||Nature, Gender, and Risk:
Margaret Atwood, Linda Hogan, and Karen Tei Yamashita
||Department of English
Oryx and Crake
Through the Arc of the Rain Forest
sense of place
women and risk
本論文引言部分旨在討論生態文化/文學論述在全球化脈絡下的演進與發展。從自然書寫、荒野保護到環境（正義）文學、生態女性主義作為一種草根性運動的耙梳，意在說明文化與自然乃非截然二分的觀念，都市中的環境問題將難以避免的影響自然棲地的保存。論文第一章介紹生態女性主義的各派論點，以建構論與本質論之辯論為輔，進而引介出對女性與自然連結的中介位置。第二章主以貝克(Ulrich Beck)的風險理論剖析愛特伍《末世男女》中末世前後地景。在科技、資本主義至上的基因工程世界裡，基因工程與菁英社區、基改成果商品化、恣意散播病毒以獲取可觀利益等劃上等號。在這個由科技所導致的全球風險社會下，人與人之間、人與自然之間的疏離與隔閡卻因「迴力球效應」以命運大鎖鍊將全人類一併毀滅。愛特伍對於毀滅後的失控地景的描寫顯示她對末世前基因工程科技與資本主義掛勾的猖獗、高度科技文明下現代人的心靈冷漠、孤獨、空虛以及人為造成的全球暖化所做的控訴。第三章處理琳達･荷根的小說《太陽風暴》。首先探究小說中提及的歐美殖民歷史，最早從西進運動對北美原住民及其生態所造的破壞，進而探討因襲美國天命論的全球化邏輯下的水壩建設，迫使原住民的主體性漸漸消失。然而藉由重新居住、故事地景、心景與地景的交互映照，主角重新認識在其文化脈絡下相互依存的人與自然的關係，由此產生抗拒水壩建造的護鄉行動以及重建對其部落的記憶以抗拒西方霸權的殖民記憶。第四章首先以阿帕杜萊(Arjun Appadurai)的五個流動景觀，尤以族裔景觀、媒體景觀、金融景觀作為分析主軸，探討山下．凱倫的《穿過雨林的弧線》中政府、跨國公司以及以追求「進步」的建設發展邏輯如何形塑當地的地景與人民的生活。此外，藉由新興神秘物質成分的最後揭示，跨國公司與當地政府所投資的神秘物質，原來竟是千年擠壓深埋於地下的垃圾。此「真相」乃為作者暗諷貪婪剝削當地的跨國公司的脆弱與風險。來自日本最後在巴西定居並與其女僕結婚的主角，不但深入瞭解巴西民間疾苦、更因被迫探勘更多神秘物質反而有機會知曉這塊土地的悲苦進而促成其對這塊土地的認同感。要言之，在全球化的氛圍中，此三本小說呈現現代人的心靈迷失於快速生活步調、高科技導向、虛擬世界中，然而破壞自然的迴力棒終將危及人類自身的生存，並為自身及其他物種帶來災難。
||This dissertation discusses Margaret Atwood, Linda Hogan and Karen Tei Yamashita in terms of the emergence of ecocritical and ecofeminist literary theories and risk analysis. Contextualizing the voices of three female writers’ texts, especially highlighting the significance of landscape and waterscape as well as the late capitalist risk society and environmental justice in an age of globalization, this dissertation looks at the risks and benefits of globalization so that we can re-consider re-evaluate the impacts of globalization on the environment, women, and “Others.”
The “environmental crisis,” including global warming, globalized biotechnology, dam-induced habitat destruction, and profit-driven multinational corporations, is associated with crises of mind and reason. Hierarchically dualism and economic rationalism give biased preference for “male-coded reason” rather than “female-coded spheres of the body and emotions.” This study, therefore, ventures an interpretation of three novels—Solar Storms, Oryx and Crake and Through the Arc of the Rain Forest—so as to shed light on the ambivalent nature of (social and economic) globalization.
In the Introduction, this study looks to the field of ecocriticism in the context of globalization, with its development from nature writing to environmental literature, defending ecocriticism as one way of critically approaching contemporary literary texts with a global concern, not exclusively bound with American studies. Chapter One presents a brief overview of the evolution of ecofeminism, focusing on its relationship with feminism and environmental justice and arguing for a mediating position of nature and gender and its global concern. Through an analysis of the three novels, this study not only combines cultural studies and ecofeminism for its theoretical underpinning, but also opens up a new dimension by using literature to analyze our everyday concrete experience and to form a dialogic interaction between humans and nonhuman nature, weaving together a number of cultural, ethical, spiritual and political concerns. Chapter Two highlights how to look at Ulrich Beck’s risk theory, who, together with other sociologists, senses a crisis of (first) modernity, in Atwood’s apocalyptic text, Oryx and Crake, in which Atwood represents “nature” in a “post-natural” world and exhibits the consequences and irreversible risks of living in a radically secluded bioengineered society. Chapter Three deals with Hogan’s Solar Storms, which is grounded on the historical event of the James Bay hydroelectric projects and which examines two specific landscape formations, one a mechanism of oppression (dam construction) and the other a power of resistance (“globalization from below”) by revolving around the theoretical issues surrounding the intersections of Euramerican colonialism, ecocriticism/ecofeminism, and Native American literature. Hogan seeks to ground Native American identity in the ancestral, mythological, dream and storied landscape, a land made more dynamic by the recognition of the interrelatedness of humans and nonhumans and requiring their resistance for survival. Chapter Four moves on to Asian American writer Yamashita’s Through the Arc of the Rain Forest. By presenting ethnic, media, economic, technological environmental landscapes of globalization in the novel, this chapter expounds on the notion of “reinhabitation” as a way of understanding the Japanese immigrant’s struggles to live in Brazil in ecologically viable ways. All in all, the three writers I research in this study all anticipate an equal and sustainable future.
Chinese Abstract …………………………………………………………………..iv
English Abstract ……………………………………………………………………vi
INTRODUCTION Ecocriticism in the Age of Globalization………………….1
Chapter One Ecofeminism: A Mediating Position and Its Global Concerns ……………………………………………………..28
The Roots of Ecofeminism……………………………………..28
Ecofeminism and Its (Un)Common Ground…………………34
Ecofeminism and Environmental Justice…………………….36
Feminism and Ecofeminism……………………………………39
Ecofeminism and Its Global Concerns…..……………………59
Chapter Two Great Chain of Risk: (Post-)Apocalyptic Landscapes in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake………………………...66
Apocalypticism, Crisis and Risk………………………………67
Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake………………………….76
Risk before Apocalypse…………………………………….....77
Risk after Apocalypse…………………………..……………118
Chapter Three Becoming Animals: Fight for the Waterscape in Linda Hogan’s Solar Storms……………………………………….125
Ecofeminism and Native American Literature………………129
Landscape of Colonialism……………………………………134
Landscape of Polytheism…..…………………….…………..151
Landscape of Resistance…………………………………….175
Chapter Four The Ball/Earth Speaks!: Brazilian Landscapes in Karen
Tei Yamashita’s Through the Arc of the Rain Forest……...187
Landscape of Globalization…………………………………..192
Junkyard Landscape & Ecoscape…………………………….214
Works Cited ……………………………………………………………………..244
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