||New Perspectives on the Spatial Analysis of Socio-Economic Variables
||Department of Industrial Economics
Spatial Lag model
GlobalizationSpatial Durbin Model
第四章，最後一個子題「全球化下幸福感之空間影響分析」運用145個國家之資料，並利用空間兩階段最小平方法(Spatial 2SLS ；Spatial two stage least square)討論納入幸福感之空間外溢性及全球化等因子後，對幸福感之空間分布有何影響。據文獻與研究之結果指出，衡量空間外溢效果之因子-空間落遲變數(Wh)具內生性，因此須將其內生性納入模型設定中，以避免估計結果產生偏誤。本研究子題亦將解釋變數外溢(WX)的可能性納入考量，該變數可協助控制解釋變數中因鄰近姓而產生的外溢效果。另外，本子題檢測出U型的Kuznet曲線，其指出平均幸福感與幸福感之不均度間存在非線性關係；也就是說幸福感的不均會造成羨慕和社會緊張的一個直接原因。子題最後將針對已開發與開發中國家幸福感之不均度進行比較分析。
||This dissertation consists of three principle work investigating the spatial/geographical structure of different socio - economic phenomena with varying spatial econometric techniques. The second chapter titled “Happiness and Regional Segmentation: Does Space Matters?” examines cross-country happiness interdependencies across 116 countries of diverse characteristics using averaged happiness data for the year 2006. The result points to significant happiness spillovers indicating the importance of group clustering in the studies of happiness. The result suggests that the more homogenous the group is, the higher will be the spillover among them. We observe positive spillover for developed countries and negative spillover for socialist and equal countries. Ignoring such spatial spillover effect may lead to misunderstanding of various policy implications.
The third chapter titled “Population Aging and Regional Income Inequality in Taiwan: A spatial Dimension” of the dissertation analyzes the spatial distribution of regional income inequality across 22 regions of Taiwan for the time period 1998-2006. The work employs a ‘spatial lag model’ to assess the importance of spatial clustering in the processes of growth convergence and income inequality. A spatial fixed effect panel data analysis reveals that the level of inequality in income distribution of own province is positively and significantly determined by inequality in the neighboring province. Further, when we control for spatial dependence we observe a positive relation between aging and income inequality. This regional inequality is explained by a decline in the multi-generational families followed by a rise in the elderly households with no additional income. In an additional analysis which forms the second part of the paper, we observe both absolute and conditional beta divergence. The result points to the famous catching up or falling behind phenomenon.
The fourth chapter titled “Happiness and Globalization: A spatial Perspective” examines the impact of globalization on the level of happiness across 145 nations of the world. Based on the data from the Gallup World Poll Survey (GWP), we employ a spatial 2SLS (two stage least square) model to show that spatial lag of happiness adds something important to specify the distribution of the level of happiness, beyond what we would expect from a country’s level of globalization. We conclude endogeneity of the spatial lag term (Wh) which if not taken into account with appropriate instruments may result into biased estimates. The study also provides evidences of spatial dependencies in the independent variables (WX’s) which represents indirect effects from a change in X’s in the neighboring regions. We observe contrasting spillover effects (direct v/s indirect effect) of the same explanatory factor generating positive or negative synergies, respectively, across space. Further, an inverted ‘U’ Kuznet curve reveals a non-linear relationship between average happiness and happiness inequality. At low levels, an increase in well-being appears to hurt the poor; but beyond a certain threshold, it seems to reduce inequality possibly because it brings with it renewed impetus for reforms in international trade and immigration rule. We experience between countries inequality for developed regions compare to developing regions.
||Table of Contents
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Research questions 2
1.2 Theoretical significance 3
1.3 Policy significance 4
2. Happiness and regional segmentation: Does space matter? 5
2.1. Introduction 5
2.2. Conceptual framework and previous literature 7
2.3. Data and Methodologies 10
2.3.1. Data 10
2.3.2. Empirical strategy 12
2.4. Estimation Results 15
2.4.1. Global analysis: OLS vs. Spatial results 15
126.96.36.199. Developed vs. developing regions 16
188.8.131.52. Equal vs. Unequal regions 18
184.108.40.206. Socialist vs. Non-Socialist regions 19
2.4.2. Spatial multiplier analysis 21
2.5. Conclusion and Policy Discussion 23
3. Population Aging and Regional Income Inequality in Taiwan: A Spatial Dimension 32
3.1. Introduction 32
3.2. Literature Review 35
3.3. Data 39
3.4. Methodology 41
3.4.1. Fixed Effect and Spatial Panel Data Models 41
220.127.116.11. Fixed Effect Panel Data Models 41
18.104.22.168. Spatial Panel Models 44
3.4.2. Regional Convergence/Divergence and Spatial Dimension 45
3.5. Empirical Results 47
3.5.1. Non –Spatial v/s Spatial Panel results 47
3.5.2. Convergence-Divergence Hypothesis (Non–spatial v/s spatial results) 50
3.6. Concludary Remarks 51
4. Happiness and globalization: A Spatial Two Stage Least Square (2SLS) approach 63
4.1. Introduction 63
4.2. Literature Review 67
4.3. Data 71
4.4. Methodology: Spatial Dependence of Happiness 73
4.4.1. Moran’s I test 73
4.4.2. Spatial two stage least square estimation of the Spatial Lag happiness. 74
4.5. Empirical Results 77
4.5.1. Spatial Two-Stage Least Square Estimations 77
4.5.2. Relationship between happiness and happiness inequality 81
4.6. Concludary Remarks and Policy Implication 82
5. CONCLUSION 91
6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 94
7. Appendix 108
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2- 1 Descriptive Statistics 26
Table 2- 2 OLS and SAR estimations: Global comparison 27
Table 2- 3 OLS and SAR estimations for Happiness: Developed and Developing countries 28
Table 2- 4 OLS and SAR estimations for Happiness: Equal and Unequal countries 29
Table 2- 5 OLS and SAR estimations for Happiness: Socialist and Non-Socialist countries 30
Table 2- 6 Spatial Parameter and Multiplier estimates for Happiness 31
Table 3- 1 Descriptive Statistics (panel fixed effect model) 54
Table 3- 2 Descriptive Statistics (convergence-divergence hypothesis) 55
Table 3- 3 Moran's I of GINI Income Inequality 56
Table 3- 4 Moran's I (Convergence-divergence model) 57
Table 3- 5 Fixed Effect Estimation - Non-Spatial v.s Spatial Model 58
Table 3- 6 Convergence - Divergence Hypothesis 59
Table 4- 1 Descriptive Statistics 85
Table 4- 2 Moran's I (Average Happiness) 86
Table 4- 3 OLS, Spatial lag and Spatial Lag with IV 87
Table 4- 4 Kuznet Hypothesis: Relationship between Level and Inequality of Happiness 88
Table 2- 7 List of Developed and Developing Countries 108
Table 2- 8 List of Equal and Unequal Countries 111
Table 2- 9 List of Socialist and Non-Socialist Countries 114
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3- 1 Gini for Taiwan (regional level) 60
Figure 3- 2 Average household income for Taiwan (1998 ~ 2006) 61
Figure 3- 3 Moran's scatter plot for average household income growth 62
Figure 3- 4 Moran's scatter plot for GINI (1999 & 2005) 62
Figure 4- 1 Moran's I for average happiness (2012) 89
Figure 4- 2 Kuznet Curve: Global 89
Figure 4- 3 Kuznet Curve: Developed Countries 90
||Ahluwalia, Montek S., (1976b) Inequality, poverty and development, Journal of Development Economics 3, 307-342.
Allison, P.D (1978) Measures of Inequality. American Sociological Review, 43: 865- 880.
Alesina, A. DiTella, R. & MacCulloch, R. (2004). Inequality and happiness: Are Europeans and Americans different? Journal of Public Economics, 88, 2009-2042.
Alesina, A., & La Ferrara, E. (2005). Preferences for Redistribution in the Land of Opportunities, Journal of Public Economics, 89, 897-931.
Anand S. and Kanbur,S.M.R. (1993b)"Inequality and Development, A Critique" Journal of Development Economics 41, 19-43
Anselin, L. (2006), Spatial Econometrics,” In T.C. Mills and K. Patterson (Eds.), Palgrave Handbook of Econometrics: Econometric Theory. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, Volume 1, 901-969.
Anselin, L. (2003), Spatial externalities, spatial multipliers and spatial econometrics, International Regional Science Review 26(2), 153-166.
Anselin L. (1988) Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models, Kluwert Academic.
Anselin, L. and Bera, A. (1998). Spatial dependence in linear regression models with an introduction to spatial econometrics. In Ullah, A. and Giles, D. E., editors, Handbook of Applied Economic Statistics, pages 237-289. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Anselin L, Kelejian HH (1997) Testing for spatial error autocorrelation in the presence of endogenous regressors, International Regional Science Review 20:153–182.
Anselin, L.; Le Gallo, J.; Jayet, H. (2008). Spatial Panel Econometrics. Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Applied Econometrics, 46, Part II, pp. 625-660.
Azzoni C, Menezes-Filho N,Menezes T, Silveira-Neto R. (2001) Geography and regional income inequality in Brazil. Research network paper r-395, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
Baltagi, B.H (2001) “Econometric Analysis of Panel data”, 2nd Edition, New Work, John Wiley and Sons.
Barro, R. J. (2000) “Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries, ” Journal of Economic Growth, Vol.5, pp.5-32.
Barro, R. J. & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1991) “Convergence across states and regions,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity , 1, 107-179.
Barro, R. J. & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1992) “Convergence,” Journal of Political Economy, 100, 223- 251.
Baumol,W (1986). “Productivity Growth, Convergence and Welfare,” American Economic Review,Vol 76, 1072-1085.
Baumont, B., Ertur, C. and Le Gallo, J. (2003) “Spatial Convergence Clubs and the European Regional Growth Process, 1980-1995”, in Fingleton, B. (ed.) European Regional Growth, Berlin et al., Springer, 131-158.
Bentham, J. (1789), Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, London
Bishop, J., Formby. J and Smith. J (1997), “ Demographic Change and Income Inequality in the United States, 1976-1989.” Southern Economic Journal, vol. 64, no.1, 34-44.
Bjornskov, C. (2008) Healthy and Happy in Europe? On the Association between Happiness and Life Expectancy Over Time, Social Science & Medicine, (66), 1750–1759.
Bjornskov, C. (2003). The happy few: Cross-country evidence on social capital and life satisfaction. Kyklos, 56(1), 3–16.
Blanchflower D.G. (2008). International evidence on well-being. IZA Discussion Paper No.3354.
Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (2004). Well-Being over Time in Britain and the USA. Journal of Public Economics, No. 7-8: 1359-86.
Bazillier,R and Sirven,N (2008)," Is there a Social Kuznet curve? The influence of labor standards on Inequality", Journal of Development Studies, Vol 44 (7)pp.913-934
Bräuninger, M. Niebuhr, A. (2005) "Convergence, Spatial Interaction and Agglomeration Effects in the EU," European Regional Science Association.
Brickman, P., & Campbell, D. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In: Appley, M.H. (Ed.): Adaptation-level theory: A symposium. Academic Press, New York.
Cantril, H. (1965). The pattern of human concerns. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Carlino. G and Leonard.M. 1996. Convergence and the U.S. States, Journal of Regional Science, 36(4):597-616China Post (2008) M-shape society trend getting worse. DGBAS, September 4, MIT Press, Cambridge
CIA (2006). CIA World Factbook. Washington DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Database accessed at www.cia.gov.
Chadi, A (2014) “Regional Unemployment and Norm-Induced Effects on Life Satisfaction.” Empirical Economics, 46(3), 2014, 1111–41.
Chong, A. (2001), “Inequality, Democracy, and Persistence: Is There a Political Kuznets Curve?”, Economics and Politics, Vol. 16, No. 2 (July), pp. 189-212
Chu, C., Cyrus. Y and Lily. J (1997) “ Demographic Transition, Family Structure, and Income Inequality,” Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 79, no. 4, 665-669.
Cliff A.D, Ord J.K (1981) Spatial processes: models and applications. Pion, London
Clark, A., Fabrice, E, Fabien, V, Claudia, S, and Karine, S. (2005), Heterogeneity in Reported Well-Being: Evidence from Twelve European Countries. Economic Journal, 115(502): 118–32.
Clark, A., Frijters. P and Shields. M (2008), Relative Income, Happiness and Utility: An Explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and Other Puzzles, Journal of Economic Literature 46(1), 95–144.
Deaton, A. (2008). Income, Health and Well-Being around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22, 53-72.
Diener, E. and Diener, M. (1995), Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, pp. 653–663.
Di Tella, R., MacCulloch, R.J (2006). Some Uses of Happiness Data in Economics. Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(1): 25-46
Di Tella, R., MacCulloch, R.J., & Oswald, A.J. (2003). The macroeconomic of happiness. Review of Economics and Statistics, 85, 809-827.
Di Tella, R, MacCulloch, R.J, & Oswald, A.J (2001). Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment: Evidence from Surveys of Happiness. American Economic Review 91(1): 335-341
Deaton, A.S, Paxson, C.H (1997) “The effects of economic and population growth on national saving and inequality,” Demography, 34(1):97–114
Dunford and Smith (2000) “Catching up or Falling Behind? Economic performance and regional trajectories in the New Europe,” Economic Geography, Vol 76, No 2, 169-195
Deaton A.S, Paxson C.H (1994) “Intertemporal choice and inequality,” Journal of
Political Econmy, 102(3):437–467
Dreher, A, Gaston, N & Martens, P (2008) ‘Measuring Globalization – Gauging its Consequence’, New York: Springer.
Dreher, A. (2006): “Does Globalization Affect Growth? Evidence from a new Index of Globalization”, Applied Economics, 38(10): 1091-1110.
Easterlin, Richard A. (1974). Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence. In: Paul A. David and Melvin W. Reder (eds). Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honour of Moses Abramowitz. New York and London: Academic Press: 89-125
Easterlin, Richard A. (1995). Will Raising the Incomes of All Increase the Happiness of All? Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 27(1): 35-48.
Elhorst, J. P. (2003) “Specification and estimation of spatial panel data models,” International Regional Sciences Review, 26(3): 244-268.
Elhorst, J. P.. (2010) “Applied Spatial Econometrics: Raising the Bar.” Spatial Economic Analysis 5(1): 9-28.
Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A., & Frijters, P. (2004). How important is methodology for the estimates of determinants of happiness? Economic Journal, 114, 641-659.
Fent, T., B. Mahlberg, and A. Prskawetz (2008): “Demographic Change and Economic Growth,” Business Opportunities in an Era of Demographic Change, chap. 1, pp. 3–16. Springer.
Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A., & Gowdy, J. M. (2007). Environmental degradation and happiness. Ecological Economics, 60(3), 509–516.
Friedmann, J (1966) Regional development policy: a case study of Venezuela. MIT Press, Cambridge.
Frey, B. and Stutzer, A. (2002): “What can Economists Learn from Happiness Research?”, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 520-578
Frey, B.S., & Stutzer, A. (2000). Happiness, economy, and institution. Economic Journal, 110(466), 918-938.
Frijters, P., & Van Praag, B.M.S. (1998). The Effects of Climate on Welfare and Well-Being in Russia. Climatic Change, 39, 61-81
Galbraith, J. K. (2012): Inequality and Instability. Oxford university Press
Global Views Monthly (1998) "1998 Survey of Counties and Cities. November" (in Chinese) development policy: a case study of Venezuela. MIT Press, Cambridge.
Graham, C. (2005), “The economics of happiness: insights on globalization from a novel approach”, World Economics, Vol. 6 No. 3, pp. 41-55.
Graham, C. and Felton, A. (2006). Inequality and happiness: Insights from Latin America. Journal of Economic Inequality, 4, 107-122
Griffith D (2003) Spatial autocorrelation and spatial filtering: gaining understanding through theory and scientific visualization. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York
Hayo, B. (2004). Happiness in Eastern Europe. Mimeo, Philipps University Marburg, Number 12/2004.
Hausman, J.A (1978) “Specification tests in econometrics”, Econometrica, 46, 1251-1271.
Helliwell, J.F. (2003), How’s life? Combining individual and national variables to explain subjective well-being, Economic Modeling, 20, pp.331-360.
Helliwell, J., & Huang, H. (2008). How’s your government? International evidence linking good government and well-being. British Journal of Political Science, 38, 595–619.
Henderson, H. (2002). Globalization and quality of life. Talking points for the Calvert group press briefing. National Press Club, Washington, DC.
Henley, A. (2005) “On Regional Growth Convergence in Great Britain,” Regional Studies, 39, 1245-1260.
Hering, L. and Poncet, S (2010), `Market access and individual wages: evidence from China', Review of Economics and Statistics, 92(1), 145-59
Hessami, Z., (2011) Globalization’s winners and losers – Evidence from life satisfaction data, 1975–2001. Economics Letters 112, 250–253.
Hirschman, A. O, and Michael, R. (1973). The Changing Tolerance for Income Inequality in the Course of Economic Development; with a Mathematical Appendix. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(4): 544–66
Hsu J-Y 2009, The spatial encounter between neoliberalism and populism in Taiwan: regional restricting under the DPP regime in the new millennium, Political Geography, 28, 296-308.
Inglehart, R, et al. (2000) WORLD VALUES SURVEYS AND EUROPEAN VALUES SURVEYS, 1981-1984, 1990-1993, and 1995-1997:
Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Peterson, C., and Welzel, C. (2008). Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective (1981–2007). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 264-285.
Jorda, V. & Sarabia, J.M. (2014). Well-being distribution in the globalization era: 30 years of convergence, Applied Research in Quality of Life, DOI 10.1007/s11482-014 9304-8.
Kalmijn, W. and Veenhoven.R (2005), Measuring Inequality of Happiness inNations: In Search for Proper Statistics, Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, pp. 357-396.
Kaufmann D, Kraay,A and Mastruzzi,M (2010). "The Worldwide Governance Indicators : A Summary of Methodology, Data and Analytical Issues". World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5430
Kelejian H, Prucha I (1999) A generalized moments estimator for the autoregressive parameter in a spatial model. International Econ Rev 40(2):509–533.
Kelejian H, Prucha I (1998) A generalized spatial two stages least square procedure for estimating a spatial autoregressive model with autoregressive disturbances. J Real Estate Finance Econ 17(1):99–121
Kelejian, H.H., Robinson, D.P., 1993. A suggested method of estimation for spatial interdependence models with autocorrelated errors, and an application to a county expenditure model. Papers in Regional Science 72, 297–312.
Kenny C. (2005). Does development make you happy? Subjective well-being and economic growth in developing countries. Social Indicators Research, 73, 199-219
Kim, S., (2008) Spatial inequality and economic development: theories, facts, and policies, Commission on Growth and Development.
Knight, J.B. and Sabot,R.H(1983) “Educational Expansion and the Kuznets Effect,” The American Economic Review, Vol.73, pp.1132-1136.
Krugman, P. (1991). In Geography and trade, London: MIT Press.Krugman, P.( 1998) “What’s new about the New Economic Geography?” Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 14. 7-17.
Kuznets, S, (1989) “Economic Development, the Family, and Income Distribution,” New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kuznets S. (1955) "Economic Growth and Income Inequality" American Economic Review,45(l), 1-28
Land, K., Deane, G., (1992) On the large-sample estimation of regression models with spatial-or network-effects terms: a two stage least squares approach. In: Marsden, P. (Ed.), Sociological Methodology. Jossey Bass, San Francisco, pp. 221–248.
Layard, R. (2005), Happiness. Mimeo, London School of Economics.
Layard, R (2006), “Happiness and public policy: a challenge to the profession”, Economic Journal, Vol. 116, Issue 510, pp. C24-C33.
Leigh, A. and Wolfers. J. (2006). Happiness and the Human Development Index: Australia is Not a Paradox. Australian Economic Review 39(2): 176-84
Lee, L.; Yu, J. (2010) “Estimation of spatial autoregressive panel data models with fixed effects,” Journal of Econometrics, 154: 165-185.
Lee, L.F., (2003) Best spatial two-stage least squares estimators for a spatial autoregressive model with autoregressive disturbances. Econometric Reviews 22, 307 335.
Lee, S. and Mason, A (2001) “Aging, Family Transfers, and Income Inequality,” University of Hawaii Department of Economics Seminar Paper.
Lelkes, O. (2006) ‘Tasting freedom: happiness, religion and economic transition’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 59(2): 173-194.
LeSage, J. P. & Pace, K. R. (2009), Introduction to Spatial Econometrics, CRC Press
Lin, C.A., Lahiri, S, Hsu, C.P. (2014) Happiness and Regional Segmentation: Does Space Matter?. Journal of Happiness Studies 15:157-83.
Liu, Y.C., and Chang. C.H. (1987) “The Impact of Wives’ Earnings on Family Income Inequality: The Case of Taiwan,” Economic Essays, 15: 509-533.
Maddison A (2007) Contours of the World Economy, 1-2003. Oxford University Press, New York
Mankiw, N. G., Romer, D. & Weil, D. N. (1992) “A contribution to the empirics of economic growth,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107, 407-437.
Martin, G. (2005). Editorial: globalization and health. Globalization and Health, 1, 1–2.
Mocan, H. N. (1999) "Structural Unemployment, Cyclical Unemployment, and Income Inequality,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 81, 122-134.
Okulicz-Kozaryn, A. (2011). Geography of European life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 101(1), 435 - 445.
Ord, K. (1975), Estimation Methods for Models of Spatial Interaction, Journal of the American Statistical Association 70, 120-126.
Oswald, A.J. (1997). Happiness and Economic Performance. Economic Journal, 107(445), 1815-1831.
Oswald, A. J., & Wu, S. (2011). Well-being across America. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 93(4),
Ott, J. C. (2010), “Greater Happiness for a Greater Number: Some Non-controversial Options for Governments”, Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(5), 631-647.
Ott, J. (2008). Government effectiveness and happiness in 131 nations in 2006. Mimeo, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Ott. J (2005) Level and inequality of happiness in nations: does greater happiness of a greater number imply greater inequality in happiness? Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol 6, 397- 420.
Ovaska, T and Ryo T, (2006) Economic Policy and the Level of Self-Perceived Well-Being: An International Comparison, Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 308–325.
Pace K, LeSage J (2008) Biases of OLS and spatial lags models in the presence of omitted variable and spatially dependent variables. In: P′aez A, Le Gallo J, Buliung R, Dall’Erba S (eds) Progress in spatial analysis: theory and methods, and thematic applications. Springer, Berlin
Paci, R., Pigliaru, F. (2001) “Technological Diffusion, Spatial Spillovers and Regional Convergence in Europe”. Working Paper Series, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
Paglin, M. (1975) "The Measurement and Trend of Inequality: A Basic Revision," American Economic Review, 65:3, pp. 520-531.
Petrakos.G and Topaloglou.L (2005) ‘Tracing the New economic geography of the borders in Europe, 45th congress of the European Regional Association, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Phan D, Coxhead I (2007) “Inter-provincial migration and inequality during Vietnam’s transition,” Staff paper # 507, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin.
Pong, S (1991) “The effect of women’s labor on family income inequality: The case of Hong Kong,” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 40(1): 131–52.
Puga, D., (2002) “European regional policies in light of recent location theories,” Journal of Economic Geography, 2 (4), 372–406.
Ram, R. (1990), “Educational Expansion and Schooling Inequality: International Evidence and Some Implications”, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 72(2): pp. 266-274
Reardon, S. F., Matthews, S. A., O'Sullivan, D., Lee, B. A., Firebaugh, G., Farrell, C. R.,et al. (2008). The geographic scale of metropolitan racial segregation. Demography, 45, 489-514.
Rey,S.J and Mountouri, B.D. (1999) “U.S regional income convergence: a spatial econometric perspective,” Regional Studies, 33 (1), 143-156
Rey, S.J & Janikas,M.V 2005. "Regional convergence, inequality, and space," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 155-176, April.
Rey, S. J., and Gallo, J.Le 2009, Spatial Analysis of Economic Convergence, In T.C. Mills and K. Patterson (eds.) Palgrave Handbook of Econometrics Volume II: Ap-plied Econometrics. Palgrave Macmillan.
Rothstein. B (2011). The Quality of Government: Corruption, Social Trust, and Inequality in International Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Schultz, T. P. (1997), “Income Inequality in Taiwan 1976-1995: Changing Family Composition, Aging and Female Labor Force Participation,” Yale Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper: 778, pp. 56.
Schultz, T.W (1963), The Economic Value of Education, Columbia University Press.
Sirgy, J., Lee, D. J., Miller, C., & Littlefield, J. E. (2004). The impact of globalization on a country’s quality of life: toward an integrated model. Social Indicators Research, 68(3), 251–298.
Smeeding,T (2001) “Income Maintenance in Old Age. What can be learned from cross-national comparison” LIS Working Paper Series No. 263.
Stanca, L. (2010). The Geography of Economics and Happiness: Spatial Patterns in the Effects of Economic Conditions on Well-Being, Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 99(1), 115-133,
Steimetz, S.S.C., (2010) Spatial multipliers in hedonic analysis: a comment on Spatial hedonic models of airport noise, proximity, and housing prices, Journal of Regional Science 50, 995–998.
Stern, D.I. (2004), “The Rise and Fall of Environmental Kuznets Curve”, World Development, Vol. 32(8): 1419-1439
Stevenson, B., Wolfers, J. (2008) Economic growth and subjective well-being: reassessing the Easterlin paradox. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1: 1–87
Tsai, M.C; Chang, H.H; Chen, W.C (2011): “Globally Happy: Individual Globalization, Expanded Capacities, and Subjective Wellbeing”. Social Indicators Research.
Van Praag, B.M.S. (2010). “Well-being Inequality and Reference Groups: An Agenda for New Research”, IZA Discussion Paper No. 4727.
Veenhoven, R. (2008b). World database of happiness, distributional findings in nations. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Assessed March 2009 http://www.worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
Veenhoven, R. (2008a). World database of happiness, item bank. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Assessed March (2009) http://www.worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl.
Veenhoven, R. (2006) World Database of Happiness, continuous register of scientific research on subjective enjoyment of life Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands Available at: http://www.worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl.
Veenhoven, R (2005), “Return of Inequality in Modern Society? Test by Dispersion of Life-Satisfaction Across Time and Nations”, Journal of Happiness Studies, 6(4), 457- 487.
Veenhoven, R. (2000), Well-being in the welfare state: level not higher, distribution not more equitable, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 2, 91-125.
Veenhoven, R. (1999). Quality of life in individualistic society, a comparison of 43 nations in the early 1990’s. Social Indicators Research, 48, 157–186.
Veenhoven, R. (1996) Developments in satisfaction research. Social Indicator Research, Vol 37, 1-46.
Veenhoven, R (1991). Is Happiness Relative? Social Indicators Research 24,no. 1-34. Veenhoven, R. (1990), “Inequality in happiness, inequality in countries compared between countries”, Paper presented at the12th Work Congress of Sociology, Madrid, Spain.
Weizsacker, V (1995) “Public pension reform, demographics, and inequality”, Journal of Population Economics, Vol No 8, 205-21
World Bank (2013). World Development Indicators Database. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/datacatalog/ world-development-indicators. Accessed 15 November 2013.
Wu, K. (2005) “How Social Security Keeps Older Persons Out of Poverty across Developed Countries,” Luxembourg Income Study, Working Paper no. 410.
Yang, T, Chuan, A, Noah, J. and Carla S.(2013). “Exploring Geographic Variation in U.S. Mortality Rates Using a Spatial Durbin Approach.” Population, Space, and Place.
Yu, J.; de Jong, R.; Lee, L. (2008) “Quasi maximum likelihood estimators for spatial dynamic panel data with fixed effects when both n and t are large,” Journal of Econometrics, 146:118-134.
Zhong, H (2011) “Impact of population aging on income inequality in developing countries: Evidence from rural China,” China Economic Review, Vol No 22, 98-107