淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


系統識別號 U0002-1606200600230100
中文論文名稱 改良式流向法之指紋辨識系統設計
英文論文名稱 Fingerprint Recognition System Design via the Improved Orientation Method
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 劉政衛
研究生英文姓名 Cheng-Wei Liu
學號 693380130
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-12
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃聰亮
委員-張世鈺
委員-黃聰亮
委員-黃聰耀
委員-蕭瑛東
中文關鍵字 指紋  辨識  特徵 
英文關鍵字 Fingerprint  Identification  Minuitae 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 在這多元化的社會中,人們生活的方式也越來越複雜,在很多情況下,安全保密以及身分辨識是一項相當重要的課題。早期是使用密碼和鑰匙來當作個人的保密工具,印章和簽名來當作身分辨識。但是這類的工具存在著不方便性、易遺失、遺忘、盜用等問題因素。由於人的身體特徵具有不可複製的特點,因此學者們都在探討,能否以生物特徵,來當作個人身份識別的工具?在生物識別的領域中,指紋因為本身的唯一性和不變性而具有相當高的可靠度。此外,指紋辨識系統開發成本較低、使用方便等種種優越之處使得它已被廣泛的運用在資料保全系統上。
大部分的指紋辨識方法是以指紋的奇異點(核心點、三角點)及紋線的特徵點(端點、叉點)的分佈位置、數目作為判別的依據。而若能將指紋流向場精確的求得,那要擷取出特徵點以及核心點將是一件容易的事情。因此許多的學者都提出了計算流向的方法,最常使用的方法不外乎Stock與Swonger所提出的Slit-sum,以及利用梯度方向來得到的指紋流向。而在本文將提出一種新的方法來得到指紋流向場。此方法可以加速指紋流向的計算,並更準確的得到流向,加速指紋比對的速度以及成功率。最後在本論文中,將所提出之方法,利用可程式化系統晶片(SOPC)來實現個人身份辨識系統。
英文摘要 In this diversified society, people's life are getting more and more complicated. In many situations, keeping secret safely and identifying recognition are quite important lessons. In early days, people kept secret by using secret code and keys and recognized identifications by seals and signatures. But these ways are inconvenient and easily lost, forgotten and stolen. Because the characters of human bodies can not be copied, scholars discuss about that if we can use these characters to recognize the identifications. In the area of Biometric recognitions, the fingerprint is so authentic because of its singularity and constancy. Besides, the fingerprint is used generally in the information saving system because of the advantages of the fingerprint recognition system, such as cheaper cost in development and convenient using way.

Most identification methods are dependent on the locations and numbers of ridge endings and bifurcations. If we can get the fingerprint flow field exactly, it will be easy to find out the minutiae and singular points. As a result there are many scholars propose many ways to calculate flow. The ways mostly used are Slit-sum methods proposed by Stock and Swonger. The fingerprint flow is got by using gradient. In this thesis, we propose a novel way to calculate the fingerprint flow field. This method can accelerate the speed of the calculation of fingerprint flow and help us gain the flow more accurately. Therefore the speed of fingerprint recognition is accelerated and the success rate is increased. Finally, we implement it to build an automatic fingerprint identification system via a Nios embedded processor.
論文目次 中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅱ
目錄 Ⅲ
圖目錄 Ⅵ
表目錄 XI

第一章、緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 指紋辨識之原理 2
1.3 指紋辨識之應用方向 3
1.4 研究方向 5
1.5 內容大綱 6
第二章、相關背景 8
2.1指紋辨識之發展歷史 8
2.2 指紋影像擷取裝置 9
2.3 指紋影像之特徵 11
2.2.1 指紋影像之宏觀辨認 12
2.2.2 指紋影像之微觀辨認 16
2.3 指紋影像之辨識流程概述 19
第三章、指紋影像前處理 22
3.1 背景去除 23
3.2 正規化與中值濾波處理 27
3.2.1 正規化處理 27
3.2.2 中值濾波處理 29
3.3 計算指紋流向場 32
3.3.1 Slite-Sum法 33
3.3.2 梯度法 34
3.3.3 流向分類法 36
3.4 流向法比較 44
3.4.1 模擬比較 45
3.4.2 流向法修正 47
3.5 參考點擷取與影像剪裁 51
3.5.1 Sin Component Map 51
3.5.2 指紋影像剪裁 53
3.6 Gabor濾波二值化 55
第四章、特徵點搜尋與特徵點比對 58
4.1 指紋特徵搜尋單元 58
4.2 指紋特徵比對單元 66
4.2.1 特徵點排序 67
4.2.2 偏移量與旋轉量修正 70
4.2.3 找尋對應點座標 73
4.2.4 計算可信賴角度 75
4.2.5 比對驗證 78
第五章、硬體系統設計 80
5.1 嵌入式系統簡介 80
5.2 嵌入式系統架構 82
5.3 DSP簡介 84
5.3.1 DSP的發展史 84
5.3.2 DSP的應用領域 85
5.4 TMS320C6713 DSK 簡介 86
5.4.1 C6x晶片簡介 87
5.4.2 指紋擷取器簡介 90
第六章、系統模擬與實作結果 92
6.1 演算法模擬 93
6.2 實作結果 97
第七章、結論與未來研究方向 102
7.1 結論 102
7.2 未來研究方向 103
參考文獻 104

表目錄
表3.1 流向法比較表.....................................................................................45
表3.2 修正後流向法比較表.........................................................................50
表4.1 特徵點座標.........................................................................................67
表4.2 排序後的特徵點座標.........................................................................69
表4.3 座標平移後的特徵點座標.................................................................71
表4.4 相對長度.............................................................................................72
表4.5 相對角度.............................................................................................73
表4.6 搜尋出的對應點座標.........................................................................74
表4.7 可幸賴角度之平均示意表.................................................................75
表6.1 比對結果統計表.................................................................................96
表6.2 與其他論文比較表...........................................................................101
VII
圖目錄
圖2.1 指紋影像中之紋線與谷線.................................................................11
圖2.2 指紋影像中之中心點與三角點.........................................................12
圖2.3 帳形類.................................................................................................13
圖2.4 平弧紋.................................................................................................13
圖2.5 左箕形紋.............................................................................................14
圖2.6 右箕形紋.............................................................................................14
圖2.7 螺旋形.................................................................................................15
圖2.8 流向的八個方向.................................................................................16
圖2.9 指紋影像與其流向圖.........................................................................17
圖2.10 指紋細微特徵...................................................................................18
圖2.11 指紋影像中之細微特徵(端點、叉點)............................................18
圖2.12 指紋影像之辨識流程.......................................................................19
圖3.1 指紋辨識系統之主體架構圖.............................................................22
圖3.2 含背景之指紋圖.................................................................................23
圖3.3 (a)初步指紋背景去除 (b)完整指紋背景去除.................................24
圖3.4 背景去除流程圖.................................................................................24
VIII
9
3 3
圖3.5 修正背景去除遮罩一.........................................................................26
圖3.6 修正背景去除遮罩二.........................................................................26
圖3.7 (a)原圖 (b)背景去除和正規化後......................................................29
圖3.8 (a)胡椒鹽式雜訊圖 (b)經過中值濾波的圖.....................................30
圖3.9 (a)原始矩陣 ......................................................................................30
圖3.9 (b)排序後矩陣 (c)中值濾波後矩陣..................................................31
圖3.10 (a)未經中值濾波 ............................................................................31
圖3.10 (b)中值濾波後..................................................................................31
圖3.11 指紋紋路的八種方向.......................................................................32
圖3.12 Slite-sum之9遮罩........................................................................33 ×
圖3.13 (a) Sobel運算式 (b) Gx (c) Gy...............................................35 ×
圖3.14 流向分類法流程圖...........................................................................36
圖3.15 (a)第一類 (b)第二類 (c)第三類 (d )第四類.................................37
圖3.16 區塊二值化圖...................................................................................38
圖3.17 區塊反白圖.......................................................................................38
圖3.18 第二類判斷遮罩...............................................................................40
圖3.19 左右斜中心遮罩一...........................................................................41
圖3.20 (a)第三類左右斜遮罩一 (b)第三類左右斜遮罩二.......................42
IX
圖3.21 左右斜中心遮罩二...........................................................................43
圖3.22 (a)第四類左右斜遮罩一 (b)第四類左右斜遮罩二.......................43
圖3.23 破碎指紋流向圖...............................................................................46
圖3.24 梯度法錯誤流向圖...........................................................................46
圖3.25 流向分類法錯物流向圖...................................................................47
圖3.26 流向修正法示意圖...........................................................................49
圖3.27 (a)指紋流向場修正前 (b)指紋流向法修正後...............................49
圖3.28 流向修正規則遮罩...........................................................................48
圖3.29 指紋流向修正後圖...........................................................................50
圖3.30 參考點三角形遮罩...........................................................................52
圖3.31 右旋類參考點示意圖.......................................................................52
圖3.32 弧形類參考點示意圖.......................................................................52
圖3.33 參考點靠中央的情況.......................................................................53
圖3.34 參考點靠左邊的情況.......................................................................54
圖3.35 (a)參考點中央時的影像剪裁 (b)參考點左邊時的影像剪裁.......54
圖3.36 Gabor濾波器的方向角度................................................................55
圖3.37 Gabor濾波二值化後的圖................................................................57
圖4.1 特徵搜尋遮罩圖.................................................................................58
X
圖4.2 端點遮罩圖.........................................................................................59
圖4.3 叉點遮罩圖.........................................................................................59
圖4.4 全特徵點圖.........................................................................................60
圖4.5 特徵點檢測遮罩圖.............................................................................61
圖4.6 正確特徵點示意圖.............................................................................61
圖4.7 錯誤特徵點示意圖.............................................................................61
圖4.8 特徵點遮罩套入端點圖.....................................................................62
圖4.9 OR運算後的端點圖..........................................................................62
圖4.10特徵點檢測遮罩套入叉點圖............................................................63
圖4.11 AND運算後的叉點圖.....................................................................63
圖4.12 特徵點叢聚現象...............................................................................64
圖4.13 特徵點選取框線示意圖...................................................................64
圖4.14 最後選取特徵點...............................................................................65
圖4.15 特徵比對流程圖...............................................................................66
圖4.16 指紋特徵點排序示意圖...................................................................69
圖4.17 相對長度與相對角度示意圖...........................................................71
圖4.18 旋轉後的指紋特徵點示意圖...........................................................77
圖5.1 TI TMS320c6713DSK以及ATMEL AT77C101B指紋讀取器.......87
XI
圖5.2 C6713DSK的硬體方塊圖.................................................................87
圖5.3 C6x系統方塊圖.................................................................................88
圖5.4 AT77C101B熱感式指紋擷取器.......................................................90
圖5.5 ATMEL AT77C101B 指紋讀取器的硬體方塊圖............................91
圖6.1 四十枚指紋影像圖
(a)第一組 .......................................................................................93
(b)第二組 (c)第三組 (d)第四組 (e)第五組 (f)第六組.................94
(g)第七組 (h)第八組 (i)第九組 (j)第十組 ..................................95
圖6.2 CCS介面............................................................................................98
圖6.3 編譯與連結介面.................................................................................98
圖6.4 軟硬體除錯介面.................................................................................99
圖6.5 操作流程圖........................................................................................100
參考文獻 [1] 彭韻瑞,手指紋大分類法之研究,中原大學電子所碩士論文,民國86年。
[2] The Biometric Report, SJB Services, 1995, p. 47.
[3] F. Galton, Fingerprints, Macmillan London, 1892.
[4] E. R. Henry, Classification and Uses of Finger Prints, Rutledge, London, 1900.
[5] 李宗瀚,即時指紋辨識演算法,輔仁大學資工所碩士論文,民國90年。
[6] 國際指紋識別競賽(Fingerprint Verification Competition,FVC2000)之指紋資料庫,http://bias.csr.unibo.it/fvc2000/。
[7] 呂狀元,指紋分類系統設計,淡江大學電機所碩士論文,民國89年。
[8] A. K. Hrechak and J. A. Mchugh, “Automated Fingerprint Recognition Using Structural Matching,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 23, no. 8, 1990, pp. 893-904.
[9] A. Grasselli, “On the Automatic Classification of Fingerprints Some Consideration on the Linguistic Interpretation of Pictures,” Methodologies of Pattern Recognition, pp. 253-273.
[10] B. Moayer and K. S. Fu, “An Application of Stochastic Languages to Fingerprint Pattern Recognition,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 8, 1976, pp. 173-179.
[11] B. Moayer and K. S. Fu, “A Tree System Approach for Fingerprint Pattern Recognition,” IEEE Transition on Computers, vol. C-25, no. 3, Mar. 1976, pp. 262-274.
[12] C. C. Kameswara Rao and K. Black, “Finding the Core Point in a Fingerprint,” IEEE Transaction on Computers, vol. C-27, no. 1, Jan. 1978, pp. 77-81.
[13] M. Kawagoe and A. Tojo, “Fingerprint Pattern Classification,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 17, no. 3, 1984, pp. 195-303.
[14] M. K. Sparrow and P. J. Sparrow, “A Topological Approach to the Matching of Single Fingerprints: Development of Algorithms for Use on Rolled Impressions,” NBS Special Publication 500-124, May 1985.
[15] T. C. Malleswara Rao, “Feature Extraction for Fingerprint Classification,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 8, 1976, pp. 181-192.
[16] C. V. Kameswara Rao, “On Fingerprint Recognition,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 10, 1978, pp. 15-18.
[17] Automated Fingerprint Identification System, NEC.
[18] D. K. Isenor and S. G. Zaky, “Fingerprint Identification Using Graph Matching,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 19, no. 2, 1986, pp. 13-122.
[19] 繆紹綱,“數位影像處理 活用Matlab”,全華科技圖書股份有限公司,民國88年3月
[20] R. M. Stock and C. W. Swonger, “Development and Evaluation of a Reader of Fingerprint Minutiae,” Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Technical Report, CAL No. XM-2478-X-1, 1969, pp. 13-17.
[21] M. Kawagone and A. Tojo, “Fingerprint Pattern Classification,” Pattern Recognition, Vol 17, No. 3, 1984, pp.295-303.
[22] M. Kass and A. Witkin, “Analyzing Oriented Pattern,” Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 37, 1987, pp. 362-385.
[23] S. Probhakar, “Fingerprint Classification and Matching Using a Filterbank,” pp. 88-102.
[24] A. K. Jain, L. Hong, S. Pankanti, and R. Bolle, “An Identity Authentication System Using Fingerprint,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 85, No.9, 1997, pp. 1365-1388.
[25] A. R. Rao, A Taxonomy for Texture Description and Identification. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
[26] N. Ratha, K, Karu, S. Chen and A. K. Jain, “A Real-time Matching System for Large Fingerprint Database,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 18, No. 8, 1996, pp. 799-813.
[27] J. Canny, “A Computational Approach to Edge Detection,” IEEE Transactions on Pami, vol. 8, No. 6, 1986, pp. 679-698.
[28] A. M. Bazen and S. H. Gerez, “Systematic Methods for the Computation of the Directional Fields and Singular Points of Fingerprints,” IEEE Transactions On Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, No.7, JULY 2002, pp. 905-919.
[29] 郭丁溢,以濾波比對方式之指紋辨識晶片設計,淡江大學電機所碩士論文,民國94年。
[30] 李建潁,快速特徵搜尋之指紋辨識晶片設計,淡江大學電機所碩士論文,民國94年。
[31] A. K. Jain, S. Prabhaker, L. Hong, and S. Pankanti, “Filterbank-based Fingerprint Matching,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 85, No. 9, 1997, pp. 1365-1388.
[32] D. Maltoni, D. Maio, A. K. Jain and S. Prabhakar, Handbook of fingerprint Recognition, Springer(New York), 2003.
[33] L. Hong, Y. Wan and A. Jain, “Fingerprint Image Enhancement Algorithm and Performance Evaluation,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Matching Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 8, Aug. 1998.
[34] 何政昌,智慧型導盲監控暨身份識別系統,淡江大學電機所碩士論文,民國95+年。
[35] 探矽工作室,2002嵌入式系統開發聖經,學貫行銷股份有限公司,2002年9月。
[36] 陳宏宇,DSP程式設計,文魁資訊股份有限公司,2004年7月。
[37] 林家慶,利用嵌入式軟核心處理器之指紋辨識系統,淡江大學電機所碩士論文,民國93年。
論文使用權限
  • 不同意紙本論文無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用。
  • 不同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信