淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1607200501331500
中文論文名稱 印尼「亞齊解放運動」(Gerakan Aceh Merdeka,GAM)之研究:政治與宗教之分離意識
英文論文名稱 Study on the Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM) Movement, a critical survey of religion-political secessionism.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 東南亞研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 劉青雲
研究生英文姓名 Ching-Yun Liou
學號 692230310
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-06-08
論文頁數 179頁
口試委員 指導教授-林長寬
委員-陳鴻瑜
委員-高崇雲
中文關鍵字 印尼  亞齊  亞齊解放運動  分離意識  伊斯蘭國家 
英文關鍵字 Indonesia  Aceh  Muslim  secessionism  Islam 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 南亞地區在2004年底所發生之大地震及海嘯,造成鄰近區域嚴重人命及財產損傷,使該區瞬間成為全球矚目之焦點,而區內災情最為慘重之印尼亞齊地區,則因仍處管制戒嚴狀態,致使外界對此區域長年以來所面臨之問題,產生諸多好奇與疑問。該區為伊斯蘭在馬來世界最早奠基之處,也是印尼最篤信伊斯蘭之地區,全境410萬人口中,近98.11%信奉伊斯蘭,向有「麥加走廊」(Serambi Mekkah)之稱,在伊斯蘭文化上有其特殊地位;而該區於十三世紀建立馬來世界第一個伊斯蘭蘇丹國,The Pasai Sultanate。隨後,其首任蘇丹Ali Mughayat Syah於1520-1524年統一蘇門達臘島北部,並於葡萄牙殖民勢力入侵麻六甲蘇丹國(the Melacca Sultanate)後,取代成為馬來世界之伊斯蘭經濟貿易及宗教文化傳播中心,於馬來世界俱有相當重要影響力,並有其特殊光榮歷史與傳統。
因著亞齊地區之強烈宗教背景及文化特色等因素,故外界對亞齊之分離運動均主觀賦予宗教動機。然而,印尼為全球穆斯林總數最多之國家,伊斯蘭之強大包容性及兄弟情誼,仍無法消弭雙方歧見;此外,印尼政府近年同意該區人民所提伊斯蘭法及宗教教育等宗教訴求時,「亞齊解放運動」組織反而仍排拒停火協議及和平談判,並刻意挑釁、製造雙方衝突,顯見該地區分離運動實非單純之宗教問題,而必然參雜其他因素,而使整體問題顯得更加複雜化。
本文採運用政治學者赫拉克里德斯(Alexis Heraclides)所提出之「分離整合模式」(Secessionism Model of Integrity)理論,將本研究內容區分為分離主義運動、中央政府、國際環境等三個研究主體,以及「分離主義之形成」、「分離主義之發展」、「中央統治之影響」、「國際干預之影響」等四個研究層面。
本論文就該地區歷史發展之脈絡,首先探討早期亞齊國家概念之形成及伊斯蘭對該區之影響,並分析荷蘭、日本殖民政府及印尼政府統治下,該區衝突對立之成因,以及探討「亞齊解放運動」組織形成背景及發展脈絡,最後針對各方目前對本問題之處理情形進行剖析,期能由當中釐清該區分離運動之形成因素,及各研究主體間之相互關係,進而還原該分離運動發展之真貌。
英文摘要 The 2004 tsunami disaster brings Aceh to the global attention to her long existing problems with the Java central government. Aceh was the entrance of Islam into the Malay world. 98.11% of the 4.1 million populations in the region are Muslims, and they have been the most pious believers in Indonesia. Because of her special status in Islamic history of the region, Aceh has been known as “Serambi Mekkah”. The first Islamic Pasai sultanate of the Malay world was established in Aceh in the 13th century. After collapse of the Melacca Sultanate, Aceh became commercial, religious and cultural centre of the Malay world. Aceh’s glorious history and Islamic traditions had great influence on the Malay world.
Because of the special religious and cultural background, the Aceh independent movement (GAM) has always been deemed to be religious upheaval. Despite the Indonesian central government has made great concession to the GAM organization in religious affairs such as setting up a separate Islamic law system and religious educational institution, the conflicts between the former and the latter have never been settled with satisfaction. Therefore the Aceh secession appeal should not be viewed simply as a religious upheaval, but rather a multi-factor independent movement.
This study is based on the “Secessionism Model of Integrity “theory by Alexis Heraclides to examine the relations amongst the Aceh secession movement, the Indonesian government, and the international organizations. This thesis will discuss the following themes: the consolidation of the Acehness Islamic nationhood (Darul Islam), the formation and development of the GAM, the influence of the Indonesian domestic policy and administration system, and the participation and influence of the NGOs.
論文目次 第壹章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的................................1
第二節研究架構與方法.................................7
第三節 相關理論與文獻探討...........................11
第四節 章節內容.....................................18
第貳章 亞齊「伊斯蘭國家」(Darul-Islam)概念之形成
第一節 伊斯蘭之傳播與影響..........................21
第二節 亞齊政治宗教結構............................29
第三節 亞齊蘇丹國之盛世............................34
第四節 小 結......................................42
第參章 亞齊戰爭後國家認同之衝擊(1873-1998)
第一節 亞齊戰爭與宗教聖戰(1873-1903).............45
第二節 荷蘭與日本之殖民統治時期(1903-1945).......54
第三節 蘇卡諾與蘇哈托之爪哇統治時期(1945-1998)...58
第四節 小 結......................................72
第肆章 分離運動與組織發展
第一節 哈山迪羅與亞齊解放運動......................76
第二節 亞齊解放運動之發展與理念....................82
第三節 亞齊解放運動組織結構........................89
第四節 小 結......................................98
第伍章 問題處理與談判之路(1998-2004)
第一節 哈比比執政時期(1998-1999)................101
第二節 瓦希德執政時期(1999-2001)................105
第三節 梅嘉娃蒂執政時期(2001-2004)..............113
第四節 小 結.....................................120
第陸章 結 論

附錄
附錄一:英屬東印度公司與亞齊蘇丹國友好條約內容137-140
附錄二:1871年英荷「蘇門答臘條約」141-142
附錄三:「亞齊解放運動」獨立宣言143-147
附錄四:「亞齊解放運動」頒布官方紀念日149
附錄五:全球亞齊代表大會「斯塔凡格宣言」151-154
附錄六:印尼政府與「亞齊解放運動」簽署「人道暫停聯合協議」155-157
附錄七:印尼政府與「亞齊解放運動」簽署「停止敵對框架協議」159-171
參考書目173-179


圖表目錄
圖目錄
【圖1-1】印度尼西亞共和國全圖2
【圖1-2】印尼神鷹國徽(Garuda)3
【圖1-3】亞齊位置及行政區圖4
【圖1-4】印尼政府表彰亞齊對抗荷蘭殖民政權之紀念碑6
【圖1-5】研究架構圖9
【圖2-1】東南亞地區伊斯蘭傳播路線24
【圖2-2】亞齊蘇丹國版圖(1600-1650年)36
【圖2-3】亞齊地區早期流通之金幣37
【圖2-4】東南亞地區新舊之穆斯林貿易航線 38
【圖2-5】奧圖曼土耳其帝國與亞齊蘇丹國旗幟 40
【圖3-1】荷軍於1885年在亞齊地區固守防禦策略之防禦線 50
【圖3-2】20世紀初期亞齊之烏勒巴朗分布圖 52
【圖3-3】「印尼聯邦共和國」區域分布圖 60
【圖3-4】1980年代爪哇與外島人口流動情形 66
【圖3-5】印尼「伊斯蘭國家」(Darul Islam)運動影響區域圖 72【圖4-1】「亞齊解放運動」組織之旗幟及徽章 79

表目錄
【表4-1】亞齊解放運動首任內閣名單 90
【表4-2】亞齊政府體系比較表 91
【表4-3】印尼軍方估計「亞齊解放運動」成員統計數 93
【表4-4】印尼軍方估計「亞齊解放運動」軍火持有件數 97
【表6-1】亞齊分離運動暴力衝突情形比較表 129
參考文獻 參考書目
一、中文部份
馬樹禮,1963,《印尼的變與亂》,台北:海外出版社。
馬樹禮,1977,《印尼獨立運動史》,台北:正中書局。
章鴻年,1985,《民族主義之演變與印尼獨立運動》,台北:政大政研所論文。
陳鴻瑜,1992,《東南亞各國的政治與外交政策》,台北:渤海堂。
湯平山,1998,《印度尼西亞》,北京:當代世界出版社。
蔡百詮,1996,《印尼簡史》,台北:萬全出版社。
顧長永,1995,《東南亞政府與政治》,台北:五南出版社。
Anderson, Benedict著,吳叡人譯,1999,《想像的共同體:民族主義的起源與散佈》,台北:時報出版社。
Anwar, Dewi Fortuna著,蔡百銓譯,1998,《印尼與東南亞國協:外交政策與區域主義》,台北:國立編譯館。
Cribb, Robert與Brown, Colin著,蔡百銓譯,1997,《印尼當代史》,台北:國立編譯館。
D. R. SarDesai著,蔡百銓譯,2001,《東南亞史》,台北:麥田出版社。
Gurr, Ted Robert and Harff, Barbara著,鄭又平、王賀白、藍於琛譯,1999,《國際政治中的族群衝突》,台北:韋伯文化。
Hobsbawn, Eric J.著,李金梅譯,1997,《民族與民族主義》,台北:麥田出版社。
Huntington, Samuel P.著,黃裕美譯,1998,《文明衝突與世界秩序的重建》,台北:聯經出版社。
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein著,王建平譯,2002,《伊斯蘭》,台北:麥田出版社。
Ricklefs, Merle Calvin著,周南京譯,1993,《印度尼西亞歷史》,北京:商務印書館。
Vatikiotis, Michael R. J.著,林若雩譯,1999,《東南亞政治與發展》,台北:韋伯文化。

二、英文部分
Adam, Schward. 1994. A Nation in Waiting-Indonesia in the 1990s. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Amnesty International. 1993. Indonesia: 'Shock Therapy' - Restoring Order in Aceh, 1989 – 1993. London: Amnesty International.
Anderson, John. 1971. Acheen and the Ports on the North and East Coasts of Sumatra. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Aspinall, Edward and Crouch, Harold. 2004. The Aceh Peace Process: Why it Failed. Washington: East-West Center.
Bowen, John Richard. 1991. Sumatran Politics and Poetics : Gayo History 1900-1989. New Haven : Yale University Press.
Cribb, Robert. 2000. Historical atlas of Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Dahm, Bernhard. 1971. History of Indonesia in the Twentieth Century. Trans. P. S. Falla. London: Praeger Publishers.
di Tiro, Hasan Muhammad. 1958. Democracy for Indonesia. Aceh: Penerbit Seulawah.
di Tiro, Hasan Muhammad. 1965. The Political Future of the Malay Archipelago. New York: Atjeh Institute in America.
di Tiro, Hasan Muhammad. 1980. The Legal Status of Acheh-Sumatra Under International Law. Acheh-Sumatra National Liberation Front.
Feith, Herbert. 1968. The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. New York: Cornell University Press.
Hadi, Amirul Hadi. 2004. Islam and State in Sumatra: A Study of Sevententh-Century Aceh. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Ingleson, John. 1979. Road to exile: the Indonesian nationalist movement, 1927-1934. Singapore: Published for the Asian Studies Association of Australia by Heinemann Educational Books.
Kahin, Audrey R. 1985. Regional Dynamics of The Indonesian Revolution: Unity From Diversity. Honolulu-Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
Kahn, Joel S. 1998. Southeast Asian identities: culture and the politics of representation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kahin, George McTurnan. 1952. Nationalism and revolution in Indonesia. New York: Cornell University Press.
Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1991. Modern Indonesia Tradition & Transformation. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.
Kell, Tim. 1995. “The Roots of Acehnese Rebellion 1989-1992”. Cornell Modern Indonesia Project. No. 74. Ithaca-New York: Cornell University.
Lee, Kam Hing. 1995. The Sultanate of Aceh, Relations with the British 1760-1824. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Liddle, R. William. 1970. Ethnicity, party, and national integration; an Indonesian case study. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Millet, Didier. 1996. Indonesian Early Modern History. Singapore: Archipelago Press.
Morris, Eric Eugene. 1983. Islam and Politics in Aceh: a Study of Center-periphery Relations in Indonesia. PhD. Thesiss. Cornell University.
Morris, Eric Eugene. 1985. Islam and Politics in Aceh: A Study of Center-Periphery Relations in Indonesia. PhD Thesis. Cornell University
Osman, Mohd. Taib. 1997. ed. Islamic Civilization in the Malay World. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka and the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture.
Peacock, James. 1978. Purifying the Faith: The Muhammadijah Movement in Indonesian Islam. Temple: Arizona State University. Program for Souteast Asian Studies.

Reid, Anthony. 1969. The Contest for North Sumatra: Atjeh, the Netherlands and Britain 1858-1898. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Reid, Anthony. 1979. The Blood of the People: Revolution and the End of Traditional Rule in Northern Sumatra. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press
Reid, Anthony. 2001. Aceh and Indonesia : a stormy marriage. Taipei:Academia Sinica, Program for Southeast Asian Area Studies.
Reid, Anthony. 2003. War, Peace and the Burden of History in Aceh. Singapore: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore.
Reid, Anthony. 2005. An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese & Other Histories of Sumatra. Singapore: Singapore University press.
Ricklefs, M. C. 1993. A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. 2nd ed. California: Stanford University Press.
Robinson, Geoffrey. 1998. Rawan is as Rawan Does: The Origins of Disorder in New Order Aceh. Indonesia. vol. 66. pp. 127-56.
Saby, Yusny. 1995. Islam and Social Change: The Role of the Ulama in Acehnese Society. PhD thesis. Temple University
Sato, Yuri ed. 2000. Indonesia Entering New Era: Abdurrahman Wahid Government and Its Challenge. Japan: Institute of Developing Economies.
Schulze, Kirsten E. 2004. The Free Aceh Movement(GAM) : Anatomy of a Separatist Organization. Washington: East-West Center.
Siapno, Jacqueline Aquino. 2002. Gender, Islam, nationalism and the state in Aceh: the paradox of power, co-optation and resistance. New York: Routledge Curzon.
Siegel, James T. 1979. Shadow and Sound: The Historical Thought of a Sumatran People. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Sjamsuddin, Nazaruddin. 1985. The Republican Revolt: A Study of the Acehnese Rebellion. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Sjamsuddin, Nazaruddin. 1984. “Issues and Politics of Regionalism in Indonesia: Evaluating the Acehnese Experience”. in Lim, Joo-Jock and Vani S. (ed.). Armed Separatism in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Thaib, Lukman. 2002. Acheh ‘s Case: a Historical Study of the National Movement for the Independence of Acheh-Sumatra. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.
van Dijk, Cees. 1981. Rebellion Under the Banner of Islam: The Darul Islam in Indonesia. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Vatikiotis, P. J. 1991. Islam and the state. New York: Routledge.
Von der Mehden, Fred R. 1963. Religion and nationalism in Southeast Asia: Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Watson, C. W. 2000. Of self and nation : autobiography and the representation of modern Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

三、印尼文部分
Al Chaidar. 1998. Reformasi Prematur: Jawaban Islam terhadap Reformasi Total. Jakarta: Darul Falah.
Al Chaidar. 1999. Wacana Ideologi Negara Islam: Studi Harakah Darul Islam dan Moro national Liberation Front. Jakarta: Darul Falah.
Alfian, Ibrahim. 1987. Perang di Jalan Allah: Perang Aceh 1873-1912. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.
El Ibrahimy, H. M. Nur. 1993. Selayang Pandang Langkah Diplomasi Kerajaan Aceh. Jakarta: Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.
H. C. Zentgraaf. 1983. Aceh. Jakarta: Beuna.
Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1999 Pengantar Sejarah Indonesia Baru: 1500-1900. Jakarta : Gramedia.
Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1999. Sejarah Pergerakan Nasional: Dari Kolonialisme sampai Nasionalisme. Jakarta: Gramedia.
Lombard, Denys. 1986. Kerajaan Aceh : Jaman Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636). Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
Maarif, Ahmad Syafii. 1996. Islam dan Politik: Teori Belah Bambu Masa Demokrasi Terpimpin(1959-1965). Jakarta: Gema lnsani.
Malik, Dedy Djamaluddin & Ibrahim, Idi Subandy. 1998. Zaman Baru Islam Indonesia: Pemikiran & Aksi Politik. Bandung: Zaman Wacana Mulia.
Sinagaed, Martin L. 2000. Agama-Agama Memasuki Milenium Ketiga. Jakarta: Grasindo.
Sulaiman, M. Isa. 1997. Sejarah Aceh: Sebuah Gugatan Terhadap Tradisi. Jakarta: Pustaka sinar Harapan.

四、網路資源部分
新加坡聯合早報http://www.zaobao.com.sg
星州日報 http://www.remedia.com/sinchew
印尼羅盤報Kompas, http://www.kompas.com
印尼雅加達郵報The Jakarta Post, http://www.thejakartapost.com
印尼指南日報 Zhinan Post, http://www.zhinanpost.com
印尼安塔拉通訊社 Antara, http://www.antara.co.id
Asia Society, http://www.asiasociety.org
Asiaweek, http://www.asiaweek.com
Far East Economic Review, http://www.feer.com
Gatra, http://www.gatra.com
Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU) http://www.kpu.go.id
Indonesia Daily News Online, http://www.uni-stuttgart.de/indonesia/news/
Indonesian Observer, http://www.indoexchange.com/indonesian-observer/
Indonesia Political Watch, http://castleasia.com/ipw
Inside Indonesia, http://www.insideindonesia.org
International Foundation for Election System (IFES) http://www.ifes.org
Pemilu 1999, http://www.pemilu99.or.id
Tempo, http://www.tempo.co.id
The Economist, http://www.economist.com
United States – Indonesia Society (USINDO) http://www.unisdo.org
World Socialist Web Site (WSWS) http://www.wsws.org
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2005-07-20公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2005-07-20起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信