淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1602200914282700
中文論文名稱 臺灣大學生使用英文補語結構能力之探討
英文論文名稱 An Investigation of Taiwanese University Students' Competence in Using English Complementation
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 徐小惠
研究生英文姓名 Hsiao-hui Hsu
學號 891010034
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-01-16
論文頁數 188頁
口試委員 指導教授-林春仲
委員-黃自來
委員-林啟一
委員-陳秀潔
委員-陳純音
中文關鍵字 英文補語結構  語法能力  文法教學  注意力  語法結構複雜度 
英文關鍵字 English complementation  grammatical competence  focus on form  negative evidence  attention  structure complexity 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討台灣大學生使用英文補語結構的能力。共有一百五十八位台灣北部四所大學的學生參與本研究。參與者依照外語能力測驗的分數分成三組。本研究的測試工具為七十題的英文補語結構測驗。本研究探討的英文補語結構有三:一為單賓語及物動詞補語結構(monotransitive complementation),二為雙賓語及物動詞補語結構(ditransitive complementation),三為複雜的及物動詞補語結構(complex transitive complementation)。本研究結果顯示,學習者使用英文補語結構的能力與其英文程度有正相關性。在三類英文補語結構表現上,受測者在雙賓語及物動詞表現最好,在單賓語及物動詞表現次之,而在複雜的及物動詞表現最差。受測者在英文補語結構異體的(variants)表現上不一,與異體的語法結構複雜度、動詞所允許的補語數量、動詞與其補語結構間語意相關性,以及學習者的語法能力與注意力容納力有關。
英文摘要 The recognition and the use of English complementation is among the most frequent and problematic types of grammatical errors seen in EFL learners. In an attempt to account for the different performance patterns of verb complementation among Taiwanese university students, this study aimed to investigate Taiwanese university learners’ production of English complementation. A total of one hundred and fifty-eight students participated in the study. The students were divided into three groups according to their scores in Foreign Language Proficiency Test. A total of seventy-item test, covering various aspects of verb complementation, was used in the study. Results of the study revealed that there was a positive relationship between the learners’ English proficiency and their competence in producing and using English complementation. In addition, the learners as a whole performed best in ditransitive complementation; second in monotransitive complementation; and worst in complex transitive complementation. But they performed differently in variants of different types of English complementation in accordance with the complexity of the structures, the number of complementation that a verb takes, and the syntactic and semantic categories of a matrix verb. Besides, the learners as a whole performed better in retrospective verbs than in aspectual verbs that allow both to-infinitive and gerund constructions.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Acknowledgements i
Chinese Abstract iii
English Abstract iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables ix
List of Figures xii
List of Appendices xiii
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem 3
1.2 Purpose of the Study 5
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Definitions of Terms 7
1.5 Significance of the Study 9
Chapter Two Review of the Literature 11
2.1 The Concept of Complementation 11
2.2 Development of the Approach to English Complementation 17
2.2.1 The Traditional Approach 17
2.2.2 The Structuralist Approach 19
2.2.3 The Transformational-Generative Approach 20
2.2.4 Semantic/Functional Approach 22
2.3 Empirical Studies on the L2 Acquisition of English
Complementation 28


2.4 Problems of Grammar Textbooks in Describing English
Complementation 36
2.5 Second Language Learning and Systems 38
2.5.1 Error Analysis 38
2.5.2 Focus on Form versus Focus on Forms 41
2.5.3 The Role of Attention in Language Learning 42
2.5.4 The Role of Negative Evidence 44
2.6 The Theory of Markedness 46
2.6.1 Markedness and Second Language Acquisition 47
2.7 Grammatical Knowledge in Language Learning 51
2.7.1 What is Grammar 51
2.7.2 The Role of Grammatical Competence 53
2.8 The Role of Form-focused Instruction 56
2.8.1 Form-focused Instruction and the Development of
L2 Proficiency 57
2.9 Purpura’s Theory of Grammatical Knowledge 60
2.10 A Theory of Second Language Production 61
2.11 Theoretical Framework of the Study 62
Chapter Three Methodology 63
3.1 Participants 63
3.2 Participants’ English Proficiency 64
3.3 Grouping 66
3.4 Types of Verb Complementation Used in the Study 67
3.5 Variants of Three Types of Verb Complementation Investigated
in the Study 68
3.6 Materials 70
3.6.1 Task Design and Theoretical Constructs 70
3.7 Procedures 75
3.8 Data Collection 75
3.9 Scoring of the English Complementation Test 76
3.10 Statistical Analysis 81
Chapter Four Results 83
4.1 Learners’ English Proficiency vs. Competence in the Use of Verb Complementation 83
4.2 Learners’ Performance of the Six Tasks 84
4.3 Learners’ Performance of the Three Types of Verb Complementation 89
4.4 Learners’ Performance in Variants of Three Types of Verb
Complementation 93
4.4.1 Subsection A: Results of the Variants of Monotransitive Complementation 93
4.4.2 Subsection B: Results of the Variants of Complex Transitive Complementation 101
4.4.3 Subsection C: Results of the Variants of Ditransitive
Complementation 105
4.5 Learners’ Performance of Meaning-discrepancy Task 110
4.6 Learners’ Grammatical Competence and Learners’ Performance in Verb Complementation 115
4.7 Major Findings 116
Chapter Five Discussion 122
5.1 Learners’ English Proficiency and Competence in the Use of Verb Complementation 122

5.2 Learners’ Performance in Six Tasks 123
5.3 Learners’ Performance of the Three Types of Verb Complementation 127
5.4 Learners’ Performance in Variants of Three Types of Verb
Complementation 131
5.4.1 Section A: Findings of the Variants of Monotransitive Complementation 131
5.4.2 Section B: Findings of the Variants of Complex Transitive Complementation 135
5.4.3 Section C: Findings of the Variants of Ditransitive
Complementation 137
5.5 Learners’ Performance of Meaning-discrepancy Task 139
5.6 Learners’ Grammatical Competence and the Performance of English
Complementation 142
Chapter Six Conclusions 145
6.1 Pedagogical Implications 149
6.2 Limitations of the Study 153
6.3 Recommendations for Further Research 154
References 156
Appendices 178

List of Tables


Table 3.1 Student Grouping 67

Table 3.2 Three Types of Verb Complementation 68

Table 3.3 Variants of Monotransitive Complementation Type 68

Table 3.4 Variants of Complex Transitive Complementation 69

Table 3.5 Variants of Ditransitive Complementation 70

Table 3.6 Verbs Used in Task I 71

Table 3.7 Verbs Used in Task II 72

Table 3.8 Verbs Used in Task III 72

Table 3.9 Verbs Used in Task IV 73

Table 3.10 Verbs Used in Task V 73

Table 3.11 Verbs Used in Task VI 74

Table 4.1 Correlation between Learners’ FLPT Scores and Their Verb Complementation Test Scores 84

Table 4.2 Performance of the Six Tasks 85

Table 4.3 One-way ANOVA—Comparing the Mean Scores in Verb
Complementation Test of the Groups 86

Table 4.4 Cross Comparison of the Performance between Groups in Verb Complementation Test 88

Table 4.5 Mean Scores of Three Types of Verb Complementation 89

Table 4.6 One-way ANOVA—Comparing the Mean Scores of Different Groups
in Different Types of Verb Complementation 90

Table 4.7 Cross Comparison of the Differences of Different Groups 91

Table 4.8 Paired-samples t-Test for Different Types of Verb Complementation 92

Table 4.9 Mean Scores of Variants of Monotransitive Complementation 93

Table 4.10 One-way ANOVA—Comparing the Mean Scores in Different
Variants of Monotransitive Complementation 97

Table 4.11 Cross Comparison of the Performance between the Three Groups 98

Table 4.12 Mean Scores of the Three Variants of Complex Transitive Complementation 101

Table 4.13 One-way ANOVA—Comparing the Three Variants of Complex
Transitive Complementation between the Groups 103

Table 4.14 Cross Comparison of the Three Variants of Complex Transitive Complementation between the Three Groups 103

Table 4.15 Paired-samples t-Test for Differences between Variants of Complex Transitive Complementation 105

Table 4.16 Mean Scores in the Three Variants of Ditransitive
Complementation 106

Table 4.17 One-way ANOVA—Comparing the Three Variants of Ditransitive Complementation between the Groups 107

Table 4.18 Cross Comparison of the Three Variants of Ditransitive
Complementation between the Three Groups 108

Table 4.19 Paired-samples t-Test for Differences between Variants of
Ditransitive Complementation 109

Table 4.20 Mean Scores in the Meaning-discrepancy Test 110

Table 4.21 One-way ANOVA—Comparing the Mean Scores in the Meaning-discrepancy Test 111

Table 4.22 Paired-samples t-Test for Significance in Aspectual and Retrospective Verbs 111

Table 4.23 Mean Scores of the Verbs that Take To-infinitive or Gerund 112

Table 4.24 One-way ANOVA—Differences in the Verbs Allowing Two
Constructions 113

Table 4.25 Cross Comparison between the Groups 113

Table 4.26 Paired-samples t-Test for Verbs Allowing To-infinitive or Gerund Construction 114

Table 4.27 Correlation between Learners’ Grammatical Competence Scores
and Their Verb Complementation Test Scores 115

List of Figures
Figure 1 Basic meaning of infinitive to 140

List of Appendices
Appendix A Syntactic Structures of Variants of Monotransitive Complementation 178

Appendix B Syntactic Structures of Variants of Complex Transitive Complementation 180

Appendix C Syntactic Structures of Variants of Ditransitive Complementation 181

Appendix D English Complementation Test 182
Appendix E Consent Form for the Study 188

參考文獻 References
Allwright, R. (1976). Language learning through communication practice. ELT Documents, 7, 2-14.
Anderson, J. I. (1976). The acquisition of English sentential complementation by adult native speakers of Puerto Rican Spanish. Unpublished doctoral dissertation: University of Illinois.
Anderson, J. I. (1978). Order of difficulty in adult second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie (Ed.), Second language acquisition research: Issues and implications (pp. 91-108). New York: Academic Press.
Anderson, J. I. (1980). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Anderson, J. I. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, J. I. (1993). Rules of the mind. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum.
Asher, J. (1982). Learning another language through actions: The complete teachers’ guidebook. Los Gatos: Sky Oaks.
Azar, B. S. (1989). Understanding and using English grammar. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.
Bachman, L. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bachman, L., & Palmer, A. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bart, W., & Krus, D. (1973). An ordering-theoretic method to determine hierarchies among items. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 33, 291-300.
Batstone, R. (1994). Grammar: Language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bialystock, E. (1978). Explicit and implicit judgments of L2 grammaticality. Language Learning, 29, 81-103.
Bialystock, E. (1981). The role of linguistic knowledge in second language use. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 4, 31-45.
Bialystock, E. (1989). Psycholinguistic dimensions of second language proficiency. In W. Rutherford & M. A. Sharwood Smith (Eds.), Grammar and second language teaching: A book of readings. New York: Newbury House.
Bialystock, E. (1990). The competence of processing: Classifying theories of second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 635-648.
Bialystock, E. (1994). Analysis and control in the development of second language proficiency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 157-168.
Bloom, L. (1991). Language development from two to three. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. New York: Holt, Rinehardt and Winston.
Bloom, L., Rispoli, M., Gartner, B., & Hafitz, J. (1989). Acquisition of complementation. Journal of Child Language, 16, 101-120.
Bloom, L., Tackeff, J., Lahey, M. (1984). Learning to in complement constructions. Journal of Child Language, 11, 391-406.
Bolinger, Dwight. (1968). Entailment and the meaning of structures. Glossa, 2, 119-127.
Breen, M., & Candlin, C. (1980). The essentials of communicative curriculum in language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 1, 89-112.
Brown, R. (1973). A first language. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Butler, Y. (2002). Second language learners’ theories on the use of English articles. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 451-480.
Butoyi, C. (1977). The accuracy order of sentential complements by ESL learners. Unpublished M.A. Thesis in TESL, UCLA.
Canale, M. (1983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J. C. Richards & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and communication. London: Longman.
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, 1-47.
Carr, T. H., & Curran, T. C1994). Cognitive factors in learning about structured sequences: Applications to syntax. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 205-230.
Carroll, S., & Swain, M. (1993). An empirical study of the learning of linguistic generalizations. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 357-386.
Celce-Murcia, M., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher’s course (2nd.). Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of theory and syntax. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1985). Knowledge of language. New York: Praeger.
Cook, S. J. (1996). A study of the acquisition of gerundive complements by non-native speakers. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Indiana University.
Cook, V. (1985). Universal grammar and second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 6, 2-18.
DeFilippo J., & Mackey, D. (1994). Grammar plus: A basic skills course. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

DeKeyser, R. (1998). Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing in L2 grammar. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 42-63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dickerson, L. (1975). The learner’s interlanguage as a system of variable rules. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 401-407.
Diessel, H., & Tomasello, M. (2001). The acquisition of finite complement clauses in English: A corpus-based analysis. Cognitive Linguistics, 12, 97-141.
Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Issues and terminology. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 42-63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Duffley, P. J. (1992). The English infinitives. London: Longman.
Duffley, P. J. (2000). Gerund vs. Infinitive as complements of transitive verbs in English: The problem of ‘tense’ and ‘control’. Journal of English Linguistics, 28, 221-248.
Dulay, H., & Burt, M. (1973). Should we teach children syntax? Language Learning, 23, 245-258.
Dulay, H., & Burt, M. (1974). Natural sequence in child second language acquisition. Language Learning, 24, 37-53.
Duskova, L. (1969). Sources of errors in foreign language learning. IRAL, 7, 11-36.
Ellis, N. C. (1993). Rules and instances in foreign language learning: Interactions of explicit and implicit knowledge. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 5, 289-318.
Ellis, N. C. (2003). Constructions, chunking, and connectionism: The emergence of second language structures. In C. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Ellis, R. (1986). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (1988). Classroom second language development. New York: Prentice Hall.
Ellis, R. (1990). Instructed second language acquisition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Ellis, R. (1991). Grammar teaching practice or consciousness-raising? In R. Ellis (Ed.), Second language acquisition and second language pedagogy (pp. 232-241). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Ellis, R. (1993). The structural syllabus and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 27, 91-113.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2001). Investigating form-focused instruction. Language Learning, 51, 1-46.
Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, L. (2001). Preemptive focus on form in the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 407-432.
Fanego, T. (2004). Is cognitive grammar a usage-based model? Towards a realistic account of English sentential complements. A Journal of English and American Studies, 29, 1-36.
Felix, S. W. (1981). The effects of formal instruction on second language acquisition. Language Learning, 31, 87-112.
Fries, C. (1945). Teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Fotos, S., & Ellis, R. (1991). Communicating about grammar: A task-based approach. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 605-628.
Fuchs, M., & Bonner, M. (1995). Focus on grammar. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Gass, S. M. (1991). Grammar instruction, selective attention, and learning. In R. Phillipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research (pp. 124-141). Clevedon, U.K.: Multilingual Matters.
Gass, S., & Selinker, L. (1994). Second language acquisition: An introductory course. New Jersey: Erlbaum.
Goldberg, A. E. (1995). Constructions: A construction grammar approach to argument structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Green, P., & Hecht, K. (1992). Implicit and explicit grammar: An empirical study. Applied Linguistics, 13, 168-184.
Hart, B., & Schacter, J. (1976). Research in interlanguage: Syntax. Unpublished mimeograph: University of Southern California.
Hatch, E. (1978). Second language acquisition. Rowley: Newbury House.
Higgs, T., & Clifford, R. (1982). The push toward communication. In T. Higgs (Ed.), Curriculum, competence, and the foreign language teacher (pp. 57-79). Lincolnwood: National Textbook Company.
Higgs, Theodore V. (1985). Teaching grammar for proficiency. Foreign Language Annals, 18, 289-296.
Hinkel, E., & Fotos, S. (Eds.), (2002). New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Huang, S. (2003). Doubts about complementation: A functionalist analysis. Language and Linguistics, 4, 429-455.
Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K. (2002). The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hulstijn, J. H., & de Graaf, R. (1994). Under what conditions does explicit knowledge of a second language facilitate the acquisition of implicit knowledge? A research proposal. AILA Review, 11, 97-112.
Hyltenstam, K. (1977). Implicational patterns in interlanguage syntax variation. Language Learning, 27, 383-411.
Hymes, D. (1972). Models of the interaction of language and social life. In J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (pp. 35-71). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 269-293). England: Penguin Books.
Ioup, G. (1983). According complex sentences in ESL. In K. M. Bailey, M. H. Long, & S. Peck. Second language acquisition studies (pp. 41-55). Rowley: Newbury House.
Jacobs, R. A. (1995). English syntax: A grammar for English language professionals.
Jespersen, O. (1914-40). A modern English Grammar: On historical principles. Volume II-V. Copenhagan: Einar Munksgaard.
Jespersen, O. (1939). Essentials of English grammar. New York: H. Holt.
Kidd, E., Lieven, E., & Tomasello, M. (2005). The acquisition of complement clause constructions: A sentence repetition study. In E. V. Clard (Ed.), Construction and acquisition: Proceedings of the 2004 Stanford child language research forum (pp. 50-59). Standford, CA: Center for the study of language and information.
Kiparsky, P., & Kiparsky, C. (1970). Fact. In D. Steinberg and L. Jakobovits (Eds.), Semantics: An interdisciplinary reader in philosophy, linguistics, and psychology (pp.345-369). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford; Pergamon.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Lincolnwood: Laredo Publishing.
Krashen, S. (1994). The input hypothesis and its rivals. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of language (pp. 45-77). London: Academic Press.
Krashen, S. D. (1992). Under what conditions, if any, should formal grammar instruction take place? TESOL Quarterly, 26, 409-411.
Krashen, S., & Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. Oxford: Pergamon.
Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1976). An explanation of the morpheme accuracy order of learners of English as a second language. Language Learning, 26, 125-134.
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition theory and research. London: Longman.
Liceras, J. (1985). The role of intake in the determination of learners’ competence. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition. Rowley: Newbury House.
Lightbown, P. (1985). Great expectations: Second language acquisition research and classroom teaching. Applied Linguistics, 6, 173-189.
Limber, J. (1973). The genesis of complex sentences. In T. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive development and the acquisition of language (pp. 169-185). New York: Academic Press.
Lin, C. C. (2004). Translation and second language acquisition. Lecture notes. Tamkang University, Taipei.
Lin, C. C. (2006). Form-focused instruction. Lecture notes. Tamkang University, Taipei.
Logan, G. (1988). Toward an instance theory of automatization. Psychological Review, 95, 492-527.
Long, M. H. (1981). Input, interaction and second language acquisition. In H. Winitz (Ed.), Nature language and foreign language acquisition (pp. 259-278). Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Vol. 379.
Long, M. H. (1983). Does second language instruction make a difference? A review of research. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 359-382.
Long, M. H. (1990). Maturational constraints on language development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 251-286.
Long, M. H. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in second language teaching methodology. In K. De Bot, R. Ginsberg, & C. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign Language Research in a Cross-cultural Perspective (p. 39-52). Amsterdam: John Benjamin.
Long, M. H. (1993). Second language acquisition as a function of age: Research findings and methodological issues. In K. Hyltenstam & V. Viberg (Eds.), Progression and regression in language (pp. 196-221). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Long, M. H. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of research on second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). New York: Academic Press.
Long, M. H., & Robinson, R. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research, and practice. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 15-41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lyster, R. (1994). The effect of functional-analytic teaching on aspects of French immersion students’ sociolinguistic competence. Applied Linguistics, 15, 263-287.
Mazurkewich, I. (1984a). The acquisition of the dative alternation by second language learners and linguistic theory. Language Learning, 34, 91-109.
Mazurkewich, I. (1984b). Dative questions and markedness. In F. Eckman, L. Bell, & D. Nelson (Eds.), Universals of second language acquisition. Rowley: Newbury House.
Mazurkewich, I. (1988). The acquisition of infinitive and gerund compliments by second language learners. In S. Flynn & W. O’Neil (Eds.), Linguistic theory in second language acquisition (pp. 127-143). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
McLaughlin, B. (1987). Theories of second language learning. London: Edward Arnold.
McLaughlin, B. (1990). Restructuring. Applied Linguistics, 11, 113-128.
Meisel, J., Clahsen, H., & Pienemann, M. (1981). On determining developmental stages in natural second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 3, 109-135.
Mills, D. G. (1987). Infinitival verb complementation: Theory and usage as a basis for pedagogy. World Englishes, 6, 227-239.
Murphy, R. (1999). Basic grammar in use: Reference and practice for students of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Newport, E. (1990). Maturation constraints on language learning. Cognitive Science, 14, 11-28.
Odlin, T. (Ed.). (1994). Perspectives on pedagogical grammar. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Omaggio, A. C. (1986). Teaching language in context: Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., & Walker, C. (1987). Some applications of cognitive theory to second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9, 287-306.
Pavesi, M. (1986). Markedness, discoursal modes, and relative clause formation in a formal and informal context. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 8, 38-55.
Pica, T. (1983). Adult acquisition of English as a second language under different conditions of exposure. Language Learning, 33, 465-497.
Pienemann, M. (1988). Determining the influence of instruction on L2 speech processing. AILA Review, 5, 40-72.
Pienemann, M. (1989). Is language teachable? Psycholinguistic experiments and hypotheses. Applied Linguistics, 10, 83-113.
Pinker, S. (1984). Language learnability and language development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Pooley, R. C. (1996). The teaching of English usage. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers.
Prabhu, N. S. (1987). Second language pedagogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Purpura, J. (2004). Assessing grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
Rea-Dickins, P. (1991). What makes a grammar test communicative? In J. Alderson, & B. North (Eds.), Language teaching in the 1990s: the communicative legacy (pp. 112-131). London: MacMillan.
Rea-Dickins, P. (1997). The testing of grammar in a foreign language. In C. Clapham, & D. Corson (Eds.), Language testing and assessment (pp. 87-97). Victoria, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Reber, A. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 118, 219-235.
Reber, A. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Reber, A., Dassim, S., Lewis, S., & Cantor, G. (1980). On the relationship between implicit and explicit modes in the learning of a complex rule structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 492-502.
Richards, J. (1971). Error analysis and second language strategies. Language Science, 17, 12-22.
Richards, J. (1973). A noncontrastive approach to error analysis. In J. Oller & J. Richards (Eds.), Focus on the learner: Pragmatic perspectives for the language teacher. Rowley: Newbury House.
Robinson, P. (1996). Consciousness, rules, and instructed second language acquisition. New York: Peter Lang.
Robinson, P. (1996). Learning simple and complex second language rules under implicit, incidental, rule-search, and instructed conditions. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 27-67.
Robinson, P. (2003). Attention and memory during SLA. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 631-677). Massachusetts: Blackwell.
Rodriguez-Bachiller, B. (1985). Learning the conceptual boundaries of difficult lexical pairs: CAI for intermediate ESL vocabulary. Michigan: University Microfilms International.
Roeper, T. (1979). Linguistic universals and the acquisition of gerunds. In H. Gookluck, & L. Solan (Eds.), University of Massachusetts occasional papers in linguistics, 4, 3-36.
Rutherford, W., & Sharwood Smith, M. (1985). Consciousness-raising and universal grammar. Applied Linguistics, 6, 274-282.
Rutherford, W. (1987). The meaning of grammatical consciousness-raising. World Englishes, 6, 209-216.
Schachter, J. (1974). An error in error analysis. Language Learning, 27, 205-214.
Scharwood Smith, M. A. (1988). Consciousness raising and the second language learner. In W. Rutherford & M. A. Sharwood Smith (Eds.), Grammar and second language teaching: A book of readings. New York: Newbury House.
Schmidt, R. (1983). Interaction, acculturation, and the acquisition of communicative competence. In N. Woflson, & J. Manes (Eds.), sociolinguistics and second language acquisition (pp. 137-174). Massachusetts: Newbury House.
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 17-46.
Schmidt, R. (1993). Awareness and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 206-226.
Schulz, R. A. (2001). Cultural differences in students and teacher perceptions concerning the role of grammar instruction and corrective feedback: USA –Columbia. The Modern Language Journal, 85, 244-258.
Schwarte, B. S. (1982). The acquisition of English sentential complementation by adult speakers of Finnish. Denmarks: Pedagogiske Bibliotek.
Scott, V. (1989). An empirical study of explicit and implicit teaching strategies in French. Modern Language Journal, 73, 14-22.
Scott, V. (1990). Explicit and implicit grammar teaching strategies: New empirical data. French Review, 63, 779-789.
Seiba, W. (2001). Classroom instruction and second language acquisition: The effect of explicit form-focused instruction on L2 learners’ linguistic competence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Mississippi, Mississippi.
Selinker, L, (1972). Interlanguage. Interlanguage Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 10, 209-231.
Selinker, L, Swain, M., & Dumas, G. (1975). The interlanguage hypothesis extended to children. Language Learning, 25, 139-152.
Sharwood Smith, M. (1981). Consciousness-raising and the second language learner. Applied Linguistics, 2, 159-169.
Sorace, A. (1985). Metalinguistic knowledge and language use in acquisition-poor environments. Applied Linguistics, 6, 239-254.
Spada, N., & Lightbown, P. M. (1993). Instruction and the development of questions in L2 classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 205-224.
Stockwell, R. P., Schachter, P., & Partee, B. H. (1973). The major syntactic structures of English. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensive input and comprehensive output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition. Massachusetts: Newbury House.
Swain, M. (1985). Large-scale communicative language testing: A case study. In Y. Lee, et al (Eds.), New directions in language testing. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Swain, M. (1991). French immersion and its offshoots: Getting two for one. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Foreign language research and the classroom (pp. 91-103). Massachusetts: D. C. Heath.
Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principles and practice in applied linguistics (pp. 125-144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Swain, M. (1998). Focus on form through conscious reflection. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 64-81). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Terell, T. (1977). A natural approach to second language acquisition and learning. Modern Language Journal, 61, 325-336.
Thornbury, S. (1998). Comments on “Direct approaches in L2 instruction”. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 109-116.
Tomlin, R. S., & Villa, V. (1994). Attention in cognitive science and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 183-203.
Trahey, M., & White, L. (1993). Positive evidence and preemption in the second language classroom. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 181-204.
VanPatten, B. (1989). Can learners attend to form and content while processing input? Hispania, 72, 409-417.
VanPatten, B. (1990). Attending to form and content in the input: An experiment in consciousness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 287-301.
VanPatten, B. (1996). Input processing and grammar instruction. New York: Ablex.
VanPatten, B., & Cadierno, T. (1993). Explicit instruction and input processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 225-241.
Vickers, C. H. (2001). Indirect negative evidence as corrective feedback in second language writing: Comparing output to input. Arizona Working Papers in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching, 8, 27-39.
Weinreich, U. (1980). Explorations in semantic theory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
White, L. (1991). Adverb placement in second language acquisition: Some effects of positive and negative evidence in the classroom. Second Language Research, 7, 133-161.
Wherrity, M. P. (2005). The gerund/infinitive contrast in English verb complementation. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Karlstad University, Sweden.
Widdowson, H. G. (1978). Teaching language as communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Widdowson, H. G. (1989). Knowledge of language and ability for use. Applied Linguistics, 10, 128-137.
Wierzbicka, Anna. (1988). The semantics of grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Williams, J., & Evans, J. (1998). What kind of focus and on which forms? In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 139-115). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yule, G. (2006). Oxford practice grammar: Advanced. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2011-03-02公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2011-03-02起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信