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系統識別號 U0002-1407200811470100
中文論文名稱 瘦身的經濟分析
英文論文名稱 Two Economic Essays on Weight Control
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 產業經濟學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of IndustrialEconomics
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 郭雁媚
研究生英文姓名 Yen-Mei Kuo
學號 695540491
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-13
論文頁數 56頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡登淵
委員-陳世能
委員-鄒孟文
中文關鍵字 教育  體重控制  肥胖  就業  trivariate probit model 
英文關鍵字 education  weight control  obesity  employment  trivariate probit model 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學經濟學
中文摘要 本論文探討下述可能影響瘦身的因子與瘦身對經濟層面影響的二子題:
(1) 瘦身的決定因子:教育對瘦身的影響是否需要時間沉澱吸收?
本論文以我國『國民健康訪問調查』(2001) 資料分析教育與有效瘦身之關聯性,並以univariate probit模型對男女老少族群分別估計。然而年輕人可能為外觀本身而追求瘦身,這可能考量婚姻或職業所需或由愛美天性使然,尤其是年輕女性可能主要為窈窕身材而追求瘦身,而中老年者則可能主要是因健康考量而產生對瘦身的需求,故教育對有效瘦身的影響可能因人生階段而異。本研究進一步以父母親之教育年數作為子女教育年數之工具變數,以檢定教育之內生性問題。我們的結果顯示教育對有效瘦身為正向影響,而女性的教育需要時間沉澱吸收,且教育對男性的影響程度大於女性。此外,內生性之檢定結果為教育與有效瘦身不存在內生性問題。
(2) 體重控制、肥胖與就業
已有多數文獻探討肥胖對就業的影響,卻鮮少討論體重控制與就業的關聯性。因此,本論文運用trivariate probit model來探討體重控制、肥胖與就業之關聯性。為解決可能的內生性問題,我們以父母親是否肥胖作為肥胖的工具變數,以不滿意自己的外表作為體重控制與否的工具變數,以處理內生性問題。我們的實證結果指出,控制體重控制下的肥胖與就業的關聯比沒有控制體重控制下負向效果相對較小。
英文摘要 Essay 1: By using the data of the 2001 National Health Interview Survey of Taiwan, this study investigates the empirical association between education and effective weight control. It uses a univariate probit model to assess the difference in this relationship for young and old cohorts. Our results indicate that education has positive influence on effective weight control, but women's education needs time precipitation absorption, and the influence of education on the decision of weight control for men is greater than that for women. It also attempts to use a bivariate probit model to assess the difference in the relationship, controlling for the potential endogeneity of overweight or education, by using genetic instrumental variables. It tests the hypothesis that overweight is exogenous and the hypothesis that education is exogenous in the equation of effective weight control,. Both hypotheses are supported.
Essay 2: The economic effects of obesity on employment have received an increasing attention; nonetheless, none of the previous studies has taken the intention of weight control, which is often unobserved in many relevant data sets, into account. By using the data of the 2001 National Health Interview Survey of Taiwan, this study investigates whether the intention of weight control is a key factor for mitigating the punishment of obesity, in terms of smaller negative effect on employment, for young workers. It uses a trivariate probit model to assess the change in this relationship, controlling for the potential endogeneity of obesity, by using genetic instrumental variables, for young workers. It shows that the absolute value of negative marginal effect of obesity on employment is smaller for young workers who intend to do weight control to reduce weight than those who do not.
論文目次 目錄 I
表目錄 II
第一篇 瘦身的決定因子:教育對瘦身的影響是否需要時間沉澱吸收?
第一章 前言 1
第二章 資料來源與變數定義 6
第一節 資料來源 6
第二節 敘述統計 7
第三章 模型設定 14
第四章 實證結果 16
第一節 教育與有效瘦身 16
第二節 內生性分析 21
第五章 結論 23
第二篇 體重控制、肥胖與就業關聯性之探討
第一章 前言 25
第二章 資料來源與變數定義 28
第一節 資料來源 28
第二節 變數定義與敘述統計 29
第三章 實證模型設定 33
第四章 實證結果 36
第五章 結論 42
參考文獻 43
附錄 47

表目錄
第一篇 瘦身的決定因子:教育對瘦身的影響是否需要時間沉澱吸收?
表一 變數定義與最大最小值 10
表二 變數平均數 11
表三 體重控制方法 13
表四 有效瘦身之univariate probit--年齡為20-65歲 17
表五 有效瘦身之univariate probit--將樣本年齡從40歲區分,男女老少分別估計 20
第二篇 體重控制、肥胖與就業關聯性之探討
表六 變數定義與平均數 32
表七 就業之univariate probit model估計結果 36
表八 就業、體重控制與肥胖之trivariate probit model估計結果 39
表九 predict 41
附錄
附錄表一 有效瘦身之univariate probit—加入「運動」與「飲食」 47
附錄表二 有效瘦身之univariate probit—加入「健康知識」 48
附錄表三 有效瘦身與教育內生性檢定 49
附錄表四 有效瘦身與 內生性檢定 50
附錄表五 未考慮工具變數之變數平均值 51
附錄表六 未考慮工具變數--就業之univariate probit model估計結果 52
附錄表七 就業與肥胖之bivariate probit model估計 53
附錄表八 就業、體重控制與肥胖之trivariate probit model估計結果—加入3歲以下之依賴小孩 54
附錄表九 就業、有效瘦身與肥胖之trivariate probit model估計結果 55
附錄表十 predict 56

參考文獻 第一篇 瘦身的決定因子:教育對瘦身的影響是否需要時間沉澱吸收?
1. 李杰憲、傅祖壇(2008)。「飲食品質、運動與肥胖的關係」,宣讀於『第九屆全國實證經濟學論文研討會』。台北,台灣。
2. 張苙雲、楊孟麗、謝幸燕(2007) 。「教育的健康效果:其趨勢及影響機制」,宣讀於『台灣的社會變遷1985∼2005:台灣社會變遷調查計畫第十一次研討會』。中央研究院社會學研究所。台北,台灣。
3. 鄒孟婷、鄒孟文(2003)。「健康知識、教育程度與肥胖之關係」,《台灣衛誌》22,4,295-307。
4. Cawley, J. (2004), “The Impact of Obesity on Wages,” The Journal of Human Resources,39,2,451-474.
5. Costa-Font, J. and Gil, J. (2005), “Obesity and the incidence of chronic diseases in Spain: A seemingly unrelated probit approach,” Economics and Human Biology,3,2,188-214.
6. Finkelstein, E.A., I.C.Fiebelkorn and G.Wang (2003), “National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much and who’s paying?” Health Affairs Web Exclusive,W3,219-226.
7. Greene, W. H. (2003), Econometric analysis. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
8. Grossman, M. and Kaestner, R. “Effects of Education on Health.” In Social Benefits of Education, edited by Jere Behrman and Nevzer Stacey. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.
9. Kahn, M.E. (1998), “Education’s Role in Explaining Diabetic Health Investment Differentials,” Economics of Education Review,17,3,257-266.
10. Kenkel, D.S. (1991), “Health Behavior, Health Knowledge, and Schooling,” The Journal of Political Economy,99,2,287-305.
11. Kenkel, D.S. (1994), “The demand for preventive medical care,” Applied Economics,26,313-325.
12. Lourerio, M.L. and Nayga Jr, R.M. (2006), “Obesity, weight loss, and physician’s advice,” Social Science & Medicine,62,2458-2468.
13. Lyles, A. and Cotton, A. (2004), “Weight control, private health insurance and public policies,” In Obesity, Business and Public Policy ,edited by Zoltán J. Ács, Alan Lyles, Kenneth R. Stanton,2007.
14. Maddala, G., 1983. Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, Econometric Society Monographs No.3. Cambridge University Press, New York.
15. Tsou, meng-wen and Liu, jin-tan (2006), “Obesity, Schooling and Health Knowledge: An Empirical Study of Taiwanese Women,” education economics, 14, 1, 89-106.
第二篇 體重控制、肥胖與就業關聯性之探討
1. 李佳恩(2007)「肥胖、就業與收入關聯性之兩篇探討」,碩士論文,淡江大學產業經濟研究所。
2. 鄒孟婷、鄒孟文(2003)「健康知識、教育程度與肥胖之關係」,《台灣衛誌》22,4,295-307。
3. Cawley, J. (2004), “The Impact of Obesity on Wages,” The Journal of Human Resources,39,2,451-474.
4. Costa-Font, J. and Gil, J. (2005), “Obesity and the incidence of chronic diseases in Spain: A seemingly unrelated probit approach,” Economics and Human Biology,3,2,188-214.
5. Finkelstein, E.A., I.C.Fiebelkorn and G.Wang (2003), “National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much and who’s paying?” Health Affairs Web Exclusive,W3,219-226.
6. Garcia, J. and Quintana-Domeque, C. (2006), “Obesity, Employment and Wages in Europe,” Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, Vol. 17.
7. Greene, W. H. (2003), Econometric analysis. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
8. Grossman, M. and Kaestner, R. “Effects of Education on Health,” In Social Benefits of Education, edited by Jere Behrman and Nevzer Stacey. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.
9. Kahn, M.E. (1998), “Education’s Role in Explaining Diabetic Health Investment Differentials,” Economics of Education Review,17,3,257-266.
10. Kenkel, D.S. (1991), “Health Behavior, Health Knowledge, and Schooling,” The Journal of Political Economy,99,2,287-305.
11. Kenkel, D.S. (1994), “The demand for preventive medical care,” Applied Economics,26,313-325.
12. Lourerio, M.L. and Nayga Jr, R.M. (2006), “Obesity, weight loss, and physician’s advice,” Social Science & Medicine,62,2458-2468.
13. Lyles, A. and Cotton, A. (2004), “Weight control, private health insurance and public policies,” In Obesity, Business and Public Policy ,edited by Zoltán J. Ács, Alan Lyles, Kenneth R. Stanton,2007.
14. Maddala, G., 1983. Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, Econometric Society Monographs No.3. Cambridge University Press, New York.
15. Morris, S.(2007), “The impact of obesity on employment,” Labour Economics,14,413-433.
16. Tsou, meng-wen and Liu, jin-tan (2006), “Obesity, Schooling and Health Knowledge: An Empirical Study of Taiwanese Women,” education economics, 14, 1, 89-106
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