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系統識別號 U0002-1602201207584300
中文論文名稱 歐洲經濟移民政策之協調-以高技術移民為例
英文論文名稱 Harmonize Economic Immigration Policy in EU-Highly Skilled Immigrant Workers as Example
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 王梓名
研究生英文姓名 Tzu-Ming Wang
學號 696290054
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-01-09
論文頁數 112頁
口試委員 指導教授-曾秀珍
共同指導教授-張福昌
委員-趙美盈
委員-苑倚曼
中文關鍵字 共同移民政策  合法移民  高技術移民勞工  歐盟藍卡 
英文關鍵字 Common Immigration Policy  Legal Migration  Highly Skilled Immigrant Workers  EU Blue Card 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 近年歐盟各會員國因人口結構改變,造成勞力短缺、高技術勞工短缺的情況。加上「知識經濟」發展趨勢,使歐盟與會員國不得不重視高技術勞工短缺的問題。過去部分會員國都曾引進外籍勞工解決戰後勞力短缺,但石油危機後對外籍勞工皆採取限制性的政策,相關移民政策的發展也趨於停滯。
德國直到近年才針對移民政策進行改革,制定有關高技術移民勞工的政策。由保守到開放的過程,也正代表歐盟的發展歷程。
分析目前歐盟地區的第三國移民,高技術勞工所占數量相較傳統移民國家明顯趨於少數,即肇因於會員國保守的移民政策。就歐盟層次而言,歷經阿姆斯特丹條約、里斯本條約,歐盟已具備發展「共同移民政策」之權限,其中有關「合法移民」更明確規定於歐洲聯盟運作條約第79條中。
為使歐盟對高技術移民勞工更具吸引力,並發展共同移民政策,針對高技術移民的「歐盟藍卡」於2009年通過、2011年為轉換立法之期限。象徵歐盟吸引高技術移民的企圖心,以及歐盟邁向共同移民政策的第一步。
英文摘要 In recent years, due to population structural changes in European Union (EU), there has been labour shortage and also shortage of highly skilled workers. Additionally, development of “knowledge-based economy” has also forced EU and member states to face its labour shortage of highly skilled workers. Due Oil Crisis and restricted immigration regulation in past years, immigrants from non-EU members are relatively lower percentage of highly skilled workers. Until recent years, Germany has carried reformation on its immigration policy and created attraction to highly skilled workers to Germany. Germany’s pathway is from conservatism to liberalization also similar to EU’s development of immigration affairs. After Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of Lisbon, EU already acquires jurisdiction to development "common immigration policy", moreover, regarding "legal migration" are clearly defined in section 79 of the Treaty on Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). In order to attract more highly skilled workers and developing common immigration policy, EU passed "EU Blue Card" in 2009, Member States shall transpose its provision into national law by June, 2011. It symbolized EU's ambition to attract highly skilled workers and also the first step to build common immigration policy in EU.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
一、 研究背景與動機 1
(一) 高技術移民勞工跨國界遷徙趨勢 1
(二) 歐洲人口結構改變與高技術勞工短缺 2
(三) 德國:針對高技術移民開放之政策趨勢 3
(四) 歐盟共同移民政策下的高技術移民政策 3
二、 研究目的 6
第二節 研究方法 6
第三節 文獻評論 7
第四節 研究範圍與限制 10
一、 研究範圍 10
二、 研究限制 12
第五節 研究架構 14
第二章 高技術勞工與歐盟人口趨勢 15
第一節 歐盟移民需求之理論基礎 16
一、 學術論點 16
二、 官方與非政府組織之研究 18
第二節 歐盟人口結構變化與高技術勞工之需求 20
一、 總生育率下降趨勢 20
二、 預期壽命與老年人口增加趨勢 23
三、 歐盟人口結構改變之影響 25
(一) 工作年齡層人口減少 25
(二) 老年人口依賴率增加 27
(三) 老年人口相關公共支出提高 29
四、 移民與歐盟人口結構發展之正相關 30
(一) 1990年代之前 30
(二) 1990年代之後 31
(三) 移民年齡結構分析 32
第三節 歐盟與高技術移民需求 33
一、 高技術之定義 33
二、 歐盟對高技術移民勞工之需求 35
三、 歐盟高技術勞工短缺現象 38
第三章 歐盟會員國高技術移民政策發展-以德國為例 43
第一節 德國的人口趨勢和勞力短缺問題 44
一、 德國人口結構改變之趨勢 45
(一) 總人口減少、人口老化 45
(二) 工作年齡層人口減少 47
二、 高技術勞工的需求增加和短缺現象 48
(一) 高技術職業之定義 48
(二) 高技術職缺增加 50
(三) 高技術勞工短缺 51
第二節 德國移民勞工發展-從客工到高技術移民勞工 52
一、 低技術移民勞工(1945年-1973年) 52
二、 限縮客工,庇護與政治難民(1973年-1978年) 53
三、 對移民進行管理與限制(1980年代與1990年代) 53
四、 高技術移民勞工的相關政策(2000年~現今) 54
第三節 綠卡政策發展 55
一、 綠卡計畫的發展背景 55
二、 綠卡範圍與相關規定 56
三、 成效評估-以印度資訊通訊科技高技術勞工為例 58
第四節 移民法的改革 62
一、 2005年移民法架構 63
(一) 就業相關規定 63
(二) 高技術移民 64
(三) 綠卡 67
二、 相關問題探討 67
(一) 過渡條款尚未解除 67
(二) 移民教育水準偏低 67
(三) 薪資標準過高 67
(四) 對留學生缺乏吸引力 68
第四章 歐盟高技術移民事務之發展 71
第一節 歐盟移民政策的條約規範 71
一、 阿姆斯特丹條約前的合作 72
二、 申根公約:體制外的合作 72
三、 歐盟條約:移民事務制度化 73
(一) 組織架構 73
(二) 運作模式 74
四、 阿姆斯特丹條約:移民事務共同體化 74
(一) 移民事務共同體化 75
(二) 申根公約納入歐盟條約 76
五、 里斯本條約:邁向共同移民政策 77
(一) 合法移民相關規定 77
(二) 歐盟權限擴大 79
第二節 歐盟移民勞工立法之發展 80
一、 1990年代:初期發展 80
二、 2000年:政策方向改變 80
三、 2005年:邁向實際政策發展 83
四、 從歐洲移民與庇護公約到歐盟藍卡指令 83
第三節 歐盟藍卡指令 85
一、 歐盟藍卡之背景 85
(一) 經濟上的需求與人口結構改變 86
(二) 提升歐盟國際競爭力 88
二、 歐盟藍卡內容與規定 90
(一) 高技術之定義與資格 90
(二) 年輕移民與畢業生之優惠 91
(三) 居留許可證時效與永久居留 91
(四) 家庭團聚 92
(五) 平等待遇 93
三、 歐盟藍卡議題探討 94
(一) 指令之法律效力94
(二) 歐盟藍卡優勢 95
(三) 未統一高技術標準 96
(四) 歧視待遇問題 99
(五) 牴觸會員國現有法規 99
(六) 經濟危機的負面影響 100
(七) 尚有會員國未完成轉換立法 101
四、 相關配套措施 102
(一) 與特定第三國簽訂高技術移民召募協定 102
(二) 招募來自第三國具高技術教育背景的留學生 103
第五章 結論 107
參考文獻 111

圖目錄

〈圖 1 - 1〉 歐盟移民政策分類 12
〈圖 1 - 2〉 研究架構圖 14
〈圖 2 - 1〉 1961年至2010歐盟27國年新生兒出生數 20
〈圖 2 - 2〉 歐盟27國出生預期壽命 24
〈圖 2 - 3〉 1990年、2009年歐盟27國人口金字塔比較 25
〈圖 2 - 4〉 1990年~2060年歐盟27國年齡層結構 26
〈圖 2 - 5〉 歐盟27國老年人口相關公共支出預估 30
〈圖 2 - 6〉 歐盟27國總人口變化、自然增加、淨遷徙比率走勢 31
〈圖 2 - 7〉 歐盟25國職缺所需教育背景變化 39
〈圖 3 - 1〉 1950~2060年德國總人口數變化 46
〈圖 3 - 2〉 德國人口年齡層圓餅圖 46
〈圖 3 - 3〉 1992年、2009年德國高技術就業人數占總就業人口之比率 51
〈圖 3 - 4〉 德國勞工分類圖 57
〈圖 3 - 5〉 綠卡持有人國籍 59
〈圖 3 - 6〉 2001年~2004年德國外籍資訊通訊科技業工作許可證核發數 60
〈圖 4 - 1〉 雇主與雇主協會對高技術移民勞工的需求 87

表目錄

〈表 2 - 1〉 1960年~2009年歐盟27國總生育率 21
〈表 2 - 2〉 歐盟27國人口總數2010年、2035年和2060年人口成長率 22
〈表 2 - 3〉 歐盟勞工短缺職業與會員國 27
〈表 2 - 4〉 歐盟27國2008年與2060年老年人口比率與老年依賴率 28
〈表 2 - 5〉 2009年歐盟27國、其他會員國、第三國國民平均年齡32
〈表 2 - 6〉 國際勞工組織:2008年國際職業分類標準-高技術職業分類 34
〈表 2 - 7〉 歐盟高技術勞工短缺職業與會員國 38
〈表 2 - 8〉 歐盟19個會員國高技術職缺(人數)與職缺率 40
〈表 3 - 1〉 1990~2008年德國總生育率與女性平均生育年齡 45
〈表 3 - 2〉 2008~2060年德國工作年齡層人口數 47
〈表 3 - 3〉 2011年第一季德國前10大人力短缺職業 48
〈表 3 - 4〉 國際職業分類標準和德國高技術職業之分類與比較 49
〈表 3 - 5〉 2000年8月~2003年7月綠卡持卡人數、企業規模與國籍60
〈表3 - 6〉 2005年居留法對移民就業相關條款與項目 64
〈表3 - 7〉 符合居留法第19條至德國就業之外籍人士人數 68
〈表 4 - 1〉 各國對高技術移民開放的趨勢 88
〈表 4 - 2〉 五會員國對於高技術移民勞工之定義 97
〈表 4 - 3〉 國際留學生主要目的地國家 103

參考文獻 參考文獻

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Baldaccini, Anneliese Helen Toner (2007), “From Amsterdam and Tampere to the
Hague: An Overview of Five Years of EC Immigration and Asylum Law”, in
Anneliese Baldaccini, Elspeth Guild, Helen Toner (eds.), Whose Freedom, Security and Justice?: EU Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy, Portland: Hart Publishing, pp. 1-22.
Bauer Tomas, Barbara Dietz, Klaus F. Zimmerman (2005), “German Migraiton:
Development, Assimilation, and Labour Market Effects” in Klaus F.
Zimmerman (eds.), European Migration: What Do We Know?, New York:
Oxford University Press Inc., pp. 197-262.
Bosswick Wolfgang (2003), “Germany - still a reluctant country of immigration? ” in David Turton, Julia Gonzalez, Almudena Garrido (eds.), Immigration in Europe: Issues, Policies and Case Studies, Spain, Universidad de Deusto Apartado, pp. 127-148.
Coleman David A. (2002), “Mass Migration to Europe: Demographic Salvation,
Essential Labor or Unwanted Foreigners”, in Anthony M. Messina (eds.), West
European immigration and Immigrant Policy in the New Century, USA:
Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc, pp. 47-75.
Collett Elizabeth, Fabian Zuleeg (2009), “Soft, Scarce and Super Skills: Sourcing
the Next Generation of Migrant Workers in Europe”, in Migration Policy
Institute (eds.), Talent, competitiveness and migration: the Transatlantic
Council on Migration, Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, pp. 337-361.
Cyrus Norbert, Dita Vogel (2007), “Germany”, in Anna Triandafyllidou, Ruby
Gropas (eds.), European Immigration: A Sourcebook, Great Britain: Ashgate
Publishing Limited, pp. 127-140.
Faure Atger Anais (2011), “Competing Interests in the Europeanization of Labour
Migration Rules”, in Hans Lindhl (eds.), Construction and Imagining Labour
Migration: Perspectives of Control from Five Continents, UK: Ashgate
Publishing Ltd, pp. 157-174.
Groenendijk Kees (2007), “The Long Term Residents Directive, Denizenship and
Integration” in Anneliese Baldaccini, Elspeth Guild, Helen Toner (eds.), Whose
Freedom, Security and Justice? EU Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy,
Portland: Hart Publishing, pp. 452-488.
Gropas Ruby, Anna Triandafyllidou (2007), “Concluding Remarks”, in Anna
Triandafyllidou, Ruby Gropas (eds.), European Immigration: A Sourcebook,
Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing Limited, pp.361-376.
Joop de Beer, “Forecasting international migration: time series projections vs
argument-based forecasts”, in James Raymer, Frans Willekens (eds.),
International Migration in Europe: Data, Models and Estimates, England: John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 288-301.
Kaiser Lutz C., Regine Paul (2011), “Differential inclusion in Germany’s
conservative welfare state: policy legacies and structural constraints ”, in Emma
Carmel, Alfio Cerami and Theodoros Papadopoulos (eds.), Migration and
Welfare in the new Europe: social protection and the challenges of integration,
UK: Policy Press, pp.121-141.
Khalid Koser, “The Impact of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis”, in
Gabriella Lazaridis (eds.), Security, Insecurity and Migration in Europe,
England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, pp. 53-78.
Kostakopoulou Dora (2009), “The Area of Freedom, Security and Justice and the
Political Morality of Migration and Integration”, in Hans Lindahl (eds.), A
Right to Inclusion and Exclusion? Normative Fault Lines of the EU’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, Oregon: Hart Publishing, pp.185-207.
Lavenex Sandra (2006), “The Competition State and Multilateral Liberalization of
Highly Skilled Migration”, in Michael Peter, Smith Adrian Favell (eds.), The Human Face Global Mobility, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, pp. 29-52.
Messina Anthony M., Colleen V. Thouez (2002), “The Logics and Politics of a
European Immigration Regime”, in Anthony M. Messina (eds.), West European
Immigration and Immigrant Policy in the New Century, USA: Greenwood
Publishing Group, Inc, pp. 97-120.
Medved Felicita (2003), “The constitutional framework of a common European
immigration policy: paving the way to fortress Europe?” in Bernd von
Hoffmann (eds.), Towards a common European immigration policy: reports
and discussions of a Symposium held in Trier on October 24th and 25th,
Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp. 33-47.
Mukkala Kirsi (2008), “Knowledge Spillovers: Mobility of Highly Educated
Workers within the High Technology Sector in Finland”, in Jacques Poot, Brigtte Waldorf, Leo Van Wissen (eds.), Migration and Human Capital, Great Britain: MPG Books Ltd, pp. 131-149.
Münz Rainer (2003), “Migration and Demographic Change in Europe”, in Bernd
von Hoffmann (eds.), Towards a common European immigration policy:
reports and discussions of a Symposium held in Trier on October 24th and
25th, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp.11-27.
Oosterom-Staples Helen (2007), “The Family Reunification Directive: A Tool
Preserving Member State Interest or Conductive to Family Unit?” in Anneliese
Baldaccini, Elspeth Guild, Helen Toner (eds.), Whose Freedom, Security and
Justice? EU Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy, Portland: Hart
Publishing, pp. 452-488.
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Admission or Treatment”, in Anneliese Baldaccini, Elspeth Guild, Helen Toner
(eds.), Whose Freedom, Security and Justice?: EU Immigration and Asylum
Law and Policy, Portland: Hart Publishing.
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Integration Policy in Germany”, in Gunter Thielen, Demetrios G. Papademetriou (eds.), Migration, public opinion and politics: the Transatlantic Council on Migration, Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, pp. 265-290.
Togral Burcu (2011), “Convergence of Securitization of Migration and “New
Racism” in Europe: Rise of Culturalism and Disappearance of Politics”, in
Gabriella Lazaridis (eds.), Security, Insecurity and Migration in Europe,
England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, pp. 219-238.

6. Periodical

Caviedes Alexander (2004), “The open method of co-ordination in immigration
policy: a Tool for prying open Fortress Europe?” Journal of European Public
Policy 11:2, pp. 289-310.
Meyers Eytan (2000), “Theories of International Immigration Policy-A
Comparative Analysis”, International Migration Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp.
1245-1282.
Shachar Ayelet (2006), “The Race for Talent: Highly Skilled Migrants and
Competitive Immigration Regimes”, New York University Law Review, Vol. 81, pp. 148-206.
Wank Rolf (2005), “Legal Framework for High-Tech Workers in Germany”,
Comparative Labour Law & Poily Journal Vol. 24, pp. 435-462.
Zimmermann Klaus F. (2005), “European Labour Mobility: Challenges and
Potentials”, De Economist 153, No.4, pp. 425-450.

7. Working Papers

Ball, R. (2010), “The blue card directive and its impact on EU and home state
societies,” SLSA Annual Conference, 30th March - 1st April, 2010.
Bauer Thomas K., Astrid Kunze (2004), “The Demand for High-Skilled Workers
and Immigration Policy”, Discussion Paper No. 999.
Borkert Maren, Wolfgang Bosswick (2007), “Migration Policy-Making in
Germany – between national reluctance and local pragmatism?” IMISCOE
Working Paper No. 20.
Boswell Christina, Thomas Straubhaar (2005), “Does Germany Need Labour
Migration?” Focus Migration: Policy Brief No.2.
Boswell Christina, Thomas Straubhaar (2008), “Shortage of Skilled Workers in
the manufacturing sector in Germany: Results from the sector analysis”,
ITB-Forschungsberichte 31/2008.
Carrera Sergio, Formisano Marco (2005), “An EU Approach to Labour Migration
What is the Added Value and the Way Ahead?” CEPS Working Document
No. 232.
Carrera Sergio, Florian Geyer (2007), “The Reform Treaty & Justice and Home
Affairs: Implications for the common Area of Freedom, Security & Justice”,
Centre for European Policy Studies, Policy brief No.141.
Carrera Sergio (2007), “Building a Common Policy on Laobur Immigration:
Towards a Comprehensive and Global Approach in the EU? ” CEPS Working
Document No. 256.
Carrera Sergio, Anaïs Faure Atger, Elspeth Guild, Dora Kostakopoulou (2011), “
Labour Immigration Policy in the EU: A Renewed Agenda for Europe 2020”,
CEPS Policy Brief No. 240.
Cerna Lucie (2010), “Policies and practices of highly skilled migration in times of
the economic crisis”, International Migration Papers No. 99.
Chaloff Jonathan, Georges Lemaitre (2009), “Directorate For Employment,
Labour and Social Affairs”, OECD Social, Employment And Migration
Working Papers.
Constant Amelie F., Bienvenue N. Tien (2011), “Germany’s Immigration Policy
and Labor Shortages”, I Z A Research Report No. 41.
Deloitte Belastingconsulenten (2011), “Comparative study: Immigration
2010-2011”, September 2011.
Draheim Katharina, Cilia Ebert-Libeskind (2009), “Tasks of the New European
Commission”, International Policy Analysis Study Group Europe, the Berlin
Study Group Europe of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, May 2009.
Doomernik Jeroen, Rey Koslowski, Dietrich Thranhardt (2009), “The Battle for
the Brains: Why immigration policy is not enough to attract the highly skilled”,
Brussels Forum Paper Series March 2009.
Duncan Natasha T., Brigitte S. Waldorf (2010), “High Skilled Immigrant
Recruitment and the global Economic Crisis: the Effects of Immigration
Policies”, Dept. of Agricultural Economics Purdue University Working Paper
10-1.
European Policy Centre (2011), “Which legal migration policy for the EU?”
Breakfast Policy Briefing, S58/11.
Falk Martin (2001), “What Drives the Vacancy Rate for Information Technology
Workers?” ZEW Discussion Paper No. 01-43.
Gottschlich Pierre, M.A. (2007), “The Indian Diaspora in Germany”, Away but
not Apart: Evolving Relationships between India and Her Diaspora.
Guild Elspeth (2007), “EU Policy on Labour migration: a first look at the
Commission’s Blue Card Initiative”, CEPS Policy Brief No. 145.
Hailbronner Kay (2010)”,Implications of the EU Lisbon Treaty on EU
Immigration Law”, For presentation at the Fourth Workshop of the
Transatlantic Exchange for Academics in Migration Studies, San Diego, March
29-30, 2010.
Kahanec Martin, Klaus F. Zimmermann (2011), “High-Skilled Immigration
Policy in Europe”, DIW Berlin German Institute for Economic Research
Discussion Paper 1069.
Kolb Holger (2005), “Die deutsche“Green Card”,” Focus Migration: Policy Brief
No.3.
Fairlie Robert W., Bruce D.Meyer (1997), “Does Immigration Hurt
African-American Self-Employment?” National Bureau of Economic
Research, Working Paper 6265.
Mechtenberg Lydia, Roland Strausz (2009), “Migration of the Highly Skilled: Can
Europe catch up with the US?” SFB 649 Discussion Paper 2009-048, 2009.
Migration Watch UK (2008), “The Lisbon European Union Reform Treaty Impact
on Asylum and Immigration Policy”, Migration Watch UK, Briefing Paper 8.23
Parkes Roderick, Angenendt Steffen (2010), “After The Blue Card EU Policy on
Highly Qualified Migration: Three Ways out of the Impasse”, Heinrich Böll
Stiftung Discussion Paper February 2010.
Robert W. Fairlie, Bruce D.Meyer (1997), “Does Immigration Hurt
African-American Self-Employment?” National Bureau of Economic Research,
Working Paper 6265.
T. Duncan Natasha, Brigitte S. Waldorf (2010), “High Skilled Immigrant
Recruitment and the global Economic Crisis: the Effects of Immigration
Policies”, Dept. of Agricultural Economics Purdue University Working Paper
10-1.
Wiesbrock Anja, Metka Hercog(2010), “The Legal Framework for Highly-Skilled
Migration to the EU: EU and US Labour Migration Policies compared”,
Working Paper MGSoG / 2010 / 001.
Wansleben Martin, Dirk Schlotboller, Susanne Lechner, Michael Liecke, Ilja
Nothnagel (2011), “The Economic Situation and Expectations for 2011”,
Results of a survey conducted by the Association of German Chambers of
Industry and Commerce (DIHK) Early Summer 2011.

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