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系統識別號 U0002-1606201714455200
中文論文名稱 複雜衝突環境中的文化構件:知識、覺知,與感受
英文論文名稱 Building Blocks of Culture in Complex Conflict Environment: Knowledge, Awareness, Sensitivity.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 寶米昊
研究生英文姓名 Michal Pawinski
學號 802330349
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2017-06-21
論文頁數 411頁
口試委員 指導教授-施正權
委員-李大中
委員-許智偉
委員-沈明室
委員-劉廣華
中文關鍵字 军事文化  跨文化关系  平叛  科際整  整全觀 
英文關鍵字 Military culture  Military mindset  Intercultural relations  Counterinsurgency  Interdisciplinarity  Complex Systems  Holism 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文的研究目的是闡述在複雜的衝突環境下,軍隊的思考活動的機制。本文係採取科際整合之研究,透過不同學科的觀點,包括社會心理學(例如,自我決定理論),文化(例如,跨文化訓練方法),以及戰略研究等學科,以洞察此機制的內涵。本文核心之處可分為四部分:
一、 呈現如何透過關於最具共同的和所欲的戰士範型的社會化與人格解體,以型塑軍人心態;此外,本文亦會探討負面的表現,例如民族優越感、偏見、內團體偏誤,以及在兵力部署期間文化衝擊的經歷。
二、 聚焦以越戰與伊拉克、阿富汗的反叛亂作戰的案例研究,進行軍人心態如何在衝突環境運作的批判性分析。
三、 探討負面的心態如何透過自我改善,例如藉由社會化過程與跨文化訓練等方式,而獲得緩解。
四、 本文特別關注地探討一向被忽視的議題─在衝突環境中,恐懼的作用。
五、 分析社會科學研究者的角色、能發揮如何減少戰爭恐懼,以及使軍人的心態能適應文化疏離的作戰地主國。
最後,本文認為,透過量化的科際整合,以及整體性的研究,可以減緩本研究發現的數項不足之處。同時,本文亦提出可能的解決方案與模式。
英文摘要 Abstract:

The purpose of the Ph.D. dissertation is to elaborate on the working mechanisms behind the military thinking about complex conflict environments. The thesis is an interdisciplinary research endeavor that takes the insights from various disciplines, including social psychology (e.g. Self-Determination Theory), cultural (Intercultural Training methods), and strategic studies. Several core segments can be distinguished: first, it is presented how the military mindset is established through socialization and depersonalization toward most common and desired warrior prototype; negative outcomes of this process are discussed, for e.g. ethnocentrism, prejudice, in-group bias, and experience of culture shock during deployments; second part focus on a critical analysis of the military mindset functioning in conflict environments based on case studies of Vietnam War and counterinsurgency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan; third, how the negative aspects of the mindset can be mitigated through self-improvements, for instance, changing the socialization process toward higher self-complexity and intercultural training; fourth, the neglected topic of emotions is discussed with particular attention on the role of fear in conflict environments; fifth; what is the role of social scientists and what they can do to reduce the horrors of wars and allow the military mindset to adapt to culturally distant host societies. Conclusion: the dissertation identified several gaps that could be mitigated through quantitative interdisciplinary and holistic research; potential solutions and models are proposed.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Acknowledgements ii
Abstract vi
List of Figures viii
List of Tables x
List of Abbreviations xi

Chapter 1
1.1. Introduction 1
1.1.1. A Brief Retrospect: Culture in Shadows of Technology 4
1.1.2. The Cultural Influx and Its Repercussions 9
1.2. Literature Review
1.2.1. The Concept of Ways of War 13
1.2.2. The Concept of Strategic Culture 20
1.2.3. The Concept of Culture on Battlefield 26
1.3. Theoretical Framework and Methodology
1.3.1. Theoretical Framework 29
1.3.2. Research Methodology 37
1.4. Chapter’s Outline and Other Issues
1.4.1. Perplexing Culture(s) – An Issue of Definition 44
1.4.2. Chapter’s Outline 48

Chapter 2
2.1. Shaping the Military Mindset 51
2.2. Toward In-Group Cohesion 52
2.3. Intergroup Conflict: From In-Group Cohesion to Out-Group Dehumanization 65
2.4. A Note on Political Mindset 76

Chapter 3
3.1. Applications and Outcomes of the Military Mindset 81
3.1.1. A Road to Iraq and Afghanistan: Vietnam War 85
3.1.2. The Mindset in Denial: Revolution in Military Affairs 102
3.2. Mindset in Crisis: Counterinsurgency in Iraq and Afghanistan 115
3.2.1. The Theory of Winning the Hearts and Minds 117
3.2.2. Defending the Mindset: Trauma, Self-Deception and Dehumanization in Iraq 124
3.2.3. The Collapse of the Myth in Afghanistan: From RMA through Displacement and Projection to RMA 142
3.2.4. Conclusion: The Myth of Counterinsurgency? 159

Chapter 4
4. Knowledge, Awareness, Sensitivity: Normative Perspective 163
4.1. Knowledge of Self and Knowledge of Others
4.1.1. Knowledge of Self 165
4.1.1.1. The Complexity of Self 175
4.1.1.2. The Role of Self-Regulation 179
4.1.2. Knowledge of Others 189
4.1.2.1. Individualism vs. Collectivism 193
4.1.2.2. Small vs. Large Power Distance 198
4.1.2.3. Low-context vs. high context Cultures 200
4.1.2.4. Time Dimension 201
4.1.2.5. Masculinity vs. Femininity 205
4.1.3. Some Conclusions on Cultural Knowledge Building Block 209
4.2. Cultural Awareness
4.2.1. The Role of Distance and Shock 214
4.2.2. Mortality Salience in Conflict Environments 224
4.2.3. Developing Intercultural-Intergroup Complex Conflict Environment
Contact Model 231
4.3. Cultural Sensitivity 249
4.3.1. Emotions in Perception of Culture 250
4.3.2. Working Mechanism Behind Individual-level Emotions 257
4.3.3. Groups Emotions in Relation to Military Small Groups 266
4.3.4. Emotion Regulation in Conflict Environments 277
4.3.5. The Role of Fear 280

Chapter 5
5. The Role of Social Scientists in Changing Military Mindset 286
5.1. The Ghosts of the Past: The National Cultures and Behavioralists 289
5.2. The Human Terrain System 296
5.3. Ethical dilemmas of Human Terrain System 303
5.4. Social Scientists and the Development of Intercultural Competencies 308

6. General Conclusions
Studying War System 325
Bibliography 332
Index 408


List of Figures

Figure 1.1: State-centric, macro-level cultural theories in Strategic Studies 30
Figure 1.2: Cultural Knowledge of “self” and “other” and its constraints 31
Figure 1.3: Normative perspective of intercultural-intergroup contact in conflict
environments 33
Figure 1.4: Actual perspective of intercultural-intergroup contact in conflict environments 34
Figure 1.5: Worst case scenario of intercultural-intergroup contact in conflict environment 35
Figure 1.6: Desirable scenario of intercultural-intergroup contact in conflict environments 36
Figure 1.7: Multidisciplinarity: Insights into a common problem from two disciplines
(A+B) are consulted but not integrated 38
Figure 1.8: War System 39
Figure 1.9: Supradisciplinary Universe 43
Figure 3.1: Inter-Agency Counterinsurgency Framework 120
Figure 3.2: The effects of proper application of Line of Operations in counterinsurgency 121
Figure 3.3: The number of the U.S. military and Iraqi civilians killed between 2003-2015 131
Figure 3.4: U.S. troops level in Iraq and Afghanistan, 2002-2016 146
Figure 3.5: The number of the U.S. military and Afghan civilians killed between 2001-
2015 152
Figure 3.6: Territory controlled by Taliban from 2003 to 2006 155
Figure 4.1: Layers of cultural knowledge 192
Figure 4.2: Conflict styles 195
Figure 4.3: High context vs. Low context cultures 202
Figure 4.4: Cultural time dimensions 204
Figure 4.5: Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity 210
Figure 4.6: Cultural distance and cultural change 219
Figure 4.7: The cognitive architecture of terror management dual defense 226
Figure 4.8: The impact of Transition Shock and Mortality Salience during the intercultural
contact 232
Figure 4.9: Reformulated contact theory 240
Figure 4.10: Intercultural-Intergroup Complex Conflict Environment Contact Model 246
Figure 4.11: The modal model of emotion 258
Figure 4.12: The modal model of group-based emotions 266
Figure 4.13: The process model of group-based emotion regulation 275
Figure 5.1: A classification scheme for intercultural training techniques 312
Figure 5.2: Gemstone model 320

List of Tables

Table 4.1: Types of motivation according to Self-Determination Theory 173
Table 4.2: The traits of warrior and peacekeeper mindsets 181
Table 4.3: Individualistic cultures vs. Collectivistic cultures 197
Table 4.4: Small power distance vs. Large power distance cultures 199
Table 4.5: Monochronic vs. Polychronic cultures 203
Table 4.6: Masculinity vs. Femininity cultures 206
Table 4.7: Various conceptualizations of cultural dimensions 207
Table 4.8: List of intercultural skills 242
Table 4.9: Roseman’s model of discrete emotional responses in the emotion system 262
Table 5.1: Grants funded by the CIA 293
Table 5.2: Eighteen themes of the culture-general assimilator 319
Table 5.3: Intercultural Assessment Tools 321

Photo 1: Afghan warlords and territory they control 145
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Governmental and Non-Governmental Reports
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Amnesty International. “Getting Away With Murder? The Impunity of International Forces in Afghanistan.” Amnesty International Publications, 2009, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/44000/asa110012009en.pdf.
Amnesty International. “Left in the dark: Failures of accountability for civilian casualties caused by international military operations in Afghanistan.” Amnesty International Publications August 11, 2014, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/ASA11/006/2014/en/.
Amnesty International. “New Order, Same Abuses: Unlawful Detentions and Torture in Iraq.” Amnesty International Publications, 2010, available at: http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/new-order-same-abuses-unlawful-detentions-and-torture-in-iraq.
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Baiocchi, Dave. Measuring Army Deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2013.
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Belasco, Amy. “The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11.” Congressional Research Service, RL33110, December 8, 2014.
Bertelsmann Stiftung. BTI 2016 — Iraq Country Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2016.
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Bunzel, Cole. “From Paper State to Caliphate: The Ideology of the Islamic State.” Analysis Paper No. 19, The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World, March 2015.
Burghardt, Tom. “The WikiLeaks Release: U.S. Complicity and Cover-Up of Iraq Torture Exposed.” Center for Research and Globalization, October 25, 2010, available at: http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-wikileaks-release-u-s-complicity-and-cover-up-of-iraq-torture-exposed/21604.
Center for Creative Leadership. “Leader Effectiveness and Culture: The GLOBE Study.” Access online June 5, 2016, available at: http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/assessments/globestudy.pdf
Clark, Kate. “The ‘Other Guantanamo’ 12: Bagram closes, CIA torture revealed, US to be held to account?” Afghanistan Analyst Network, December 12, 2014, available at: https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/the-other-guantanamo-11-bagram-closes-cia-torture-revealed-us-to-be-held-to-account/.
Collins, Joseph J. (ed.) “American Military Culture in the Twenty-First Century.” CSIS International Security Program, The Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2000.
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Cordesman, Anthony H. The Lesson of the Iraq War: Main Report. Washington D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, July 21, 2003, available at: https://www.csis.org/analysis/lessons-iraq-war-main-report.
Crawford, Neta C. Civilian Death and Injury in the Iraq War, 2003-2013. Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, Brown University, http://watson.brown.edu/costsofwar/costs/human/civilians/iraqi.
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Dale, Catherine. “Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress.” Congressional Research Service, RL34387, April 2, 2009.
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Echevarria II, Antulio J. “Fourth-Generation War and Other Myths.” Strategic Studies Institute, November 2005.
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