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系統識別號 U0002-1503200615192300
中文論文名稱 從歐盟憲法條約論共同外交暨安全政策之發展
英文論文名稱 The Evolution of the Common Foreign and Security Policy in the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 94
學期 1
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 鄭鈞元
研究生英文姓名 Chun-Yuan Cheng
電子信箱 armincheng@yahoo.com.tw
學號 691030216
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-12-18
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳東野
委員-張亞中
委員-卓忠宏
中文關鍵字 歐盟  共同外交暨安全政策  歐盟憲法條約 
英文關鍵字 EU  European Union  CFSP  Constitutional Treaty 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 歐盟主要是依據過去五十年來所修訂的幾大基礎條約作為治理及指導原則,建立歐洲共同體的三大創始條約為歐洲煤鋼共同體條約、歐洲共同體條約以及原子能共同體條約,乃至於1992年馬斯垂克條約,建立了歐洲聯盟。上述四個重要條約又在不同時期透過其他條約進行修訂:合併條約、歐洲單一法、阿姆斯特丹條約以及在2003年2月1日已正式生效的尼斯條約。然而為了因應2005年歐盟東擴,所帶來的影響與衝擊,歐盟各成員國認為有必要就歐盟制度僵化的問題,提出一套解決辦法。因此,在尼斯條約批審過程中,於2001年召開萊肯高峰會,便就此進行討論,在會議結束後,提出萊肯宣言,最後於2003年召開歐盟制憲大會,根據大會協議制訂歐盟憲法草案。2004年10月29日歐洲聯盟成員國於羅馬簽署歐盟憲法條約,為歐盟整合歷史開創重大的進展。隨著歐盟整合的深化與廣化,經濟方面,從關稅同盟到共同市場,最終發展到單一貨幣的實施,整合階段可說已趨成熟。但在政治上的整合腳步,和經濟方面相比,明顯落後許多,尤其是外交安全方面,由於牽涉到了各國最在乎的國家主權讓渡問題,長久以來,在外交安全方面的議題上,各國之間彼此維持著一種矛盾的共識,在屬於軍事層面的安全防衛政策更被視為閉口不談的禁忌。這種情況隨著冷戰結束,歐盟成立,在期間國際上發生的重大區域安全事件威脅,讓在外交安全議題上維持一貫冷處理的歐盟各國開始思考,政治上進一步深化整合的可能。歐盟憲法條約整合了之前歷次的整合條約,並打破歐盟以往三大支柱架構,在制度上也進行了部份革新,最重要的可算是創立了歐盟外交部長的職位。此外,在決策程序上更進一步擴大了條件多數決的適用範圍,雖然決策上具軍事意涵的議案維持一致決,但是共同安全暨防衛政策仍然設計了彈性化措施來提供歐盟成員國在特定議題或任務上的彈性選擇,阿姆斯特丹條約導入的加強合作條款,在憲法條約中進一步擴大適用範圍,根據特定程序,歐盟少數成員國能組成特定集團國進行特定領域合作,憲法強調任何加強合作應該對所有成員國開放不可有排他性,同時為了顧及其他集團外成員國,憲法也規定該項加強合作部能夠侵害到其他國家的權益,重要的是不能夠依此成為共同體既有程序,上述安排可看出維護各國權益是歐盟的重要精神。2005年5月底及6月初,歐盟憲法批准過程在法國與荷蘭相繼公投否決之後面臨危機,雖然仍有成員國陸續通過憲法條約的批准,但仍有部分國家擱置批准程序,以致歐盟原訂批准日程將無法完成,在法荷公投否決之後歐盟進入反省期 (period of reflection),尋求挽救歐盟憲法條約的方法。本文就憲法條約制定過程來探討險法條約對共同外交暨安全政策發展帶來的影響,同時對憲法條約批准過程所遭受的挫敗,來評估之後可能的發展情勢。
英文摘要 This thesis examines the influence of the Constitutional Treaty on the evolution of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The analysis here starts from the process establishing the constitutional Treaty. From the institutional aspect, this paper then analyzes the evolution of the institutional architecture under the newly reformed structure, especially in the sphere of CFSP. The third part of this paper concerns the flexibility of political instruments in the CFSP. The fourth part follows with the analysis of executive capacity and failures and successes of CFSP in the past decades. Finally, this thesis puts focus on the process of ratification of Constitutional Treaty and the future of the Constitutional Treaty after the “NO” vote in France and Netherlands.
The development of the Common Foreign and Security Policy and its forerunner European Political Cooperation (EPC) over the last four decades is of high political and academic relevance. The European Union (EU) is increasingly perceived by third states and international organizations as an important actor in the international system. The policy of enlargement has made the need for institutional reform inescapable where was previously simply pressing. Over the past 20 years the founding treaty of Rome has been revised four times, yet each time the institutional set-up became more, not less complex. Decision-making procedures are too complicated. Policies are often ineffective. This treaty revision can be regarded as an historic milestone, a history making decision at a critical juncture, or as a choice for Europe.
Even if the Constitutional Treaty does not enter into force, it will continue to serve to describe a certain state in the evolution of the EU system, as well as to identify options for shaping the constitutional architecture. As regards to the CFSP, it does, however, make certain that the Union may in the foreseeable future remain a participant in the international scene with a noticeably fragmented profile or – put more positively – with a multifaceted profile.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與架構 3
第三節 研究範圍與限制 5
第四節 文獻檢閱評述 7

第二章 歐洲聯盟制憲背景過程與意義 11
第一節 萊肯高峰會 11
第二節 歐盟未來大會 13
第三節 政府間會議 19
第四節 憲法條約簽署與批准 20

第三章  歐洲聯盟組織架構變革與創新 27
第一節 歐盟高峰會 28
第二節 部長理事會 31
第三節 歐盟執委會 33
第四節 歐洲議會 34
第五節 歐盟外交部長的創立 36

第三章 共同外交暨安全政策的決策機制 43
第一節 共同外交暨安全政策的決策機制設計 44
第二節 共同安全暨防衛政策的彈性化設計 49

第四章 共同外交暨安全政策的發展與限制 59
第一節 共同外交暨安全政策所面臨的困境 60
第二節 共同外交暨安全政策發展趨勢的理論意涵 67
第三節 歐洲聯盟在國際安全體系中的角色定位 72

第五章  結論 81
第一節 研究發現與心得 81
第二節 後續研究 84

參考資料 87
圖表目次
表一 制憲大會成員表 14
表二 歐盟權限劃分 22
表三 歐盟憲法條各成員國約批准進程 23
表四 部長理事會條件多數決各國票數一覽表 48
參考文獻 參考文獻
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官方文件
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