSR problem, where UR denotes the corresponding slot utilization rate. 72
5.7 Illustration of the MRFP to alleviate the SSNR problem. 73
5.8 The architecture of a slot adjustment tree. 80
5.9 The slot adjustment trees corresponding to slot 1 and slot 7, respectively. 83
5.10 An example of route improvement. 85
5.11 The comparisons of DSRP with Zhu & Corson's and Liao etc's in terms of call success rate for variant traffic load. 87
5.12 The comparisons of DSRP with Zhu & Corson's and Liao etc's in terms of call success rate for variant mobility. 88
5.13 The comparisons of DSRP with Zhu & Corson's and Liao etc's in terms of network throughput for variant Traffic Load. 89
5.14 The comparisons of DSRP with Zhu & Corson's and Liao etc's in terms of control overhead for variant traffic load. 90
5.15 The comparisons of DSRP with Zhu & Corson's and Liao etc's in terms of average delay time for variant traffic load . 90
5.16 The comparisons of DSRP with Zhu & Corson's and Liao etc's in terms of average storage for each MH with variant traffic load. 91

List of Tables


4.1 Comparisons among STRC, RTRC, SCRC, and RCRC. 50
4.2 Simulation Settings. 51
5.1 An example to illustrate SAA. The table is the slot usage status indicated in SA REPs from all SA members. 82
5.2 The valid paths for slot 1 and slot 7. 84

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