||Chinese Internet Law in the Context of Social Media, Web 2.0, and the Global Digital Economy
||Graduate Institute of China Studies
Chinese Internet Policy
Social Media in China
||The present research investigates Chinese Internet law and the compliance environment of Social Media, Web 2.0 in Mainland China in the context of the Global Digital Economy. Global market leaders such as Facebook, Youtube and Twitter do not have a presence on the Chinese market due to the strict Chinese compliance environment. Commonly, these regulations are attributed to the Chinese government attempting to exercise control over information and the expression of ideas and opinions. Chinese Internet law is first analysed thoroughly from multiple angles, folllowed by an examination of the compliance enforcement strategy followed by the Chinese government. In doing so, this research presents new perspectives on the motivations, objectives, contributions, and implications of Chinese Internet law.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
LIST OF FIGURES iv
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS vi
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research Questions 3
1.3 Relevance and Contribution 4
1.4 Methodology 5
1.5 Framework 8
1.6 Structure 9
CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 Taxonomy of Literature 11
2.2 Evaluative Approach Literature 12
2.2.1 Human Rights 13
2.2.2 Trade Law 15
2.2.3 Human Rights-Trade Law Synthesis 18
2.2.4 Sovereignty 19
2.3 Explanatory Approach Literature 20
2.3.1 National Security 21
2.3.2 Cultural Security 23
2.3.3 Internet Governance 24
2.3.4 Legal Theory 25
CHAPTER III. THE INTERNET 27
3.1 Historical Development of the Internet 27
3.2 United States Hegemony Over the Internet 29
3.2.1 Conceptual-Administrative Dimension 30
3.2.2 Innovation Dimension 36
3.2.3 Economic Dimension 39
3.2.3 Market Dimension 41
3.3 Social Media/Web 2.0 in China 46
3.3.1 Leading Social Media/Web 2.0 Services 47
3.3.2 Revenue Model and Performance 47
3.3.3 User Value 50
3.4 Global Adoption of Chinese Social Media/Web 2.0 Services 51
3.5 Chapter Conclusion 52
CHAPTER IV. CHINESE INTERNET LAW 54
4.1 Historical Political and Economic Setting 54
4.2 Summary of Chinese Internet Law 59
4.3 Early Internet Period 61
4.4 Social Media/Web 2.0 Period 67
4.5 Chapter Conclusion 69
CHAPTER V. MANAGEMENT OF THE CHINESE INTERNET 70
5.1 Theory of Enforcement 70
5.2 Means of Enforcement 72
5.3 Enforcement Dichotomy 74
5.4 Chapter Conclusion 76
CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 78
6.1 Effects on the Social Media/Web 2.0 Market in China 78
6.2 Motivations and Objectives of Chinese Internet Law 79
6.3 Contributions of Chinese Internet Law 80
6.4 Implications of Chinese Internet Law 82
6.4 Recommendations for Further Research 82
VII. REFERENCES 84
7.1 Books 84
7.2 Academic Journals 91
7.3 Other Papers, Reports and Theses 99
7.4 International Treaties 101
7.5 Statutes and Legislation 101
7.6 Cases 102
7.7 Government Publications 102
7.8 Internet Resources 103
List of Figures
1.1 Legal research styles 5
1.2 Research methodology 7
1.3 Research framework 8
2.1 Evaluative approach in literature 11
2.2 Explanatory approach in literature 12
3.1 Historical development of the Internet 28
3.2 Dimensions of United States hegemony on the Internet 29
3.3 The World Wide Web as an application layer of the Internet 32
3.4 Transfer in IANA responsibility from NTIA to ICANN and RIRs 33
3.5 Global market leadership of Social Media/Web 2.0 services 42
3.6 Chinese Social Media Advertising Revenue (in million US$) 48
3.7 U.S. Social Media Advertising Revenue (in million US$) 49
4.1 Content management in the Web 1.0 environment 67
4.2 Multi-directional content in Web 2.0 67
5.1 Pyramid model of enforcement strategies 71
5.2 Framework of Chinese Internet management 72
6.1 Internet Plus and the convergence of industries 81
List of Tables
2.1 Legal framework distribution of evaluative literature 13
2.2 Thematic distribution of explanatory literature 21
3.1 Major actors in global Internet governance 35
3.2 Acquisitions of selected United States Internet companies 38
3.3 Selection of global popular Social Media services 2008 43
3.4 Worldwide Social Media/Web 2.0 advertising revenue 45
3.5 China Social Media/Web 2.0 demographics 46
3.6 Most popular Social Media/Web 2.0 services in China 47
3.7 Social Media user value 51
3.8 Ten largest Social Media/Web 2.0 services by users 51
4.1 Selection of Unequal Treaties imposed on China by foreign powers 57
4.2 Summary of Chinese Internet regulation 60
5.1 Test of Wikipedia and Facebook access in China 75
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Heinrich, Thomas. "Cold War Armory: Military Contracting in Silicon Valley." Enterprise & Society 3, no. 2 (June 2002): 247–84.
Hsiao, Monica. "China and the GATT: Two Theories of Political Economy Explaining China's Desire for Membership in the GATT." Pacific Basin Law Journal 12, no. 2 (1994): 431–54.
Huang, Ting 黃婷. "Weixin zhifu yu zhifubao de duilei" 微信支付與支付寶的對壘 [The Competition between Wechat Pay and Alipay]. Jingmao shijian 經貿實踐, no. 9 (2015): 148.
Huang, Xuexian 黃學賢, and Chen Feng 陳峰. "Hulianwang Guanzhi Beijing Xia De Wangluo Renquan Baozhang Tixi Tanxi" 互聯網管制背景下的網絡人權保障體系探析 [An Analysis of Human Rights on the Internet in the Context of Internet Regulation]. Shanghai zhengfa xueyuan xuebao: fazhi luncong 上海政法學院學報：法治論叢 23, no. 2 (2008): 24–32.
Huang, Yongyin 黃永垠. "Hulianwang Yu Guojia Anquan" 互聯網與國家安全 [the Internet and National Security]." Zhongguo dangzheng ganbu luntan 中國黨政幹部論壇, no. 2 (2010): 16–18.
Hutchinson, Terry, and Nigel Duncan. "Defining and Describing What We Do: Doctrinal Legal Research." Deakin Law Review 17, no. 1 (October 2012): 83–118.
Ianchovichina, Elena, and Will Martin. "Trade Liberalization in China's Accession to WTO." Journal of Economic Integration 16, no. 4 (December 2001): 421–46.
Jensen, Eric Talbot. "Cyber Sovereignty: The Way Ahead." Texas International Law Journal 50, no. 2 (2015): 274–302.
Jiang, Min. "Authoritarian Informationalism: China’s Approach to Internet Sovereignty." SAIS Review 30, no. 2 (Summer 2010): 71–89.
Jones, Brian Christopher. "The Online/Offline Cognitive Divide: Implications for Law." SCRIPTed 13, no. 1 (May 2016): 83–94.
Kanbur, Ravi, and Xiaobo Zhang. "Fifty Years of Regional Inequality in China: A Journey Through Central Planning, Reform, and Openness." Review of Development Economics 9, no. 1 (February 2005): 87–106.
Kim, Sung Wook, and Aziz Douai. "Google vs. China’s ‘Great Firewall’: Ethical Implications for Free Speech and Sovereignty." Technology in Society 34, no. 2 (May 2012): 174–81.
King, Gary, Jennifer Pan, and Margaret E. Roberts. "How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression." American Political Science Review 107, no. 2 (May 2013): 326–43.
Lai, Linda S.L., and Wai-Ming To. "The Emergence of China in the Internet Market." IT Professional 14, no. 1 (Jan. & feb. 2012): 6–9.
Li, Charles. "Internet Content Control in China." International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, no. 8 (Winter 2003/2004).
Li, Qiang 李強, and Zeng Wei 曾薇. "Wangluo anquan zhili zhong de guoji xiezuo" 網絡安全治理中的國際協作 [International Collaboration of Network Security Governance]. Zhongguo keji luntan 中國科技論壇, no. 11 (2016): 26–31.
Li, Yueming 李月明. "Hulianwang shi yu xia woguo wenhua anquan wenti de sikao" 互聯網視閾下我國文化安全問題的思考 [Reflections on China's Cultural Security from the Perspective of the Internet]. Shishi qiushi 實事求是, no. 5 (2014): 94–96.
Liang, Bin, and Hong Lu. "Internet Development, Censorship, and Cyber Crimes in China." Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 26, no. 1 (February 2010): 103–20.
Liu, Cynthia. "Internet Censorship as a Trade Barrier: A Look at the WTO Consistency of the Great Firewall in the Wake of the China-Google Dispute." Georgetown Journal of International Law 42, no. 4 (Summer 2011): 1199–240.
Liu, Yi 劉乙, and Li Changxi 李長喜. "Hulianwang falü guizhi moshi de tantao" 互聯網法律規制模式的探討 [Study on the pattern of legislative regulation of the Internet]. Beijing youdian daxue xuebao (shehui kexue ban) 北京郵電大學學報（社會科學版） 11, no. 2 (2009): 23–28.
Lin, Yunlong 李雲龍. "Hulianwang shidai zhongguo yanlun ziyou kongjian de tazhan" 互聯網時代中國言論自由空間的拓展 [The Develoment of Free Speech in China in the Internet Era]. Renquan 人權, no. 3 (2013): 28–33.
Lu, Donghua 陸冬華, and Qi Xiaoli 齊小力. "Woguo wangluo anquan lifa wenti yanjiu" 我國網絡安全立法問題研究 [A Study of Legal Issues in Chinese Internet Security]. Zhongguo renmin gongan daxue xuebao (shehui kexue ban) 中國人民公安大學學報（社會科學版）, no. 3 (2014): 58–64.
Ma, Jie 馬傑. "Quanqiu hulianwang de fazhan ji qi dui guojia anquan de yingxiang" 全球互聯網的發展及其對國家安全的影響 [The Development of the Global Internet and Its Impact on National Security]. Shijie jingji yu zhengzhi 世界經濟與政治, no. 10 (2000): 48–52.
Ma, Huxuan 馬舒萱, and Zhang Shixiao 張世曉. "Hulianwang jinrong fengxian ji qi jianguan yanjiu — yi di sanfang zhifu wei li" 互聯網金融風險及其監管研究—以第三方支付為例 [Research on the Financial Risks and Their Supvervision on the Internet - the Case of Third Party Payments]. Shangchang xiandaihua 商場現代化, no. 13 (2016): 144–48.
MacKinnon, Rebecca. "Flatter World and Thicker Walls? Blogs, Censorship and Civic Discourse in China." Public Choice 134, no. 1 (January 2008): 31–46.
Mueller, Milton. "ICANN and Internet governance: sorting through the debris of “self‐regulation”." Info 1, no. 6 (December 1999): 497–520.
Newbold, Jill R. "Aiding the Enemy: Imposing Liability on U.S. Corporations for Selling China Internet Tools to Restrict Human Rights." Journal of Law, Technology and Policy, no. 2 (2003): 503–29.
Ning, Jiajun 宁家骏. "Hulianwang +” xingdong jihua de shishi beijing, neihan ji zhuyao neirong" “互聯網+”行動計劃的實施背景、內涵及主要內容 [Implementation, Background, Connotation, and Main Contents of Internet Plus]. Dianzi zhengwu 電子政務, no. 6 (2015): 32–38.
Patni, Ritika, and Nihal Joseph. "WTO Ramifications of Internet Censorship: The Google-China Controversy." NUJS Law Review 3, no. 3 (July 2010): 337–63.
Pauwelyn, Joost. "Squaring Free Trade in Culture with Chinese Censorship: The WTO Appellate Body Report on China - Audiovisuals." Melbourne Journal of International Law 11, no. 1 (May 2011): 1–22.
Pekkanen, Saadia. "Sword and Shield: The WTO Dispute Settlement System and Japan." Japanese Economy 28, no. 5 (2000): 3–26.
Qin, Julia Ya. "Pushing the Limits of Global Governance: Trading Rights, Censorship and WTO Jurisprudence—A Commentary on the China–Publications Case." Chinese Journal of International Law 10, no. 2 (June 2011): 271–332.
Reed, Chris. "Online and Offline Equivalence: Aspiration and Achievement." International Journal of Law and Information Technology 18, no. 3 (May 2010): 248–73.
Reichenberg, Joel R. "Yahoo and Democracy on the Internet." Jurimetrics 42, no. 3 (Spring 2002): 261–80.
Rogers, Juan D. "Internetworking and the Politics of Science: NSFNET in Internet History." The Information Society 14, no. 3 (1998): 213–28.
Rosenzweig, Roy. "Wizards, Bureaucrats, Warriors, and Hackers: Writing the History of the Internet." American Historical Review 103, no. 5 (December 1998): 1530–552.
Saxenian, Annalee. "The Genesis of Silicon Valley." Built Environment 9, no. 1 (1983): 7–17.
Scholz, John T. "Voluntary Compliance and Regulatory Enforcement." Law & Policy 6, no. 4 (October 1984): 385–404.
Shen, Yi. "Cyber Sovereignty and the Governance of Global Cyberspace." Chinese Political Science Review 1, no. 1 (2016): 81–93.
Shi Wenxuan 史文璇. "Wangluo shidai de guojia anquan" 網絡時代的國家安全 [National Security in the Internet Age]. Sheng bing shijie 聲屏世界, no. 6 (2015): 12–14.
Shi, Zhongying 石中英. "Lun guojia wenhua anquan" 論國家文化安全 [on Cultural Security in China]. Beijing shifan daxue xuebao (shehui kexue ban) 北京師範大學學報（社會科學版）, no. 3 (2004): 5–14.
Sullivan, Jonathan. "China’s Weibo: Is Faster Different?" New Media & Society 16, no. 1 (February 2014): 24–37.
Sum, Ngai-Ling. "Informational Capitalism and U.S. Economic Hegemony: Resistance and Adaptions in East Asia." Critical Asian Studies 35, no. 3 (2003): 373–98.
Tang, Kechao 唐克超. "Wangluo yulun dui guojia anquan yingxiang wenti tanxi" 網絡輿論對國家安全影響問題探析 [Discussion and Analysis of the Impact of Public Opinion in the Web upon National Security]. Zhongguo ruan kexue 中國軟科學, no. 6 (2008): 56–62.
Taylor, John H. "The Internet in China: Embarking on the Information Superhighway with One Hand on the Wheel and the Other Hand on the Plug." Dickinson Journal of International Law 15, no. 3 (1997): 621–42.
Tian, Guangning田光寧. "Hulianwang jinrong fazhan de lalun kuangjia yu guizhi yueshu" 互聯網金融發展的理論框架與規制約束 [The Theoretical Framework and Regulation Constraints of the Development of Internet Finance]. Hongguan jingji yanjiu 宏觀經濟研究, no. 12 (2014): 42–48.
Traubman, Geoffry. "A Not-So World Wide Web: The Internet, China, and the Challenges to Nondemocratic Rule." Political Communication 15, no. 2 (1998): 255–72.
Wang, Xiaojun 王曉君. "Lun woguo hulianwang falü de lifa wanshan" 論我國互聯網法律的立法完善 [On Improvement of Internet Legislation]. Xue lilun 學理論, no. 1 (2017): 111–114.
Wang, Yujun 汪育俊. "Quanmian lijie “guojia anquan” gainian" 全面理解“國家安全”概念 [A Comprehensive Interpretation of National Security]." Jiangnan shehui xueyuan xuebao 江南社會學院學報 2, no. 1 (2000): 4–7.
Wang, Zhe 王哲. "GATS xia zhongguo hulianwang guolü shencha zhidu falü wenti yanjiu - yi guge sousuo yinqing zhengduan wei shijiao" GATS下中國互聯網過濾審查制度法律問題研究——以谷歌搜索引擎爭端為視角 [Legal Issues in China´s Internet Filtering Censorship Regime under GATS - on the Perspective of Google Search Engine Dispute]. Shanghai duiwai maoyi daxue xuebao 上海對外經貿大學學報 21, no. 2 (2015): 67–76.
Weber, Ian, and Lu Jia. "Internet and self-regulation in China: the cultural logic of controlled commodification." Media, Culture & Society 29, no. 5 (September 2007): 772–89.
Wechsler, Andrea. "Intellectual property law in the People’s Republic of China: a powerful economic tool for innovation and development." China-EU Law Journal 1, no. 1-2 (November 2011): 3–54.
Wicker, Stephen B., and Stephanie M. Santoso. "Access to the Internet Is a Human Right." Communications of the ACM 56, no. 6 (June 2013): 43–46.
Wu, Tim. "The World Trade Law of Censorship and Internet Filtering." Chicago Journal of International Law 7, no. 1 (January 2006): 263–87.
Xu, Weimin 徐衛民. "Hulianwang wenhua anquan tixi cunzai de wenti ji duice" 互聯網文化安全體系存在的問題及對策 [Issues of Cultural Security on the Internet and their Countermeasures]. Xinwen zhanxian 新聞戰線, no. 9 (2015): 181–82.
Xu, Zhao 徐昭. "Weixin zhifu dui jinrong xiaofei zhe de yingxiang ji buzu tanxi" 微信支付對金融消費者的影響及不足探析 [Analysis of the Influence of Wechat Pay on Consumers]. Jingjishi 經濟師, no. 5 (2014): 145–46.
Yu, Lu 余麗. "Meiguo hulianwang zhanlue ji qi dui zhongguo zhengzhi wenhua anquan de yingxiang" 美國互聯網戰略及其對中國政治文化安全的影響 [An Analysis of America’s Cyber Strategy and Its Implication for China’s Political & Cultural Security]. Guoji luntan 國際論壇 14, no. 2 (2012): 7–13.
Yu, Zhigang 於志剛. "Wangluo anquan dui gonggong anquan, guojia anquan de qianru taishi he yingdui celüe" 網絡安全對公共安全、國家安全的嵌入態勢和應對策略 [The Way of Cybersecurity Inserting Public and National Security and Its Countermeasures]. Faxue luntan 法學論壇 29, no. 6 (2014): 5–19.
Zeng, Daniel, Hsinchun Chen, and Robert Lusch. "Social Media Analytics and Intelligence." IEEE Intelligent Systems 25, no. 6 (Nov. & dec. 2010): 13–16.
Zhang, Jianhua 張建華. "Sunzhongshan yu bu pingdeng tiaoyue gainian" 孫中山與不平等條約概念 [Sun Yat-sen and the Concept of Unequal Treaties]. Beijing daxue xuebao: Zhexue shehui kexue ban 北京大學學報：哲學社會科學版, no. 2 (2002): 115–122.
Zhang, Xiaopu 張曉樸. "Hulianwang jinrong jianguan de yuanze: tansuo xin jinrong jianguan fanshi" 互聯網金融監管的原則：探索新金融監管范式 [Principles on On-line Financing Regulation: A New Paradigm of Financial Regulation]. Jinrong jianguan yanjiu 金融監管研究, no. 2 (2014): 6–17.
Zhao, Wei 趙偉. "Dengxiaoping de guojifa sixiang yu goujian hexie shijie" 鄧小平的國際法思想與構建和諧世界 [Deng Xiaoping's Ideology of International Law and the Construction of a Harmonious World]. Maozedong dengxiaoping lilun yanjiu 毛澤東鄧小平理論研究, no. 3 (2009): 30–34.
Zhou, Hanhua 周漢華. "Hulianwang dui chuantong fazhi de tiaozhan" 互聯網對傳統法治的挑戰 [The Challenge of the Internet to Traditional Rule of Law]. Huanqiu falü pinglun 環球法律評論, no. 1 (2001): 59–60.
Zhou, Ping, and Loet Leydesdorff. "The Emergence of China as a Leading Nation in Science." Research Policy 35, no. 1 (2006): 83–104.
Zittrain, Jonathan, and Benjamin Edelman. "Internet filtering in China." IEEE Internet Computing 7, no. 2 (March & april 2003): 70–77.
7.3 Other Papers, Reports and Theses
Arthurs, Harry William. Law and Learning: Report to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Report. Ottawa, ON: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1983.
Baran, Katsiaryna S., and Wolfgang G. Stock. "Acceptance and quality perceptions of social network services in cultural context: Vkontakte as a case study." In Proceedings of the 9th International MultiConference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics (IMSCI 2015), 114–19. Orlando. Winter Garden, FL: International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 2015.
Brownlow, Josh, Mohamed Zaki, Andy Neely, and Florian Urmetzer. "Data and Analytics - Data-Driven Business Models: A Blueprint for Innovation." Cambridge Service Alliance, February 2015.
Chiu, Cindy, Chris Ip, and Ari Silverman. "Understanding Social Media in China." McKinsey Quarterly, April 2012.
"Digital, Social and Mobile in 2015." London: We are Social, 2015.
Erixon, Fredrik, Brian Hindley, and Hosuk Lee-Makiyama. Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law. Working paper. Vol. 12. ECIPE Working Paper. 2009.
Finn, Michael G. Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities 2011. Report. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2014.
Kanervo, Virpi Helena. "Do the Chinese Measures of Blocking and Filtering American Internet Search Engines Violate the China’s GATT and GATS Obligations?" Master's thesis, George Washington University, 2014.
Li, Yuanchao. "Provide New Driving Forces for Innovative Development of the World Economy." Address, World Economic Forum, Davos, January 21, 2016.
Mander, Jason, ed. Global Webindex. Report. January 21, 2015.
Market capitalization of the largest internet companies worldwide as of May 2017 (in billion U.S. dollars). Report. Statista, 2017. https://www.statista.com/statistics/277483/market-value-of-the-largest-internet-companies-worldwide/.
Most famous social network sites worldwide as of September 2017. Report. Statista, 2017. https://www.statista.com/statistics/272014/global-social-networks-ranked-by-number-of-users/.
National Science Board. Science and Engineering Indicators 2016. Report. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2016.
Poushter, Jacob. "Smartphone Ownership and Internet Usage Continues to Climb in Emerging Economies." Pew Research Center, 2016.
Social Media Advertising - China. Report. Statista, 2016. http://www.statista.com/outlook/220/117/social-media-advertising/china#market-revenue.
Social Media Advertising – Global Comparison. Report. Statista, 2016. http://www.statista.com/outlook/220/100/social-media-advertising/worldwide#.
Social Media Advertising – Europe. Report. Statista, 2016. http://www.statista.com/outlook/220/117/social-media-advertising/europe_states#market-revenue.
Social Media Advertising – United States. Report. Statista, 2016. http://www.statista.com/outlook/220/117/social-media-advertising/united_states#market-revenue.
Social Media Digital Market Outlook - China. Report. Statista, 2016. http://www.statista.com/statistics/277586/number-of-social-network-users-in-china/.
Xu, Xueyang, Z. Morley Mao, and J. Alex Haldermann. "Internet Censorship in China: Where Does the Filtering Occur?" Edited by Neil Spring and George F. Riley. In 12th International Conference, PAM 2011 Atlanta, GA, USA, March 20-22, 2011, 133–42. Proceedings of Passive and Active Measurement. Vol. 6579. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin: Springer, 2011.
Zebregs, Harm, and Wanda Tseng. Foreign Direct Investment in China: Some Lessons for Other Countries. Working paper. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2002.
7.4 International Treaties
Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union  OJ C 326/47.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, GA Res 217A (III), UN GAOR, 3rd sess, 183rd plen mtg, UN Doc A/810 (10 December 1948).
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171 (entered into force 23 March 1976).
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, opened for signature 16 December 1966, 993 UNTS 3 (entered into force 3 January 1976).
7.5 Statutes and Legislation
«互聯網信息服務管理辦法» [Administrative Measures for Internet Information Services] (People’s Republic of China) State Council, 25 September 2000, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2000年12月10日第34號（總號：997）[State Council Gazette], No 34, 10 December 2000, 997.
«互聯網文化管理暫行規定» [Interim Provisions on the Administration of Internet Culture] (People’s Republic of China) Ministry of Culture, 10 May 2003, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2003年10月30日第30號（總號：1101）[State Council Gazette], No 5, 30 October 2003, 1101.
«互聯網視聽節目服務管理規定» [Administrative Provisions on Internet Audio-Visual Program Services] (People’s Republic of China) State Broadcasting, Film & TV Administration, Ministry of Post & Telecommunications, 20 December 2007, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2008年9月10日第25號（總號：1276）[State Council Gazette], No 25, 10 September 2008, 1276.
«互聯網新聞信息服務管理規定» [Administration of Internet News Information Services Provisions] (People’s Republic of China) State Council Information Office, Ministry of Information Industry, 25 September 2005, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2006年9月10日第25號（總號：1101）[State Council Gazette], No 25, 10 September 2006, 1204.
«中國互聯網行業自律公約» [Public Pledge on Self-Discipline for the Chinese Internet Industry] (People’s Republic of China) Internet Society of China, 18 June 2004.
«行政許可法» [Administrative Licencing Law] (People’s Republic of China) National People’s Congress, 27 August 2003, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2003年10月10日第28號（總號：1099）[State Council Gazette], No 28, 10 October 2003, 1099.
«即時通信工具公眾信息服務發展管理暫行規定» [Provisional Provisions for Administrating the Development of Public Information Services on Instant Messaging Tools] (People’s Republic of China) State Information Office, 7 August 2014.
«計算機信息網絡國際聯網管理暫行規定» [Interim Regulations for the Administration of International Connection of Computer Information Network] (People’s Republic of China) State Council, 1 Januar 1996, 中華人民共和國國務院公報1997年6月19日第18號（總號：870）[State Council Gazette], No 18, 19 June 1997, 870.
«電信條例» [Telecommunications Regulations] (People’s Republic of China) State Council, 25 September 2000, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2000年11月30日第33號（總號：996）[State Council Gazette], No 18, 30 November 2000, 996.
«電信業務經營許可管理辦法» [Administrative Measures for the Licencing of Telecommunication Business Operation] (People’s Republic of China) Ministry of Industry & Information Technology, 5 March 2009, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2009年9月20日第26號（總號：1313）[State Council Gazette], No 26, 20 September 2009, 1313.
«網絡安全法» [Network Security Law] (People’s Republic of China) Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, 7 November 2016.
«網絡出版服務管理規定» [Administrative Provisions on Online Publishing Services] (People’s Republic of China) Ministry of Industry & Information Technology, 4 February 2016, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2016年5月20日第14號（總號：1553）[State Council Gazette], No 14, 20 May 2016, 1553.
«維護互聯網安全的決定» [Decision on Safeguarding Internet Security] (People’s Republic of China) Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, 12 December 2000, 中華人民共和國國務院公報2001年2月20日第5號（總號：1004）[State Council Gazette], No 5, 20 February 2001, 1004.
Gesetz zur Verbesserung der Rechtsdurchsetzung in sozialen Netzwerken [Network Enforcement Law] (Germany) 1 September 2017, BGBl I, 2017, 3352.
China — Measures Affecting Trading Rights and Distribution Services for Certain Publications and Audiovisual Entertainment Products (WTO Dispute Settlement Body January 19, 2010).
7.7 Government Publications
China. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. CNNIC. The 36th Statistical Report on Internet Development in China. July 2015.
China. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. CNNIC. The 39th Statistical Report on Internet Development in China. January 2017.
China. State Council. Information Office. The Internet in China. June 8, 2010. http://english1.english.gov.cn/2010-06/08/content_1622956.htm.
"ICP Registration Procedure." Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. http://www.miitbeian.gov.cn/state/outPortal/loginPortal.action.
United States of America. Office of the United States Trade Representative. National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers. 2016. 81–96.
U.S. Congress. China's Economic Conditions. By Wayne M. Morrison. Cong. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2006.
U.S. Congress. Internet Development and Information Control in the People's Republic of China. By Thomas G. Lum. Cong. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2006.
7.8 Internet Resources
"About the Internet Society of China." July 20, 2013. Accessed August 21, 2016. http://www.isc.org.cn/english/About_Us/Introduction/listinfo-15315.html.
Chang, Aaron. "WeChat Payment: What Is It And How You Set It Up." JING Digital. February 05, 2015. Accessed July 3, 2017. http://www.jingdigital.com/2015/02/wechat-payment-guide/.
"China Sets up Office for Internet Information Management." May 4, 2011. Accessed August 20, 2016. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-05/04/c_13857911.htm.
China. State Council. Information Office. The Internet in China. June 8, 2010. Accessed August 20, 2016. http://english1.english.gov.cn/2010-06/08/content_1622956.htm.
"China's Tencent Hits $200 Billion Market Cap for First Time." Reuters. April 13, 2015. Accessed August 20, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-tencent-valuation-idUSKBN0N40WN20150413.
Cosenza, Vincenzo. "World Map of Social Networks." February 6, 2017. http://vincos.it/2017/02/06/la-mappa-dei-social-network-nel-mondo-gennaio-2017/.
Crunchbase Acquisitions. https://www.crunchbase.com/search/acquisitions.
Krantz, Matt. "5 companies grab 70% of your online dollars." USA Today, November 5, 2015. Accessed September 1, 2016. http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/markets/2015/11/05/online-amazon-concentration-internet/75182132/.
Krause, Reinhardt. "Baidu Picks Apple As Demo, Joins Alibaba In Selling Big Data." Investor's Business Daily. July 21, 2016. Accessed July 29, 2016. http://www.investors.com/news/technology/baidu-picks-apple-as-demo-joins-alibaba-in-selling-big-data/.
Louis, Tristan. "How Much Is A User Worth?" Forbes, August 31, 2013. Accessed August 21, 2016. http://www.forbes.com/sites/tristanlouis/2013/08/31/how-much-is-a-user-worth/#5c100e5f92a9.
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