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系統識別號 U0002-1601200914515900
中文論文名稱 史耐德、能源與道家思想
英文論文名稱 Snyder, Energy, and Taoism
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 詹翔佑
研究生英文姓名 Hsiang-Yu Chan
電子信箱 jonas0579@gmail.com
學號 695110063
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-01-08
論文頁數 81頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡振興
委員-楊銘塗
委員-周序樺
中文關鍵字 史耐德  食物鏈  細微能量  無為   
英文關鍵字 Snyder  food chains  tiny energies  wu-wei  tao 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本文側重蓋瑞‧史耐德(Gary Snyder)作品中微小能量與食物鏈之間的關係研究。根據史氏觀點,在能量的流動時,過程即實踐,而且讀者能感受其能量,進而發展成自己的「道」。
第一章勾勒出其食物鏈並探勘在食物鏈中流動的能量。在食物鏈中,萬物皆提供其養分也吸收其它養分,而其中的能量則扮演著促進劑的角色,活絡整個系統。能量四處移轉從不間斷,同時也滿足了整個食物鏈的架構,點與點之間也進而連接了起來。
第二章討論史氏詩中能量最初的發源點。史氏強調人們常在日常生活裡忽略了細節,而這些細節往往就是細微能量的初始,萬物皆從這些細微能量而生。史氏運用精練的文字把這些細微能量記錄下來,讓讀者可以感受其能量的流動,並徜徉在自然之中。
第三章進一步闡明史氏詩中之「道」。他擷取萬物能量並且轉化為自己的心靈「道」,進而建構能量與自然之間的橋樑。如果人能真正放逐於自然,人便能真正了解自然。在頓悟的過程中,自然從不消逝,「道」也永遠存在,因為萬物都存於食物鏈當中。依此循環,在食物鏈與細微能量銜回的過程中,史氏之「道」油然而生。
恣意於史氏詩中,亦可滋養其「道」。食物鏈具有多重且複雜性意義,由於能量流轉其中,其規律性從未被破壞。「道」的頓悟亦來自於自然與能量間的流轉與互動。能量聯結了所有萬物,而「道」的實踐也就在過程當中。
英文摘要 This thesis sets out as a continuance of the preceding studies on Gary Snyder’s works which center on the relationship between the flowing of tiny energies and food chains system. In Snyder’s point of view, the process is practiced while the energy is running and even one can capture it to be one’s own’s “tao.”
The first chapter contours Snyderian food chains system based on his poems and digs out the moving energy within. In the food chains, everything supplies its own nutrition and also absorbs others’ and energy serves as the accelerant so as to make the whole system alive. Energy shifts itself from one to another and the power never quit transforming and delivering within the food chains. For exchanging, the content accomplishes the form and the power connects each object in the organization as well.
The second chapter generates Snyderian initial power from each knot. In a sense, Snyder observes and performs his details and feels the running energy by Zen meditation in his daily life. He highlights the tiny energies that one perhaps ignores. The tiny power provides the fundamental energies for everything and Snyder streams them into his poems with sophisticated words. And one embarks on his/ her trajectory with the diminutive power and involves in nature, too.
The third chapter further elucidates Snyder’s poems with “tao” idea. He assimilates the spiritual process and builds the bridge between energy and nature. “Tao” is digested from one’s understanding from nature if one is really merged with nature. Nature never disappears and paths always prevail as long as one/thing can recognize to be parted in the food chains. By inserting in the food chains system and retrieving the wee power around nature, Snyder develops his “tao.”
We can understand Snyder’s “Taoism” by pondering his poems. The food chains are perchance multiplicity and complex but the energy never lets the structure lose its order. “Tao” comprehending comes from Snyder’s practices with nature and even one renews his/her “tao” with detail practices in daily life.
論文目次 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter One
Food Chains:
Process Practiced, Knot Energies Stored,
Flowing and Transferring in Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Chapter Two
Tiny Energies:
Roots, Generating Energies and the Ecology of Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Chapter Three
Taoism:
Walking on the Paths with Synergies,
and “Tao” Practice in “Wu-Wei” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

WorksCited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
參考文獻 Burbick, Joan. Thoreau’s Alternative History: Changing Perspectives on Nature, Culture,
and Language. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.

Callicott, J. Baird. In Defense of The Land Ethic: Essays in Environmental Philosophy.
New York: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Cheng, Aimin. “Humanity as ‘A Part and Parcel of Nature:’ A Comparative Study of
Thoreau’s and Taoist Concepts of Nature.” Thoreau’s Sense of Place: Essays in American Environmental Writing. Ed. Richard J. Schneider. Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 2000. 207-220

Creel, Herrlee Glessner. What Is Taoism? : And Other Studies in Chinese Culture History.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Dean, Tim. Gary Snyder and the American Unconscious: Inhabiting the Ground. New York:
St. Martin’s Press.

Elder, John. Imagining the Earth: Poetry and the Vision of Nature. Athens: University of
Georgia Press, 1996.

Feld, Steven, and Keith H. Basso, eds. Senses of Place. Santa Fe: School of
American Research Press, 1996.

Humphreys, Christmas. Zen Comes West: The Present and Future of Zen Buddhism in
Western Society. London: Curzon Press, 1977.

Kaltenmark, Max. Lao Tzu and Taoism. Trans. Roger Greaves. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1969.

Merchant, Carolyn, ed. Key Concepts in Critical Theory: Ecology. Atlantic Highlands:
Humanities Press, 1999.

Allen, Paula Gunn. “The Woman I Love Is a Planet.” Merchant 327-332

Macy, Joanna. “Toward A Healing of Self And World.” Merchant 292-298

Murphy, Patrick D. A Place for Wayfaring: The Poetry and Prose of Gary Snyder.
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____. Understanding Gary Snyder. Columbia: University of South Carolina
Press, 1992.

Oelschlaeger, Max. The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New
Haven, Yale University Press, 1991.

Robinson, David M. “Thoreau’s ‘Walking’ and the Ecological Imperative.” Approaches to
Teaching Thoreau’s Walden and Other Works. Ed. Richard J. Schneider. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1996. 169-174

Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.
Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 2000.

Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. Zen and Japanese Culture. New York: Princeton University
Press, 1973.

Snyder, Gary. A Place in Space: Ethics, Aesthetics, and Watersheds. Washington:
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____. The Back Country. New York: New Directions, 1968.

____. Earth House Hold. New York: New Directions, 1966.

____. The Gary Snyder Reader: Prose, poetry, and translations, 1952-1998. Washington:
Counterpoint, 1999.

____. Left Out in the Rain: Poems 1974-1984. Berkley: San Francisco: North Point, 1986.

____. Myths & Texts. New York: New Directions, 1978.

____. No Nature: New and Selected Poems. New York: Pantheon Books, 1992.

____. The Old Ways. San Francisco: City Lights, 1977.

____. The Practice of the Wild. New York: North Point, 1990.

____. Regarding Wave. New York: New Directions, 1970.

____. The Real Work: Interviews & Talks 1964-1979. NY: New Directions, 1980.

____. Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems. New York: North Point, 1965.

____. Turtle Island. New York: New Directions, 1969.

Tales from Earthsea. Dir. Gorō Miyazaki. Perf. Bunta Sugawara, Junichi Okada, and Aoi
Teshima. Studio Ghibli, 2006.

Wark, McKenzie. “Vectors of Memory…Seeds of Fire: The Western Media and the Beijing
Demonstrations.” Space and Place: Theories of Identity and Location. Eds. Carter, Erica, James Donald, and Judith Squires. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1993. 129-142

Zimmerman, Michael E., J. Baird Callicott, Karen J. Warren, Irene Klaver, and John Clark,
eds. Environmental Philosophy: from animal rights to radical ecology. N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1998.

Callicott, J. Baird. “Animal Liberation And Environmental Ethics: Back Together Again.”
Zimmerman 130-138

Klaver, Irene J. “Stone Worlds: Phenomenology on (the) Rocks.” Zimmerman 347-359

Leopold, Aldo. “The Land Ethic.” Zimmerman 102-115
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