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中文論文名稱 高層建物受風影響之動力行為研究-實場監測與風洞試驗驗證II
英文論文名稱 Field measurements and wind tunnel validations of a tall building (II)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 陳昶志
研究生英文姓名 Chang-Chih Chen
學號 695380054
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-01-13
論文頁數 83頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭啟明
委員-吳重成
委員-陳若華
中文關鍵字 實場監測  風洞試驗  結構識別  颱風 
英文關鍵字 Field measurement  Wind tunnel test  typhoon  structure identification 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 本文主要的重點為風工程實場量測相關技術之發展,主要目的在於建立起包含台灣氣候特徵(颱風)之結構受風反應與風場特性資料庫,做為風洞物理模擬數值模擬以及理論分析結果之最終驗證。並且做有關風洞實驗與實場量測間之比對與探討。
本研究於台北市辛亥路上百士大樓裝設速度計、加速度計與風速計,量測大樓在不同風速下之受風反應。並識別其自然頻率、阻尼,並統計該大樓於颱風時的動力反應。風洞實驗將透過嚴謹縮尺模擬一段長約4.2公里的發展段,分別以空氣動力實驗與空氣彈力實驗,量測其受風反應配合結構動力計算。求得特定風速下中央百世大樓之振動情形,並利用MIDAS軟體建立有限元素模型比較單自由度頻率域計算與多自由度直接街積分法差異並與實場監測結果比較。
本研究根據實場監測數據進行該建築之結構動力特性識別。結構阻尼在微振時與振幅有密切之正相關,結構振動較大時,會逐漸趨近1.2~1.4%之穩定值。高樓受風反應之機率函數為近似高斯之對稱鐘形分佈,其二軸向之峰態係數(Kurtosis)平均值分別為3.58 與 3.71。換言之,高樓受風反應之離散度較高斯分佈為低。其次,本文根據該建築施工藍圖建構有限元素模型,並以實場識別結構予以微調率定。完成後有限元素模型之二水平向之最低振態自然頻率與實測結果誤差均低於1%。本文針對該高層建築與其週邊環境進行嚴謹之風洞縮尺模擬,量測建築所受之風壓與風力。本文以氣動力試驗,試驗結果結合有限元素模型,分別進行頻率域及及時間域之結構受風反應分析並與實場量測比較驗證。根據風洞試驗結果進行頻率域及時間域分析所得到之速度反應相當接近,但略低於實場量測之數據。氣彈力實驗利用雷射位移計與力平衡儀量測該建築物受風時的反應。實驗結果。氣彈力實驗與氣動力實結果吻合十分良好。
研究結果充分顯示:在嚴謹縮尺條件下之風洞試驗可以有效的預測實場建物的受風反應。
英文摘要 This thesis is about the development of the wind engineering field monitoring. The final aim is to establish a wind engineering database on typhoon characteristics and its effects on tall buildings. This database will function as the final verification of physical wind tunnel simulations, computational fluid dynamics estimation and analytical predictions. Besides the field monitoring, wind tunnel tests were conducted for detailed comparisons.
In this investigation, a 30-story building located in Taipei City was instrumented with anemometers and accelerometers and velocity sensors. Wind characteristics and building behaviors under strong wind were monitored during several typhoons.
Tall building’s dynamic features, such as natural frequencies and damping were identified from the field data. Based on the original blue prints and field data, Finite Element model of the building was constructed and calibrated. Then, a series of carefully designed aerodynamic and aeroelastic wind tunnel tests were carried out. Wind loads obtained from aerodynamic tests were applied to the building F.E. model to evaluate the building dynamic responses and then compared with field data. Due to the scaling problem, the measurements of the aeroelastic tests were unable to be compared directly with the field data; therefore, they were compared with the F.E. model predictions.
The results indicate that the building responses based on wind tunnel test show good agreement with field measurements; and the aeroelastic test results agree well with the F.E. model predictions. This investigation has shown clear evidence that a well designed wind tunnel test can accurately predict the behaviors of a tall building under strong wind.
論文目次 章節目錄 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
圖表目錄 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III
第一章 序論----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 前言---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.2 研究動機---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.3 研究方法與內容------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
1.4 論文架構---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
第二章 文獻回顧----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
2.1 實場監測分析------------------------------------------------------------------ 4
2.1.1 微動量測基本觀念------------------------------------------------------- 4
2.1.2 實場監測------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
2.2 系統識別運用------------------------------------------------------------------ 5
2.3 隨機遞減技巧------------------------------------------------------------------ 7
2.4 風洞實驗------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8
2.4.1 風洞實驗之流場特性模擬------------------------------------------ 8
2.4.2 阻塞效應--------------------------------------------------------------- 9
2.4.3 雷諾數效應------------------------------------------------------------10
2.5 結構物振動--------------------------------------------------------------------------11
2.5.1 逼近流與尾跡對結構物造成之運動機制----------------------------11
2.5.2 順風向振動----------------------------------------------------------------12
2.5.3 橫風向振動----------------------------------------------------------------13
2.5.4 扭轉向振動----------------------------------------------------------------14
2.6 風力量測方法------------------------------------------------------------------19
第三章 理論背景------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
3.1 大氣邊界層之流場特性------------------------------------------------------22
3.1.1 平均風速剖面-----------------------------------------------------------22
3.1.2 紊流強度----------------------------------------------------------------23
3.1.3 紊流長度尺度----------------------------------------------------------24
3.1.4 擾動風速頻譜----------------------------------------------------------25
3.1.5 縱向速度擾動的交頻譜----------------------------------------------25
3.2 結構物受風之交互關係----------------------------------------------------------26
3.2.1 氣動力現象-----------------------------------------------------------------26
3.2.2 氣彈力現象-----------------------------------------------------------------28
3.3 氣彈力實驗模擬-----------------------------------------------------------------30
3.4 風力作用下的位移反應計算--------------------------------------------------32
3.5 結構動力學理論-----------------------------------------------------------------35
3.6 隨機遞減法-----------------------------------------------------------------------37
3.7 單自由度系統之自隨機遞減訊號--------------------------------------------38
3.8 阻尼計算----------------------------------------------------------------------43
第四章 實驗配置、量測採樣與數據分析----------------------------------------------45
4.1 實場量測與分析-------------------------------------------------------------------45
4.2 風場之量測與資料分析-----------------------------------------------------49
4.3 風洞配置與風速量測------------------------------------------------------------51
4.3.1 風洞設備--------------------------------------------------------------------51
4.3.2 大氣邊界層流場之模擬--------------------------------------------------51
4.3.3 風速量測--------------------------------------------------------------------53
4.4 模型之設計與配置---------------------------------------------------------------53
4.4.1 氣彈力模型之設計--------------------------------------------------------53
4.4.2 氣動力模型之設計--------------------------------------------------------56
4.4.3 結構動力特徵率定--------------------------------------------------------57
4.4.4 位移反應計算--------------------------------------------------------------58
4.5 百世大樓之有限元素分析模型-------------------------------------------------59
第五章 實驗結果與比較--------------------------------------------------------------------61
5.1 百世大樓之實場量測及數據分析結果-----------------------------------------61
5.2 氣動力實驗--------------------------------------------------------------------------68
5.2.1 風洞實驗逼近流場模擬----------------------------------------------------68
5.2.2 氣動力實驗分析結果-------------------------------------------------------69
5.3 百世大樓風洞實驗之氣彈力實驗-----------------------------------------------73
5.3.1 氣動力實驗分析結果---------------------------------------------------------74
第六章 結論與建議---------------------------------------------------------------------------78
6.1 結論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------78
6.1.1 實場量測---------------------------------------------------------------------78
6.1.2風洞實驗------------------------------------------------------------------------78
6.2 建議-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------79
圖4-1百世大樓外觀圖-----------------------------------------------------------------------45
圖4-2百世大樓及週邊環境-----------------------------------------------------------------45
圖4-3百世大樓儀器設置位置--------------------------------------------------------------46
圖4-4風洞平立面圖--------------------------------------------------------------------------51
圖4-5百世大樓上游流場之配置-實際地況----------------------------------------------52
圖4-6百世大樓上游流場之配置-b地況--------------------------------------------------52
圖4-7實際地況風速與紊流強度剖面------------------------------------------------------52
圖4-8 B地況風速與紊流強度剖面---------------------------------------------------------52
圖4.9氣彈力模型A---------------------------------------------------------------------------54
圖4.10氣彈力模型B--------------------------------------------------------------------------55
圖4-11風壓孔位置圖-------------------------------------------------------------------------57
圖4-12百世大樓風壓模型-------------------------------------------------------------------57
圖4.13百世大樓有限模型示意圖 (a)正面;(b)側面;(c)3D立面-----------------------60
圖4.14百世大樓標準層結構示意圖-------------------------------------------------------60
表4-1實場與有限元素模型模態頻率------------------------------------------------------60
圖5.1 海棠颱風風速與風向反應-----------------------------------------------------------62
圖5.2 海棠颱風結構X向與Y向速度反應----------------------------------------------62
圖5.3 瑪莎颱風風速與風向反應-----------------------------------------------------------63
圖5.4 瑪莎颱風結構X向與Y向速度反應----------------------------------------------63
圖5.5 頂樓中心位置之速度頻譜-----------------------------------------------------------64
圖5.6 頂樓邊角位置之加速度頻譜--------------------------------------------------------65
圖5.7 大樓位移反應與阻尼-----------------------------------------------------------------66
圖5.8 百世大樓在海堂颱風期間之位移反應--------------------------------------------66
圖5.9 百世大樓在馬莎颱風期間之位移反應--------------------------------------------66
圖5.10 結構反應機率密度函數------------------------------------------------------------67
圖5.11 峰態係數與結構反應間關係------------------------------------------------------68
圖5.12 偏態係數與結構反應間關係------------------------------------------------------68
圖5-12平均風力係數Cx隨風攻角變化圖-----------------------------------------------70
圖5-13平均風力係數Cy隨風攻角變化圖-----------------------------------------------70
圖5-14 X向位移擾動隨風攻角變化圖----------------------------------------------------72
圖5-15 Y向位移擾動隨風攻角變化圖----------------------------------------------------72
圖5-16(a) X向擾動位移----------------------------------------------------------------------73
圖5-16(b) Y向擾動位移----------------------------------------------------------------------73
圖5-18(a) 0度順風向實驗結果-------------------------------------------------------------75
圖5-18(b) 0度橫風向實驗結果-------------------------------------------------------------75
圖5-19(a) 90度順風向實驗結果-----------------------------------------------------------75
圖5-19(b) 90度橫風向實驗結果-----------------------------------------------------------75
圖5-20(a) 180度順風向實驗結果-----------------------------------------------------------75
圖5-20(b) 180度橫風向實驗結果----------------------------------------------------------75
圖5-21(a) 270度順風向實驗結果-----------------------------------------------------------76
圖5-21(b) 270度橫風向實驗結果----------------------------------------------------------76
圖5-22(a) 0度順風向實驗比較-------------------------------------------------------------77
圖5-22(b) 0度橫風向實驗比較-------------------------------------------------------------77
圖5-23(a) 90度順風向實驗比較------------------------------------------------------------77
圖5-23(b) 90度橫風向實驗比較------------------------------------------------------------77
圖5-24(a) 180度順風向實驗比較-----------------------------------------------------------77
圖5-24(b) 180度橫風向實驗比較----------------------------------------------------------77
圖5-25(a) 270度順風向實驗比較-----------------------------------------------------------77
圖5-25(b) 270度橫風向實驗比較----------------------------------------------------------77
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