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系統識別號 U0002-1407201414560900
中文論文名稱 女性身高對就業的影響─以美國健康與營養調查為例
英文論文名稱 The impact of height on female employment--evidence from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 產業經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Economics
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 林巧倫
研究生英文姓名 Ciao-Lun Lin
學號 601540163
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-19
論文頁數 59頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡登淵
委員-鄒孟文
委員-陳世能
委員-胡登淵
中文關鍵字 身高  營養攝取  就業  職業選擇  半無母數模型  兩階段半無母數模型 
英文關鍵字 Height  Nutrition intake  Employment  Occupation choice  Seminonparametric model  Two -stage seminonparametric model with sample selection 
學科別分類
中文摘要 身高越高會帶給人專業、具有領導力的觀感。過去文獻多專注在研究身高對於已就業後的報酬之影響,鮮少針對身高對於就業之影響進行分析,而這類文獻大多也較關注男性。有鑒於此,本文在控制營養變數下,特別針對女性身高對就業的影響加以探討,並且進一步觀察身高是否會影響到職業的選擇。
而有別於過去文獻,本文所使用的模型係假設就業分配較具彈性的半無母數模型(Seminonparametric model)以及兩階段半無母數模型(Two -stage seminonparametric model with sample selection)來進行估計。研究資料取自美國2005-2006與2007-2008年健康及營養調查 (NHANES),因考慮到身高、營養攝取的內生性,本文利用Control function approach 來處理內生的問題,以受訪者5~12歲喝牛奶的頻率所構成的虛擬變數以及Lewbel建議的工具變數為工具變數。
結果顯示:女性的身高對就業整體而言並不存在顯著的影響,而營養攝取方面卡路里攝取對於就業沒有顯著的影響,蛋白質攝取對於就業則僅在10%顯著水準下呈顯著為負向;在已就業的前提下,本文進一步剖析身高對於進入各型職業的影響,發現身高越高的女性會較容易進入專業白領(身高一次項僅在10%顯著水準下呈顯著為正向,但平方項為負向但不顯著)及其他白領(身高一次項在1%顯著水準下呈顯著為正向,但平方項在5%顯著水準下呈顯著為負向),其邊際效果呈concave,特別是其他白領呈明確concave,表正向效果會隨著身高先上升再趨緩,而身高較矮的女性容易進入藍領職業(身高一次項在1%顯著水準下呈顯著為負向,平方項也在1%顯著水準下呈顯著但為正向),其邊際效果呈convex,表負向效果會隨著身高先加遽再趨緩。以上的結果可能部分肇因於職業是否容易受外表影響。在營養攝取方面,蛋白質攝取越多越容易進入專業白領,表示飲食品質越好對於專業白領是有幫助的,而對於需要體力的藍領,卡路里攝取越多則越有益,然而蛋白質與卡路里皆對進入其他白領無顯著影響。
英文摘要 Tall people are more likely to be perceived as having professional status and leadership than shorter ones. Most existing studies explore height affecting wage but provide less discussion on the relation between height and employment. Pervious work on the height premium has largely focused on males. This study, hence, examines the impact of height on female employment and occupational choice after controlling for nutrient intakes.
Unlike previous literature, this study uses models with a flexible distribution assumption. They are seminonparametric model and two-stage seminonparametric model with sample selection respectively. It analyzes female data that come from the 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). To take the potential endogeneity of height and nutrient intakes into account, this paper uses a dummy variable reflecting “ the frequency of drinking milk on 5~12 years old” and the instrumental variables proposed by Lewbel as our instrumental variables. It then uses Control function approach.
The results indicate height has no significant effect on overall female employment. The calories intakes have no significant effect on female employment either. The estimate of coefficient of protein intakes is negative but is only significant at ten-percent level. Taller women are more likely to enter white-collar professional occupation and white-collar other occupation, while the marginal effects appear to be concave, especially for white-collar other occupation. Shorter women are more likely to enter blue-collar occupation, while the marginal effects appear to be convex. With respect to nutrient intakes, calories intakes raise the possibility of entering blue-collar while protein intakes raise the possibility of entering white-collar professional occupation. These results may reflect that diet quality can enhance productivity in occupation needing intelligence and calories can enhance productivity in occupation needing strength. Neither of the nutrient intakes has significant effect on the possibility of entering white-collar other occupation.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 6
第三章 資料來源及變數定義 13
第一節 資料來源 13
第二節 樣本篩選 15
第三節 變數定義 17
第四節 敘述統計 24
第四章 實證模型設定 29
第五章 實證結果與分析 32
第一節 女性身高對於就業的影響 32
第二節 女性身高對於職業選擇的影響 37
第六章 結論 49
第一節 結論 49
第二節 研究限制及未來研究方向 51
參考文獻 52
附錄 55



圖表目錄

表 一 身高對勞動市場影響的文獻整理 10
表 二 變數概述表 22
表 三 所有女性樣本的敘述統計表 25
表 四 職業屬於專業白領的敘述統計表 26
表 五 職業屬於其他白領的敘述統計表 27
表 六 職業屬於藍領的敘述統計 28
表 七 身高對於就業的SNP模型估計結果 34
表 八 身高與專業白領的SNP2S模型估計結果 41
表 九 身高與其他白領的SNP2S模型估計結果 43
表 十 身高與藍領的SNP2S模型估計結果 45

圖 一 全樣本的身高分布 3
圖 二 男性樣本的身高分布 3
圖 三 女性樣本的身高分布 4
圖 四 美國女性就業率 5
圖 五 女性職業類別比例圓餅圖 16
圖 六 身高對於就業的邊際效果圖形 36
圖 七 身高對於進入專業白領的邊際效果圖形 47
圖 八 身高對於進入其他白領的邊際效果圖形 47
圖 九 身高對於進入藍領的邊際效果圖形 48

附表 一 職業分類:專業白領、其他白領與藍領之樣本分類 55
附表 二 職業類別細項說明 56

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3.Case , A. & Paxson , C. (2008) Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes. Working paper 12466, National Bureau of Economic Research.
4.Case , A. & Paxson , C. (2008) Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes. Journal of Political Economy, 116, 3, 499-532
5.Crespo, C.J., Smit, E, Andersen, R.E., Carter-Pokras, O & Ainsworth, B.E. (2000) Race/ethnicity, social class and their relation to physical inactivity during leisure time: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 198-1994. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18, 1, 46-53.
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10.Haper, S., Khan, H.T.A., Saxna, A. & Leeson, G. (2006) Attitudes and Practices of Employers towards Ageing Workers: Evidence from a Global Survey on the Future of Retirement. Ageing Horizons, 5, 31-41.
11.Jackson, L. & Ervin, K. (1992) Height stereotypes of women and men: the liabilities of shortness for both sexes. Journal of Social Psychology , 132, 4, 433–445.
12.Judge, T.A. & Cable, D.M. (2004) The Effect of Physical Height on Workplace Success and Income: Preliminary Test of a Theoretical Model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 3, 428-441.
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16.Rosenberg, I. B. (2009) Height Discrimination in Employment. Utah Law Review, 3, 907-953.
17.Schulz, T.P. (2002) Wage Gains Associated with Height as a Form of Health Human Capital. The American Economic Review, 92, 2, 349-353
18.Scopp, T. S. (2003) The Relationshup Between The 1990 Census and Census 2000 Industry and Occupation Classification Systems. U.S.Census Bureau.
19.Sohn, K. (2014) The height premium in Indonesia. Economics and Human Biology
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21.Thomas, D. & Strauss J. (1997) Health and wages evidence on men and women in urban Brazil. Journal of Econometrics, 77, 159-185.
22.Vogl, T. S. (2014) Height, skills, and labor market outcomes in Mexico. Journal of Development Economics, 107, 84-96.
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