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系統識別號 U0002-1507201011294900
中文論文名稱 九一一攻擊事件後之美國情報系統轉型
英文論文名稱 Transformation of U.S. Intelligence System after the September 11 Attacks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 蔡容翎
研究生英文姓名 Jung-Ling Tsai
學號 695250018
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-17
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃介正
委員-陳文政
委員-翁明賢
中文關鍵字 情報系統  改革  九一一攻擊 
英文關鍵字 intelligence system  reform  September 11 attacks 
學科別分類
中文摘要 美國在遭受「九一一攻擊事件」後,進行了半世紀以來最大規模的政府組織改革。其中包括最為重要的2004年「情報改革及反恐法案」所成立的「國家情報主任」一職以及2002年所成立的「國土安全部」。前者將擔任16個情報部門的最高首長而後者將原本分別屬於不同政府部門的23個單位納併至新部門底下。這些轉型動作的目的為集中情報社群的領導權力以及提升各情報單位之間的情資分享與合作;然而,改革之後是否有達成預設的目標,仍有待觀察。
本論文試圖從冷戰之後瞭解美國情報系統近代的改革努力,並以「九一一攻擊事件」後情報系統改革作為研究重點,並檢視改革成效對於情報社群之影響。本研究以美國情報系統的組織改革作為研究主題,主要以美國行政部門所公佈之官方報告、總統發布之行政命令與國會所通過之法案作為研究依據,分析情報系統轉型對於情報社群的影響及成效。本論文圍繞三大主軸,分別是情報系統改革的脈絡、情報社群間各單位的合作協調關係以及美國情報系統的未來挑戰。
美國政府所推動的情報系統改革將成為各國參考的指標,而近期所進行的轉型任務成效如何,各界正在觀察中。本研究發現,「九一一事件」後的情報系統轉型所提出的改革方案理由不夠充分,而是在當時的政治氣氛與民眾期盼下,朝野各界為了展現改革成績單而妥協出來的結果。因此,本文也針對美國情報系統在未來仍可努力的重點進行討論。
英文摘要 The United States government has undergone the largest organizational reform in the past 50 years in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks in 2001. The most significant of these is the passing of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, which created the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI) who is now the leader of the intelligence community, with 16 agencies under their control. Also, in 2002, the U.S. government created the Department of Homeland Security, incorporating 23 agencies into a single department. These reform actions aimed to centralize the leadership of the intelligence community and enhance information sharing among agencies; however, after nearly a decade, it remains difficult to determine if these goals have been fully accomplished.
This thesis reviews the intelligence reform efforts the U.S. government has carried out after the end of the Cold War, with a particular focus on the organizational transformation after the September 11 attacks. The research is mainly based on official government reports and publications, president executive orders, and congressional acts. The research focuses on three main points- the development of U.S. intelligence reform, cooperation and coordination among agencies within the intelligence community, and future challenges of the U.S. intelligence system.
The outcomes of these intelligence system transformations are still being examined by the world. This research finds that the steps taken after the September 11 attacks for intelligence reform do not have sufficient rationale and were the result of compromise under the political atmosphere and public pressure at the time. Accordingly, this thesis also discusses the areas for improvement in the U.S. intelligence system in the near future.
論文目次 第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………01

第一節 研究動機與研究目的…………………………………………01
第二節 文獻回顧………………………………………………………05
第三節 研究方法與章節提要…………………………………………07

第二章 九一一攻擊事件前美國情報系統之演變……………………11
第一節 冷戰後朝野各界對情報社群之改革聲浪……………………15
第二節 情報系統在冷戰後的調整……………………………………20
第三節 九一一事件發生背後情報系統的責任………………………24

第三章 九一一攻擊事件後情報系統改革……………………………32
第一節 「九一一委員會」報告結論與建議事項……………………35
第二節 二○○四年情報改革及反恐法案……………………………48
第三節 反恐任務的強化………………………………………………52

第四章 改革對於情報社群之影響……………………………………60
第一節 國家情報主任之權力集中化…………………………………61
第二節 內部整合協調之變化…………………………………………68
第三節 仍待解決的問題………………………………………………74

第五章 結論……………………………………………………………79

附錄一………………………………………………………………… 85

附錄二………………………………………………………………… 87

參考書目……………………………………………………………… 88

〈圖表目錄〉
圖 2-1 1991 至2001 年情報改革建議事項執行狀況………………14
圖 3-1 「九一一委員會」建議之國家情報主任組織圖……………41
圖 3-2 國土安全部組織圖…………………………………………55
表 2-1 1991 至2001 年間美國主要非機密情報及反恐研究………16
表 2-2 美國遭受重大恐怖攻擊事件表……………………………26
表 3-1 國土安全部成立前後組織調整對照表……………………56
表 4-1 美國恐怖份子觀察名單種類………………………………77

參考文獻 英文書目
911 Commission. The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the Natinoal Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, authorized edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004.
Betts, Richard K. “The New Politics of Intelligence: Will Reforms Work This Time?” Baer, Robert. See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA’s War on Terrorism. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2002.
Breckinridge, Scott D. The CIA and the U.S. Intelligence System, Boulder : Westview Press, 1986.
George, Roger Z. Intelligence and the National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Godson, Roy, Ernest R. May, and Gary Schmitt, eds., U.S. Intelligence at the Crossroads: Agendas for Reform, Brassey's UK Ltd., 1995.
Gutjahr, Melanie M. The Intelligence Archipelago: The Community's Struggle to Reform in the Globalized Era, Washington, DC: Joint Military Intelligence College, 2005.
Johnson, Loch K., ed., Handbook of Intelligence Studies, London; New York : Routledge, 2007.
Jones, Ishmael. The Human Factor: Inside the CIA's Dysfunctional Intelligence Culture. San Fancisco: Encounter Books, 2010.
Odom, William E. Fixing Intelligence: For a More Secure America, Second Edition, Yale University Press, 2004.
Posner, Richard A. Preventing Surprise Attacks: Intelligence Reform in the Wake of 9/11, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Posner, Richard A. Uncertain Shield: The U.S. Intelligence System in the Throes of Reform, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2006.
Ranelagh, John. The Agency: the Rise and Decline of the CIA, New York: Simon and Schuster 1986.
Richelson, Jeffrey T. The US Intelligence Community, 5th edi., Westview Press, 2007.
Scott, L.V. Understanding Intelligence in the 21st Century: Journeys in Shadows (Studies in Intelligence Series), London: Routledge 2004.
Sims, Jennifer E., Burton Gerber ed., Transforming U.S. Intelligence, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2005.
Steele, Robert D. New Craft of Intelligence: Personal, Public, & Political, OSS International Press, 2002.

英文期刊
Barger, Deborah G. “It Is Time to Transform, Not Reform, U.S. Intelligence”, SAIS Review, 24.1 (2004) p.23-31.
Berkowitz, Bruce. “Better ways to fix U.S. intelligence”, Orbis, Volume 45, Issue 4, Autumn 2001, p. 609-619.
Berkowitz, Bruce. “Information Age Intelligence”, Foreign Policy, Summer 1996
Berkowitz, Bruce D. “Spying in the Post September 11 World.” Hoover Digest 4(2003): 14-21
Berkowitz, Bruce D. “U.S. Intelligence at a crossroads: Agendas for Reform.” Orbis 40, 4 (Fall, 1996): 653-64.
Betts, Richard K. “Fixing Intelligence”, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2002.
Clark, Robert M.. Intelligence Analysis: A Target-Centric Approach. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C: CQ Press, 2009.
Codevilla, Angelo M. Why U.S. Intelligence is Inadequate and How to Fix It, Occasional Papers Series, Center for Security Policy, December 2004.
Fessenden, Helen. “The Limits of Intelligence Reform”, Foreign Affairs, November/December 2005.
Greenberg, Maurice R. and Richard Haass, Making Intelligence Smarter: the Future of U.S. Intelligence: report of an independent task force, Council on Foreign Relations, 1996.
Posner, Richard A. “The Reorganized U.S. Intelligence System after One
Year”, National Security Outlook, April 2006.
Rovner, Joshua, Austin Long, Amy B. Zegart, How Intelligent Is Intelligence Reform?, International Security, Spring 2006, Vol. 30, No. 4, Pages 196-208
Weiner, Tim. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. New York: Anchor, 2008. Foreign Affairs, May/June 2004
Zegart, Amy B. “September 11 and the Adaptation Failure of U.S. Intelligence Agencies”, International Security, Spring 2005, Vol. 29, No. 4, p.78-111.

網際網路資料
Aspen, Les, and Harold Brown, chairmen. “Report of the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United states Intelligence Community” (Aspin-Brown Commission Report), http://www.access.gpo.gov/int/report.html, 1996.

政府出版品
Best, Richard A. Jr. “Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies”, Library of Congress Washington DC Congressional Research Service, 2004.
Best, Richard A., Jr. “Intelligence Issues for Congress.” Congressional Research Service Report IB 10012, updated December 9, 2004.
Best, Richard A., Jr. “Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004.” Congressional Research Service Report RL 32500, updated September 24, 2004.
Bush, George W.. Statement on signing the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005.(Week Ending Friday, December 24, 2004): An article from: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004. Print.
Representatives, House of. Intelligence Reform And Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. sax: Indypublish.Com, 2005. Print.
Warner, Michael ed. Central Intelligence: Origin and Evolution, Center
for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 2001.
Warner, Michael and Kenneth McDonald. US Intelligence Community Reform Studies since 1947, Washington, DC: Strategic Management Issues Office, Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2005.
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