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系統識別號 U0002-1407201915271500
中文論文名稱 後設認知於人資用人之應用:專家與新手之差異
英文論文名稱 The Application of Meta-Cognition in HR Staffing:The Differences between Expert and Novice
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 教育心理與諮商研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Educational Psychology and Counseling
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生中文姓名 儲嘉成
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Cheng Chu
學號 604690023
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2019-06-22
論文頁數 157頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯志恩
委員-郭建志
委員-洪英正
中文關鍵字 後設認知  人力資源  用人  專家與新手 
英文關鍵字 meta-cognition  human resource  staffing  expert and novice 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學教育學
中文摘要 現今企業徵用人才講求精準,效率及成本為主要前提的當下,企業內人力資源工作者在用人時,必須迅速的進行整個招聘任用過程,維持精準的判斷,降低企業風險與成本,為企業找到適合的人選。但在目前環境條件下,應徵者的多元化,人才的短缺,高離職與失業率,新科技的發展,結構化及輔助招聘工具成效的不顯著,都帶給人資在執行用人時諸多的挑戰與困難。因此人資如欲在此環境下尋求轉變與進步,只能依賴自身所擁有的知識及技巧來執行所需的任務,而這些人資在用人過程的知識及技巧涵蓋了所謂後設認知的運作歷程,也就是對自己思考的理解與其操作。

本研究透過後設認知的理論基礎,研究人資執行人才聘用過程中後設認知的運作方式,並以此來建構出第一份在此人資用人領域中測量後設認知的問卷。研究結果顯示人資在用人時,會常常使用到後設認知的運作,其中又以後設認知的知識層面,及後設認知的規劃因子使用程度最高。研究結果也顯示人資專家在後設認知的使用略高於人資新手,此外中國人資在後設認知的使用高於台灣人資,及環境因素會影響人資的後設認知使用程度。

基於本研究之結論,期盼可以對未來人資用人實務做出發展,包括強化人資用人時的標準流程之質量,對人資職務的修編,對人資績效系統之再建構,和人資訓練上的提升。
英文摘要 Under the premise of striving for precision, efficiency and cost in enterprise staffing nowadays, human resource workers have to conduct the hiring process in a fast-paced environment, while keeping accurate hiring decision making, and lowering organizational risks and costs to search for suitable candidates. However, factors such as applicants’ diversity, shortage on talents, high turnover, and high unemployment rate, development of new technology, insignificant structural and assisting tools in staffing become more evident, contribute in the hardships and challenges which HR must face during staffing process. Therefore, if HR workers want to make progresses and changes under such circumstances, they must rely on their own knowledge and skills to overcome the hardships in staffing. During such procedure, metacognition which is a process of comprehend and the ability to utilize one’s own thought is involved.

This research is conducted by a questionnaire designed to find out if participants demonstrate signs of metacognition awareness and how metacognition works during a hiring process under the basis of metacognition theory. As the result, it finds that HR workers usually use metacognition when conducting staffing tasks, and especially in the use on metacognition knowledge and the planning factors. Also, research shows HR experts use more metacognition than HR novices, HR in China uses more metacognition than HR in Taiwan, and environmental factors have influences on the levels of metacognition use in staffing.

In accord with research result, and in hopes of improving future HR staffing practices, research suggests reinforcement on standard operation process, revision on HR job description, and performance assessment, and employee training.
論文目次 目錄
第一章、 緒論 1
第一節、 研究背景與動機 1
第二節、 研究目的與問題 7
第三節、 名詞解釋 9
第二章、 文獻探討 11
第一節、 後設認知及相關研究 11
第二節、 後設認知教學與學習及相關研究 21
第三節、 新手與專家之差異及相關研究 29
第四節、 人資用人及相關研究 33
第三章、 研究方法 41
第一節、 研究架構 41
第二節、 研究對象 43
第三節、 研究工具 45
第四節、 預試問卷分析 53
第四章、 研究結果與討論 60
第一節、 人資背景資料調查現況 60
第二節、 人資用人過程後設認知的運用現況 69
第三節、 人資用人各階段後設認知使用現況及差異分析 74
第四節、 背景資料現況與後設認知差異分析 79
第五節、 人資專家與新手後設認知運用差異分析 89
第六節、 台灣與中國人資後設認知運用差異分析 98
第五章、 研究結果與建議 107
第一節、 研究結果 107
第二節、 研究建議 111
參考文獻 117
中文文獻 117
英文文獻 118
附錄1、 後設認知量表題項(繁體中文) 124
附錄2、 原始量表變項之解釋 127
附錄3、 量表題項內容轉換(人資用人) 129
附錄4、 人資用人後設認知評量量表題項(初版) 132
附錄5、 專家建議量表修正 134
附錄6、 人資用人階段問卷題項分類 135
附錄7、 量表背景資料(繁體中文) 137
附錄8、 量表同意書(繁體中文) 140
附錄9、 人資用人後設認知評量量表(繁體中文) 141
附錄10、 人資用人後設認知評量量表(簡體中文) 151

圖目錄
圖 1 1 後設認知理論 4
圖 2 1 Flavell後設認知理論 12
圖 2 2 Brown 後設認知理論 14
圖 2 3 Nelson 後設認知理論 15
圖 2 4 後設認知知識因子名詞 17
圖 2 5 後設認知調節因子名詞 18
圖 2 6 自主學習理論 25
圖 2 7 MAI量表 28
圖 2 8 人資用人階段定義流程 37
圖 3 1 研究架構圖 41
圖 3 2 問卷編制流程圖 46

表目錄
表 2 1 後設認知訓練方式成效 22
表 3 1預試樣本背景統計表 44
表 3 2項目分析彙整表 56
表 3-3問卷信度表 57
表 3 4因素分析彙整表 59
表 4- 1研究問卷基本個人資訊統計表 61
表 4- 2研究問卷工作相關資訊統計表一 62
表 4- 3研究問卷工作相關資訊統計表二 63
表 4- 4 研究問卷人資相關資訊統計表一 64
表 4- 5 研究問卷人資相關資訊統計表二 65
表 4- 6研究問卷人資相關資訊統計表三 65
表 4- 7研究問卷人資相關資訊統計表四 66
表 4- 8 人資用人整體後設認知分數彙整表 70
表 4- 9人資用人後設認知因子相關性表 70
表 4- 10人資用人階段後設認知分數彙整表 74
表 4- 11人資用人階段後設認知層面分數彙整表 75
表 4- 12人資用人階段後設認知因子分數彙整表 76
表 4- 13背景資料變項分析彙整表 80
表 4- 14整體內部同仁競爭程度對後設認知總分差異性分析表 81
表 4- 15整體內部同仁競爭程度對後設認知調節面差異性分析表 81
表 4- 16整體內部同仁競爭程度對後設認知規劃與監測因子差異性分析表 82
表 4- 17整體內部同仁競爭程度對人資用人招募階段差異性分析表 83
表 4- 18整體員工流動率對後設認知總分差異性分析表 84
表 4- 19整體員工流動率對後設認知調節面差異性分析表 84
表 4- 20整體員工流動率對後設認知監測與評估因子差異性分析表 85
表 4- 21整體員工流動率對人資用人任用階段差異性分析表 86
表 4- 22人資員工流動率對後設認知監測因子差異性分析表 86
表 4- 23人資專家/新手整體後設認知差異性分析表 90
表 4- 24 人資專家/新手後設認知因子差異性分析表 91
表 4- 25人資專家/新手用人階段後設認知差異性分析表 92
表 4- 26人資專家/新手用人階段後設認知層面差異性分析表 92
表 4- 27人資專家/新手用人階段後設認知因子差異性分析表 94
表 4- 28人資專家/新手背景資料差異性分析表 95
表 4- 29台灣/中國人資整體後設認知差異性分析表 98
表 4- 30台灣/中國人資後設認知因子差異性分析表 99
表 4- 31 台灣/中國人資用人階段後設認知差異性分析表 100
表 4- 32台灣/中國人資用人階段後設認知層面差異性分析表 101
表 4- 33台灣/中國人資用人階段後設認知因子差異性分析表 102
表 4- 34台灣/中國人資背景資料差異性分析表 104



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