||The Relationship of the I and the Other in The French Lieutenant’s Woman
||Department of English
Face (le visage)
The Third Party
the Said and Saying
the I and the Other
||In the Victorian Age, there are many large changes to transform our lives and widen the gap among people. Advances of Science, Industrial Revolution and indifferent interrelationship really influence the mode of society and the way of living. Therefore, the Revolution brings out the “cold” relationship among people, even though advances of technology indeed improve the quality of life and bring more conveniences to people. However, the interrelationship of people seems getting worse than before. Those changes would continue to affect the modern society. In my thesis, my focus is on the possibility of finding out the solution to confront this cold and indifferent society.
“Modern consciousness, however, is inextricably rooted in nineteenth-century culture. The idea of modernity was already a source of public debate and widespread anxiety as the Industrial Revolution transformed social, economic, and political life faster, it seemed, than such changes could peacefully be absorbed.” This quotation from Norton Anthology briefly offers us a thought that the Industrial Revolution brings enormous effects to us. The Revolution also brings out a disputed issue that has been argued for a long time. The changing conditions of women's work created by the Industrial Revolution posed an equally strong challenge to traditional views of women's roles. In this novel, female is still an object belongs to the male.
The French philosopher, Emmanuel Levinas, is chosen to examine and explore this possibility in the novel, written by John Fowles, The French Lieutenant’s Woman. By employing his theory of face, we could realize there is a wide gap existed for a long time and it continues to widen. His theory presents the caring of people and ethics of society. His theory leads out problem for us to realize the seriousness of people’s relation and provides plausible solutions to engage in those problems.
My contribution is to find out the solutions by exploring Levinas’s theory of face. We still have the ability to change our lives from coldness to warmness in order to increase “temperature” in the society. As mentioned in Norton Anthology, that is to say, ‘"Modernism" is central to any discussion of twentieth-century art and literature. It has been called the "tradition of the new," or an attempt to reject old habits of thought while expressing contemporary history in all its chaos, anxiety, technological development, and rapid change. It has also been called the "dehumanization of art," an overly self-conscious style that prizes technical brilliance while ignoring traditional humanistic values.’ Due to the format of novel, it is metafiction, a kind of postmodern writing. Through this writing, readers could engage in the development of characters, however, the characters would be dehumized. Therefore, Fowles employs this writing technique to have a conversation between author and readers.
||Table of Content
Introduction: p. 1 ~ p. 8
Chapter One: p.9 ~ p.33
Chapter Two: p.34 ~ p.57
Chapter Three: p.58 ~ p.74
Conclusion: p.75 ~ p.77
Works Cited: p.78~ p.80
Burggraeve, Roger. “Violence and the Vulnerable Face of the Other: The Vision of
Emmanuel Levinas on Moral Evil and Our Responsibility.” Journal of Social Philosophy, 30.1: 29-45. Web. 19 December 2002.
Danaher, Geoff. Schirato, Tony. and Webb, Jen. Understanding Foucault. London:
SAGE Publications, 2000. Print. 30-45.
Davis, Colin. Levinas – An Introduction. Indiana:University of Notre Dame Press,
Falzon, Christopher. Foucault and Social Dialogue. London and New York:
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Foster, Thomas C. “The French Lieutenant's Woman: Postmodern Victorian, Novels for
Students.” Milne, Ira Mark and Sisler, Timothy. Ed. Literature Resource Center 21. Detroit: Gale, Web. 2005.
Foucault, Michel. “The Subject and Power.” Critical Inquiry 8.4
(Summer, 1982): 777-795. JSTOR. Web.
Fowles, John. The French Lieutenant’s Woman. London:Vintage. 2004.
Hagopian, John V. “Bad Faith in The French Lieutenant's Woman.” Contemporary
Literature 23.2 (Spring, 1982): 191-201 JSTOR. Web.
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Levinas, Emmanuel. Otherwise Than Being Or Beyond Essence. Trans.
Lingis Alphonso. Pennsylvania: Duquesne University Press, 2011. Print
Levinas, Emmanuel. Totality and Infinity - An Essay on Exteriority. Trans. Lingis
Alphonso. Pennsylvania: Duquesne University Press, 2011. Print
Michael, Magali Cornier. ““Who is Sarah?”: A Critique of The Lieutenant’s Woman’s
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Woman.” Mosaic : a Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature. 35.2 :57-73. Web. 2002.
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Watson, Jean. Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Shepherd, Lois L. “Face to Face: A Call for Radical Responsibility in Pace of
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