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中文論文名稱 國中英語教科書之性別平等探討及其教師對性別偏見之看法與認知
英文論文名稱 Gender Equality in English Textbooks and Teacher Awareness of Gender Bias in Junior High School EFL Education
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 唐詩佳
研究生英文姓名 Shih-Chia Tang
學號 697110103
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-01-10
論文頁數 134頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡映雪
委員-張雅慧
委員-范瑞玲
中文關鍵字 性別平等  教科書設計  性別偏見內容  性別刻板印象  性別角色  內容分析  角色楷模 
英文關鍵字 Gender equality  Textbook design  Gender-biased contents  Gender stereotypes  Gender roles  Content analysis  Role models 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 自1960年代女權運動興起,英語教育也開始重視性別平等。許多研究檢視了教科書內容是否呈現性別平等,包括性別偏見用字(sexist language)、男性與女性角色出現的次數比例、以及性格或社會角色上充斥的性別刻板印象。在台灣,也有研究探討教師的性別角色印象(gender images)及對性別平等教育的實踐狀況。然而,目前並無研究檢視EFL教師對其使用英語教科書上的性別偏見內容(gender-biased contents)的認知與看法。有鑑於此,本研究除了探討目前台灣國中英語教科書內的性別偏見內容,也欲了解其國中英語老師對於性別偏見內容的認知與教學。
本研究探討了151本國中英語教科書,檢視其性別偏見用字與性別角色的活動,發現當前的教科書仍包含性別偏見內容,如字尾-man用字仍然常用於教科書內;至於性別角色活動,男生仍然較常從事室外與工具性活動且較為獨立(instrumental independent activities);而女性則較常從事較為依賴或是被動性的室內活動(passive dependent activities)。
針對老師對於性別偏見內容的認知與教學,48位國中英語教師參與此研究,本研究共進行了兩張問卷: 「國中英語教師對性別平等的認知與教學問卷」與「性別角色印象與性別平等教育教學實踐問卷」,結果發現其英語教師對於在英文課上教授性別平等有著正面的態度,且其本身的性別刻板印象與教學實踐態度確實會影響其英語教學,老師的用字也會受到教科書內容的影響。然而,研究結果也顯示教師對於教科書內的性別偏見內容的認知與教學並不一致。原因可能為台灣國中英語教育長期重視翻譯教學法以及考試導向教學,老師普遍認為性別平等在英語課堂上重要性較低。此外,教師對於教科書內的性別偏見用字的認知較高,對隱含的性別刻板印象認知較低,顯示出性別刻板印象是更深植在受測者的文化與觀念之中。至於教師的背景因素則對老師的性別偏見內容認知與教學沒有顯著影響。以上研究結果顯示目前台灣的英語教科書在性別平等落實方面仍有進步空間,其英語教師也應更加提高對性別偏見內容的敏感度,並將其認知落實於英語教學中。
英文摘要 Gender equality in English education has been emphasized for decades since the feminist movement started from the late 1960th. Studies around the world have been conducted to evaluate the gender-biased contents in the textbooks, including the sexist language, frequency of appearance of male and female characters, and gender stereotypes such as the characterizations or social roles of men and women (Heikkinen, 1978; Huang, 2009; Lee and Collins, 2008; M. D. Yang, 2005; Su, 2001; Walford, 1981, 1983). Some research was also conducted to evaluate teachers’ general ideas of gender stereotypes and equalization in Taiwan (Lin, 2006; Tsai, 2003). Nonetheless, there is no research found to investigate if the EFL English teachers are aware of those gender-biased contents and if they will teach those contents or not. With this inadequacy in mind, this study aims to not only evaluate the gender-biased contents in the current English textbooks of junior high school in Taiwan, but also discover the EFL teachers’ awareness and performance toward the gender-biased contents in the English textbooks they are using.
151 junior high school English textbooks were selected and analyzed. Sexiest language and gender stereotypes presented in the activities conducted by the gender roles among the texts and pictures were evaluated through content analysis. The results show that the gender-biased contents still exist in the current English textbooks, e.g., the words with suffix –man are still commonly used in the textbooks. In characterizations, male characters are dominant in the instrumental independent activities, presenting active and vigorous traits; while the female characters are in charge of the passive dependent activities, showing obedience and placidity as virtues.
The investigation of the teachers’ awareness and performance toward the gender-biased contents in the English textbooks through questionnaires ( “Awareness and performance of gender bias in English textbooks” and “Gender images and equality in practice questionnaire”) found that the 48 junior high school English teachers commonly possess positive perspectives toward teaching gender equality in English education, and their general ideas of gender equality would influence their awareness and performance in English teaching. The teachers’ word choice would also be influenced by the textbook contents. However, their teaching performance is not totally consistent with their awareness of gender-biased contents. As the English education in high schools has been putting emphasis on grammar translation and exam-oriented teaching for decades, gender equality might be neglected as it has been considered less important in the English class. Furthermore, the sexist language was easier to be noticed than the gender stereotypes hidden in the texts and pictures as they are considered more deeply related to cultures and values. Finally, the teachers’ background factors do not cause significant difference toward their awareness and performance of gender biased contents.
These findings suggest that there is still room for the textbook publishers to keep improving gender equality in English textbooks. The English teachers and educators should also be educated to become more sensitive toward gender-biased contents and integrate the ideas of gender equalization into their English teaching.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………...... i
Abstract………………………………………………………………... ii
Table of contents………………………………………………………. v
List of tables…………………………………………………………… vii
List of figures………………………………………………………….. ix


CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study …………………………………………….………….. 1
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study…………………………………………... 2
1.3 Research Questions ……………………………………………………………… 4
1.4 Definition of Terms ……………………………………………………………… 5
1.5 Organization of the Thesis……………………………………………………….. 6


CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 The Change of English…………………………………………………………... 7
2.2 Feminism, Elimination of Sexism, and Transversity……………………………. 8
2.3 Gender Equality in TESOL Field………………………………………….…….. 10
2.4 The Influence of Role Models on the Youth…………………………………….. 11
2.5 Gender Equality in Textbooks…………………………………………….……... 12
2.5.1 Studies around the World……………………………………………….... 12
2.5.2 Studies in Taiwan……………………………………………………….... 16
2.6 Teacher Awareness of Gender Equality in Taiwan………………………….….... 20
2.7 Summary…………………………………………………………………….…… 21

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.1 Materials …………………………………………………………………….….. 23
3.2 Participants……………………………………………………………….……… 26
3.3 Instrument: Questionnaires…………………………………………………….… 28
3.3.1 Awareness and Performance of Gender Bias in English Textbooks……... 29
3.3.2 Gender Images and Equality in Practice……………………………….…. 31
3.4 Procedures……………………………………………………………………….. 32
3.4.1 Pilot Study………………………………………………………………... 32
3.4.2 Main Study………………………………………………………….……. 35
3.5 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………….. 36
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Result and Discussion of Research Question 1………………………………….. 38
4.1.1 Gender-biased Languages ……………………………………………….. 39
4.1.1.1 Use of Generic he/his …………………………………………… 39
4.1.1.2 Use of Generic man and Exclusionary Words for Particular Gender
………………………………………………………………..….. 42
4.1.1.3 Courtesy Titles Ms. verses Miss and Mrs. ………………..……… 46
4.1.1.4 Special Forms to Address Women or Men’s Profession…………. 48
4.1.1.5 Summary…………………………………………………………. 49
4.1.2 Characterizations of Males and Females……………………………….… 49
4.2 Result and Discussion of Research Question 2 …………………………………. 55
4.2.1 Analysis of Questionnaire 1……………………………………………… 55
4.2.2 Relationship between Questionnaire 1 and Questionnaire 2……………... 63
4.3 Result and Discussion of Research Question 3………………………………….. 66
4.4 Result and Discussion of Research Question 4 …………………………………. 73
4.5 Summary ………………………………………………………………………… 77


CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Major Findings……………………………………………………... 79
5.1.1 Gender-biased Contents in the English Textbooks………………………... 79
5.1.2 Teacher Awareness and Performance of Gender Equality in English Teaching
……………………………………………………………………………. 81
5.2 Pedagogical Implications ………………………………………………………... 83
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Research ………………… 84
5.3.1 Limitations of the Study ………………………………….………………. 84
5.3.2 Suggestions for Future Research …………………………………………. 85


REFERENCE ……………………………………………………………………… 87


APPENDIX …………………………………………………………………………. 92



LIST OF TABLES

Table Page
2.1 Kortenhaus and Demarest (1993) and Huang’s (2009) Categorization of Activities
………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
3.1 English Textbooks Used in This Study ………………………………………… 24
3.2 Instrumental Independent vs. Passive Dependent Activities …………………… 26
3.3 Background Information of the Participants of the Main Study ……………..… 27
3.4 The Five Paired-questions of Awareness and Performance…………………….. 29
3.5 The Comparison of the Questions in the Pilot Study and the Main Study ……... 33
4.1 Number of Sentences with Indefinite Pronouns in the Three Versions of English Textbooks ………………………………………………………………………. 40
4.2 The 8 Gender-neutral Usages Instead of Generic he/his in the 18 English Textbooks
…………………………………………………………………………………... 41
4.3 Exclusionary Words with Suffixes –man and –woman and the Alternatives Taught in the 18 English Textbooks ……………………………………………………. 43
4.4 Extracts of Sentences with Suffixes –man and –woman/-wife and the Alternatives Provided in the 18 English Textbooks ………………………………………..… 44
4.5 Exclusionary Words with Suffixes –er/ –or/ –ess Taught in the 18 English Textbooks and the Suggested Alternatives …………………………………….. 45
4.6 The Number and Ratio of Courtesy Titles Used in the 18 English Textbooks…. 47
4.7 Frequency Count of Instrumental Independent and Passive Dependent Activities Portrayed by Males and Females in the 18 English Textbooks ………………… 51
4.8 Frequency Count of Instrumental Independent and Passive Dependent Activities Portrayed by Males and Females in Three Different Versions of English Textbooks
…………………………………………………………………………………... 54
4.9 Statistical Result of Reliability of the Questionnaire 1…………………………. 56
4.10 Descriptive Statistics of Questionnaire 1…………………..………………….. 57
4.11 Distribution of the Participants’ Scores and Frequency of Questionnaire 1…… 57
4.12 Distribution and Frequency of the Participants’ Responses for Each Question of Questionnaire 1………………………………………………………………… 58
4.13 The English Words Used by the Participants for the Question 8 ……………… 62
4.14 Statistical Result of Reliability of the Questionnaire 2 ………………………... 64
4.15 Descriptive Statistics of Questionnaire 2 ……………………………………… 64
4.16 Distribution of the Participants’ Scores and Frequency of Questionnaire 2 ….. 65
4.17 Correlations between the Scores of Questionnaire 1 and Questionnaire 2 ……. 66
4.18 Correlations between the Scores of Awareness and Performance in Questionnaire 1 ……………………………………………………………………………….. 67
4.19 Comparison of the Paired-questions between Awareness and Performance in Questionnaire 1 ……………………………………………………………….. 68
4.20 The Correlation of the 5 Paired-questions between Awareness and Performance
…………….…………………………………………………………………… 71
4.21 Chi-square Evaluation between the Scores of Questionnaire 1 and Each Variable
……….………………………………………………………………………… 74



LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page
4.1 The Examples of Texts and Pictures of Passive Dependent Category and Instrumental Independent Category Assigned to Females and Males ………….. 50
4.2 The Number of Participants of the Gender-neutral Responses for the Paired-questions of Awareness and Performance ………………………….…… 70
4.3 The Correlation of the 5 Paired-questions Respectively ……………………….. 72
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