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系統識別號 U0002-1602201300231300
中文論文名稱 女性在美國外交政策中之角色:以三任女性國務卿為例
英文論文名稱 Women in American Foreign Policy: Three Female Secretaries of the State of the United States of America
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 唐薏涵
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Han Tang
學號 699250139
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-01-09
論文頁數 147頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
指導教授-黃介正
委員-李明
委員-郭壽旺
中文關鍵字 歐布萊特  萊斯  希拉蕊  美中關係  人權 
英文關鍵字 Madeleine Albright  Condi Rice  Hillary Clinton  U.S-China Relations  human right 
學科別分類
中文摘要 21世紀隨著科技技術的快速發展,全球的地域疆界已被模糊化,各國之間的距離感逐漸消失,但緊密度卻增高。美國身為世界強國,一舉一動都備受世界關注。小布希總統曾說過:「美國國務卿就代表了美國的臉孔。」國務卿除了要熟悉外交事務,能在國際舞台上站穩美國的立場,為美國最大限度地爭取利益。
此外,國務卿還需要具備出色的政治智慧、協調能力與個人魅力,既與總統密切合作,又能緊密聯繫和協調國內勢力。

過去女性在政治領域中有領導地位者並不多,但隨著「女權即人權」的意識高漲,女性的地位已大大提升。本論文以三位女性國務卿歐布萊特,萊斯與希拉蕊為例,並從三位女性國務卿的出生背景,從政歷程,再到其政策內容的分析,來看女性在美國外交政策中所扮演的角色,並比較與男性所主導的外交政策有何差異。
研究顯示,雖然女性普遍是認為較為柔和,並且崇尚和平,但三位女性國務卿卻並沒有因性別而忽略美方利益,但的確有比過去男性國務卿更注重「人權」議題,國務卿希拉蕊甚至將婦女權益問題列為他外交政策中的重點內容之一。

女性國務卿對美國已不再是特例,女性成功的在外交領域中站穩腳步,但在政府的領導階層中,男性仍位居多數。其顯示男性雖然為政策決策的主要掌控者,但女性的意識已然抬頭,女性未來在政府部門中除了國務卿一職,仍有許多要角能夠嘗試,而女性在外交政策中之角色的研究也能因此更趨完整。

英文摘要 With the rapid development of science and technology in the 21st century, the nation borders have been blurred, and the distance between the countries is gradually disappearing.
But in the same time the tightness increased. The United States as a super power, every decision it she made is important to the world. A good Secretary of the State, have to familiar with foreign affairs and have a firm position to promote the interests of the United States.
On the other side, the Secretary of State not only needs to have necessary political wisdom to work with the President, but also in close contact and coordination of domestic policies.
In the past, women whom in the political leadership position has been limited, but with the rise of feminist consciousness, the status of women has been greatly enhanced. The thesis mainly demonstrates the three female Secretaries of State: Madeleine Albright, Condi Rice and Hillary Clinton which analyzing their backgrounds, the process of participating in political affairs and their foreign policy contents. According to the research, we can discover how women play the role in U.S. foreign policy, and the differences from the male foreign policy makers.

Generally speaking, women are softer and advocating peace than their male counterparts. But the three female secretaries of state did not ignore U.S. interests, just because their gender. Female Secretaries of State actually paid more attention to the human rights issues. Secretary Hillary Clinton even emphasized women interest is one of her foreign policy goal.
Female Secretaries of State of the United States have no longer been a special case in the United States, though they had taken a long road to get there.
Even male foreign policy makers are still more than female ones, the awareness of women already rise up now and will get more attention in the world.


論文目次 目錄:
第一章 緒論…………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機與目的……………………………1
第二節 研究方法與預期貢獻………………………3
第三節 研究範圍與架構……………………………5

第二章 三位美國女性國務卿之成長背景…………7
第一節 歐布萊特之成長背景………………………7
第二節 萊斯之成長背景……………………………12
第三節 希拉蕊之成長背景…………………………17

第三章 三位美國女性國務卿之從政歷程………21
第一節 歐布萊特參與外交事務與從政歷程……21
第二節 萊斯參與外交事務與從政歷程…………43
第三節 希拉蕊參與外交事務與從政歷程………64

第四章 三位美國女性國務卿對中國政策………77
第一節 歐布萊特對中國政策………………………77
第二節 萊斯對中國政策……………………………85
第三節 希拉蕊對中國政策…………………………91

第五章 三位女性國務卿之分析比較……………………107
第一節 三位女性國務卿與在任時總統關係之分析比較……107
第二節 三位女性國務卿外交政策之分析比較………………113
第三節 三位女性國務卿對中國政策之比較…………………118

第六章 結論………………………………………………125

參考書目………………………………………………………137

參考文獻 參考書目:
一、 中文部分
(一) 專書

李慶四,《美國國會與美國外交》。上海:人民出版社,2007年。

周琪,《美國人權外交政策》。上海:人民出版社,2001年。

高德源譯,Zbigniew Brzezinski著,《美國的危機與轉機:從老布希、柯林頓到小布希的外交成績單看超級強權的未來走向》。台北: 左岸文化,2008年。

彭滂沱,《打造美國總統-從羅斯福到柯林頓的決策領導》。台北:時報出版,2007年。

劉文祥,《美國外交決策中的國會與總統》。上海: 中國經濟出版社,2005年。

(二) 論文集

紀舜傑,《美國國務卿與國家安全顧問權限之研究》。台北:淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文,1991年。

(三) 期刊

王祖訓,〈科索沃戰爭對國際安全形勢的影響〉,《海峽評論》第102期,
1996年2月,頁1-5

王高成,〈美中的戰略互動與台海安全〉,《全球政治評論》,第14期,2006年,頁32-35




何世芳,〈女性從政多癲頗 政治平權路迢遙〉,《新台灣週刊》,第244期,2000年11月,頁35-40

林庭輝,〈美國國家安全顧問與國務卿於外交決策制定過程中之競爭關係〉,《通識研究集刊》 第5期,2004年6月,頁101-128

李承禹 趙建中,〈國際關係均勢理論的辯論與挑戰:後冷戰時期北約東擴為例〉,《黃埔學報第53期》,2006年,頁13-24

朱張碧珠,〈柯林頓新政府中東政策之剖析〉,《政治科學論叢》,第8期,1997年,頁165-182

張登及 王似華,〈中美建交三十年:北京對美政策與雙邊關係回顧〉,《全球政治
評論》,第32期,2010年,頁49-76

張麟徵,〈美國新政府與對華政策:布希政府對華的可能內涵〉,《海峽評論》,第122期,2001年,頁15-22

陳福裕,〈一個沒有美國的亞洲〉,《海峽評論》,第186期,2006年6月,頁7-15

翁明賢,〈對歐巴馬兩岸政策的反思─台灣觀點〉,《台灣國際研究季刊》,第5期,2009,頁1-20

齊先予,〈911插曲後的中美關係〉,《新紀元周刊》,第191期,2010年9月,頁22-30

(四) 網路專文

朱小梅,〈科索沃戰爭對世界格局產生影響〉,《國際在線》,2004年3月18日登入,〈http://big5.cri.cn/gate/big5/gb.cri.cn/321/2004/03/18/601@101485.html〉

路以正,〈宮新國安戰略、轉型外交浮現〉,《國政評論》,2006年3月27日登入,〈http://old.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/NS/095/NS-C-095-108.html〉

張文生,〈台灣對兩岸關係的思維定勢〉,《中國網》,2002年7月26日登入,〈http://big5.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/179049.html〉

曹長青,〈萊斯﹕美國新政府的外交靈魂—美國最高法院將裁決小布希勝選〉,《湯本論壇》,1999年7月22日登入,〈http://www.tangben.com/Election/rice.htm〉

(五)報紙:

《中國時報》

《自由時報》

《聯合報》

《蘋果日報》

《旺報》

(六) 網站

中國網http://big5.china.com.cn/

遠景交流基金會http://www.pf.org.tw/

湯本論壇http://www.tangben.com/Election/rice.htm

新華網http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/www.xinhuanet.com/

Ettoday新聞網 http://www.ettoday.net/

二、 英文部分

(一) 政府出版品:

Bush,George W. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.
Washington,D.C. : The White House 2002

Bush,George W. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.
Washington,D.C.: The White House 2006

Clinton,Hillary Rodham Working Toward Change in Perceptions of U.S. Engagement Around the World.
Washington,D.C.: The White House,2010

Clinton,Hillary Rodham America's Engagement in the Asia-Pacific,
Washington,D.C.: The White House ,2010

Gates,Dr. Robert. Emerging Security Challenges in the Asia-Pacific.
Washington D.C.: The White House 2011

Human Rights Reports 2010,U.S. Department of States,
Washington,D.C.: The White House ,2010

Rice,Condoleezza Remarks on Transformational Diplomacy.
Washington,D.C. : The White House,2002

Gold,ensteinAvery. Form Bandwagon toBalance-of-Power Politics
CA: Stanford University, 1991

Rice,Condoleezza Realizing the Goals of Transformational Diplomacy.
Washington,D.C.: The White House,2006

Rice,Condoleezza. Transformational Diplomacy: Remarks at Georgetown School of
Foreign Service.
Washington,D.C.: The White House,2006


Obama,Barack The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.
Washington,D.C. : The White House,2010

Obama,Barack Remarks By President Obama to the Australian Parliament
Washington,D.C. : The White House,2011


(二)專書

Albright,Madeleine. Madam Secretary : A Memoir.
New York: Miramax,2005.

Albright,Madeleine. Prague Winter: A Personal Story of Remembrance and War
1937-1948.New York: Harper; Stated First Edition edition,2012.

Albright,Madeleine. MEMO TO THE PRESDIENT: How We Can Restore America's Reputation and Leadership.
Washington D.C.: HarperLuxe ,2008.



Albright,Madeleine,Read My Pins: Stories from a Diplomat's Jewel Box.
Washington D.C.: Melcher Media,2009

Blackman,Ann ,Seasons of Her Life: A Biography of Madeleine Korbel Albright.
New York: Scribner,1999.

Bernstein, Carl. A Woman in Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton.
New York: Vintage,2008.

Brzezinski,Zbigniew. The Grand Emergence of Noopolitik toward an American Information Strategy. Santa Monica,CA: RAND Corporation,1999.

Brzezinski,Zbigniew. Second Chance: Three Presidents and the Crisis of America Superpow. New York: Basic Books; First Printing edition,2007.

Clinton,Bill. My Life.
Washington D.C.: Vintage,2005

Clinton,Hillary Rodham. Living History.
Washington D.C.: Scribner,2004.

Felix,Antonia. Condi: The Condoleezza Rice Story.
New York: Threshold Editions,2010.

Harris,John F. ,The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House.
New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks,2006.
McGlen,Nancy E. Sarkees,Meredith Reid. Women in Foreign Policy: The Insiders.New York: Routledge 1993.
Lippman,Thomas W. Madeleine Albright and the New American Diplomacy.
Westvie: A Member of the Perseus Books Group,2004.

Pillar,Paul R. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy.
Washington D.C. :Brookings Institution,2001.

Tickner ,J. Ann. ,Gender in International Relations.
New York: Columbia University,1992.

Rice,Condoleezza. Extraordinary, Ordinary People: A Memoir of Family.
New York: Three Rivers Press,2011.

Rice,Condoleezza. No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years in Washington.
Washington D.C.: Broadway; Reprint edition,2012.

Rice,Condoleezza. A Memoir of My Extraordinary, Ordinary Family and Me.
Washington D.C.: Ember,2012.

(二) 期刊

Albright,Madeleine. “Fiscal Year 2000 Budget.”Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee,Washington,D.C.,February 21,1999,
U.S. Department of State Dispatch,Vol.10 no. 2,March 1999,pp.9-19

Rice,Condoleezza .“Promoting the National Interest”,Foreign Affairs,Vol. 79, no. 1,
Jan/Feb 2000,pp. 45-62

Zoellick,Robert B. “A Republican Foreign Policy.”Foreign Affairs, Vol. 79, no.1,
Jan/Feb 2000,pp. 63-78

Lake ,Anthony. “From Containment to Enlargement.”U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 4,no.39,September 27,1993, pp. 658-664.

(三) 網路專文:

Albright, Madeleine K. “Presents a speech by the US Secretary of State discussing in detail the Marshall Plan and the implementation of the Dayton Accords for peace in Bosnia at annual Fleet Week Gala, New York City”,accessed 22 May 1997.
(http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=04a456e1-8cb2-4243-b8bb-8c9bde6fa59e%40sessionmgr4&vid=1&hid=12&bdata=Jmxhbmc9emgtdHcmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl#db=aph&AN=9709244230)

Albright, Madeleine K. “Finding The Path to Lasting Peace in Bosnia”.accessed 22 May 1997.
(http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=86bf1453-626a-4d8d-9476-870aca3233dc%40sessionmgr14&vid=1&hid=7&bdata=Jmxhbmc9emgtdHcmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl#db=aph&AN=9709244230)

Balachandran,Niruban. “Hillary’s “Smart” New Move: Revamping American Diplomacy and Development,Global Affairs, accessed 9 Nov. 2010.
(http://www.globalaffairs.es/en/hillarys-smart-new-move-revamping-american-diplomacy-and-development/)

Cassell,Heather.“Madeleine Albright has a Message for All Women”, accessed 20 May 2008.
(http://www.theglasshammer.com/news/2008/05/20/madeleine-albright-has-a-message-for-all-women/)

Cameron,Rob .“Madeleine Albright: refugee childhood influenced key foreign policy decisions”, accessed 21 Oct. 2003.
(http://www.radio.cz/en/section/one-on-one/madeleine-albright-refugee-childhood-influenced-key-foreign-policy-decisions)

Hongguang,Lan.“Rice reaffirms one-China policy”,accessed 21 March 2005.
(http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-03/21/content_2722272.htm)

Krasner,Stephen D.“Transformational Diplomacy”,accessed 20 Jan. 2006.
(http://www.cgdev.org/content/calendar/detail/5723/)

Klonsky ,Joanna.“Hillary Clinton, U.S. Secretary of State”,accessed 22 Jan. 2009.
(http://www.cfr.org/diplomacy/hillary-clinton-us-secretary-state/p17864)

Luca Prono.“Condoleezza Rice: “Transformational Diplomacy”,2006.
(http://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/condoleezza-rices-transformational-diplomacy/explanation)


Mochizuki ,Michael.“US Foreign Policy toward East Asia”,accessed 14 May 2001.
(http://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/events/bbl/mmochizukiBBL.pdf)

Miko,Francis T.,“Trafficking in Women and Children:
The U.S. and International Response”, accessed 3 July 2003.
(http://www.gayasylum.info/crs_country/CRSReportTraffickingInWomenAndChildrenTheU.S.AndInternationalResponse)

Reveron,Derek S. “Obama's National Security Strategy Unfolding”,accessed 16 July 2009.
(http://www.acus.org/new_atlanticist/obamas-national-security-strategy-unfolding)

Ratnesar ,Romesh. Carney,James. and Waller, Douglas.
“Condi Rice Can't Lose”,accessed 27 Sep. 1999.
(http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,992061,00.htm)

Rice, Condoleezza.“Transformational Diplomacy: Remarks at Georgetown School of
Foreign Service”,accessed 18 Jan 2006.
(http://mail.gees.org/documentos/Documen-600.pdf)

Silkwood,Eva.“The Bush White House, Condoleezza Rice, and Latin America: “Transformational Diplomacy” and Other Fancy Talk,accessed 2 Aug. 2007.
(http://www.coha.org/the-bush-white-house-condoleezza-rice-and-latin-america-transformational-diplomacy-and-other-fancy-talk/)

Schmitt,Eric.“Albright Defends Polices on China as G.O.P. Attacks”,The New Yorks, accessed 11 March,1999.
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Lewis,John W.,“The Contradictions of Bush's China Policy”,accessed 2 June 2001
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Lowen ,Linda. “Hillary Clinton at the Beijing Conference on Women 1995:One Woman's Recollections of Hillary Clinton's Speech in Beijing”,Women's Issues,accessed 5 Sep. 1995.
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Lewis,John W.“The Contradictions of Bush's China Policy”,accessed 2 June 2001.
(http://www.nytimes.com/2001/06/02/opinion/the-contradictions-of-bush-s-china-policy.html)


Perlez,Jane and Myers,Steven Lee .In Beijing, “Clinton Will Push for Talks Over Disputed Islands”,New York Times,accessed 3 Sep. 2012.
(http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/04/world/asia/in-beijing-clinton-to-discuss-island-disputes.html)

(四) 報紙:

BBC News

The New York Times

The Washington Post

The Washington Times

(五)網站

外交事務期刊(Foreign Affairs) http://www.foreignaffairs.com

外交政策雜誌(Foreign Policy Magazine) http://www.gforeignpolicy.com/

美國白宮http://www.whitehouse.gov.tw/

美國國防部http://www.defenselink.mil/

戰略與國際研究中心(CSIS) http://www.csis.org/

國際安全期刊 http://www.is.com/














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