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系統識別號 U0002-1407200809440600
中文論文名稱 拉丁美洲與歐盟香蕉貿易研究
英文論文名稱 The Study of Trade of Banana Between Latin America and the EU
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 陳界宇
研究生英文姓名 Chieh-Yu Chen
學號 694020123
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-16
論文頁數 139頁
口試委員 指導教授-宮國威
委員-蔣成
委員-卓忠宏
中文關鍵字 拉丁美洲  加勒比海  非加太  歐盟  美國  世界貿易組織  香蕉  香蕉貿易  貿易爭端  農業問題 
英文關鍵字 Latin America  Caribbean  ACP  European Union  USA  WTO  Banana  Banana Trade  Commercial Disputes  Agriculture Problem 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 歐洲與拉丁美洲自殖民地時期,無論是在文化或是政治方面都有其深厚的淵源。隨著2006年3月第四屆歐盟與拉美高峰會議(EU - Latin American and Caribbean Summit IV)在維也納(Viena, Austria)的召開,都足以顯示歐盟越來越重視拉丁美洲這個長久以來的合作夥伴關係,然而拉丁美洲對於歐盟未來發展而言,也將扮演越來越重要的角色。
歐盟於一九九三年統一了香蕉的進口政策,結束長期各國混亂的市場制度,而這改變直接影響兩大主要進口供應者在歐盟市場的競爭。對於來自中南美洲的香蕉進口課徵高關稅並實行配額管制,相對於加勒比海國家所生產的香蕉則是與給了相當大的貿易優惠,如此不公平的差別待遇,進而引爆了一連串的香蕉貿易爭端。
除此之外,許多中南美國家香蕉產業的發展受到美國跨國公司投入大量的資金與技術,降低其生產成本,使得加勒比海香蕉在國際競爭不斷地受到威脅,再加上國際香蕉價格持續低靡以及自然因素影響,讓該地區香蕉產業快速衰退,國家經濟岌岌可危,所以歐盟如何兼顧加勒比海地區的經濟發展與世界香蕉貿易的穩定?如何在拉美和美國強大壓力下去解決這棘手的貿易爭端? 以及該香蕉貿易政策對拉丁美洲及加勒比海國所帶來的衝突和影響,以及未來彼此之間微妙關係發展,為本論文研究之重點。
英文摘要 Since the colonial era, Europe and Latin America have had strong connections whether in cultures or in politics. With the host of the 4th EU-Latin America and Caribbean Summit in Viena in March 2008, it can present that the EU pays more and more attention to this long-term partnership with Latin America and then Latin America also plays an increasingly important role in the economic development of the EU.
The EU unified banana import policy in 1993 and terminated the long-term chaotic market systems of different nations. Compared with high tariffs and quota control on Latin American banana exports to the EU, the Caribbean banana growers are provided trade preferences. Such an unfair differential treatment leads to a series of banana trade disputes.
Besides, the development of the Latin American banana sector is affected with a big injection of capitals and technical skills from many U.S. multinational companies. Therefore, the Latin America can lower its cost and places the Caribbean banana a threat. Beside the above factor, effects of the low price level in the international market and of natural factors also make the Caribbean banana sector decline fast. Its economy is also in danger of collapsing. How should the EU settle this urgent trade dispute under such the great pressure from Latin America and U.S. and also take care of the Caribbean economic development? And what effects and conflicts of the EU banana policy will be on the development of Latin America and Caribbean countries? This thesis will focus on the above topics.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 01
第一節 研究動機與目的 01
第二節 研究方法與途徑 04
第三節 研究範圍與限制 04

第二章 農產品貿易爭端與全球香蕉貿易 07
第一節 國際農產品貿易特點與趨勢 07
第二節 WTO與農產品貿易爭端 15
第三節 全球香蕉貿易概況 27

第三章 拉丁美洲與加勒比海香蕉產業之發展 37
第一節 拉丁美洲對歐盟香蕉貿易 37
第二節 中南美洲香蕉產業發展與跨國公司之經營 43
第三節 加勒比海香蕉產業之發展 54
第四節 拉美與加勒比海香蕉之比較 60

第四章 歐盟香蕉貿易政策及其改革 65
第一節 歐盟共同農業政策與改革 65
第二節 GATT時期歐體香蕉貿易政策及其爭端 74
第三節 WTO時期歐盟香蕉進口制度改革與貿易爭端 83

第五章 歐拉香蕉貿易爭端之政治經濟學分析 95
第一節 香蕉貿易及其爭端中的政治性 95
第二節 歐盟香蕉貿易政策對拉丁美洲之影響與衝擊104
第三節 香蕉貿易爭端與爭端解決機制之作用 111

結論 119

參考書目 124

附錄一、農產品貿易爭端涉及的主要產品類別分析 137
附錄二、各語系之加勒比海國家 139


表目次

表1-1 歐盟二十五國與拉丁美洲貿易結構表 01
表2-1 1995-2007年世界貿易組織受理農產品貿易爭端數目統計 24
表2-2 1995-2007年WTO成員有關農品貿易爭端之原告與被訴國統計 25
表2-3 1995-2007年WTO不同水平經濟體之間農產品貿易爭端統計 26
表2-4 2001-2006年全球香蕉產量 28
表2-5 2000-2005年全球香蕉出口數量 30
表2-6 2000-2005年全球香蕉出口金額 32
表2-7 2000-2005年全球香蕉進口數量 33
表2-8 1970-2005年世界香蕉價格變化 34
表3-1 2001-2006年歐盟二十五國香蕉市場供應來源 38
表3-2 世界主要香蕉經營者 40
表3-3 拉美與加勒比海香蕉出口歐盟佔其整體出口之比例(%) 42
表3-4 2003-2006年 拉美暨加勒比海香蕉貿易佔全部出口之比例(%) 53
表3-5 各國香蕉單位生產成本 59
表3-6 加勒比海與中南美香蕉產業之比較 62
表4-1 1993年前歐體成員國家香蕉進口制度與主要供應地區比較 76
表4-2 第3290 / 94號規章有關非加太國家之關稅配額 81
表4-3 第1637/98號和第2362/98號規章第三國和非ACP國家香蕉關稅配額 86
表4-4 第216/2001號規章有關香蕉進口之關稅配額分配 91

圖目次

圖2-1 世界總體和每人平均農業生產量 12
圖2-2 開發中國家農產品進出口值 12
圖2-3 2001-2006年全球香蕉生產國家比例分佈圖 29
圖3-1 中美洲香蕉種植原分布圖 45
圖3-2 中美洲鐵路分布圖 46
圖5-1 1990~2006年歐盟香蕉市場供應來源比例分佈 105
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(三)委託研究報告
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徐遵慈,《爭端解決案例之研究》,台北:外交部,民九十四年十二月,網頁:http://www.wtocenter.org.tw/SmartKMS/fileviewer?id=79877
(四)網路資料
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鄭富霖,<歐盟香蕉進口及配銷制度爭議案報告>,引自中華經濟研究院台灣WTO研究中心網頁:http://www.wtocenter.org.tw/SmartKMS/WTOStatic/chinese/ds/issue0403.htm。
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杜巧霞、陳逸潔、蔡毓翔,<杜哈回合談判暫停主要爭議之解析>,引自中華經濟研究院台灣WTO研究中心網頁:http://www.wtocenter.org.tw/SmartKMS/do/www/readDoc?document_id=81072。
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Yamazawa, Ippci & Akira Hiratn, Trade Policies Towaeds Developing Countries, New York:St . Martin’s Press, 1993.
􀂾
Confederación Universitaria Centroamericana, El universo bananero en Centroamérica, Costa Rica: Universitaria Centroamericanan, 1977.
􀂾
Comisión Económica Para América Latina y el Caribe(CEPAL), Tendencias y perspectivas de las expontaciones de banano de América Latina y el Caribe, Santiago de Chile:Publicacion de CEPAL, 1993.
􀂾
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Banana Exports From Latin America and the Caribbean ;the Market, the Evolving Policy Framework and Development Opion, Rome:Publication of FAO, 1998.
􀂾
---------, The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2004, Rome:Publication of FAO, 2004.
􀂾
---------, The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2006, Rome:Publication of FAO, 2006.
􀂾
---------, Agricultural Trade Policy and Food Security in the Caribbean, Rome:Publication of FAO, 2007.
􀂾
---------, The State of Food And Agriculture 2006, Rome:Publication of FAO, 2006.
􀂾
---------, The State of Food And Agriculture 2007, Rome:Publication of FAO, 2007.
􀂾
---------, Commdity Market Review 2005-2006, Rome: Publication of FAO, 2005..
􀂾
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD), Promoting Pro-Poor Growth: Policy Guidance for Donors, Paris OECD publishing, 2006.
􀂾
World Trade Organization(WTO), International Trade Statistics 2006, Geneva: Publication of World Trade Organization, 2007.
􀂾
---------, World Trade Report 2006, Geneva: Publication of World Trade Organization, 2007.
􀂾
Kamal Malhotra, Making global trade work for people, New York:Earthscan Publications & United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 2003.
􀂾
IMF and World Bank, Market Access for Developing Country Exports: Selected Issues,Washington DC: IMF and World Bank, 2002.
(二)歐盟文件
􀂾
European Commission, “Report Form The Commission To The European Parliament And The Council --On The Operation Of The Common Organisation Of The Market In Bananas”, Brussels, COM(2005) 50 final, 2005.
􀂾
---------, “European Parliament resolution on the Commission communication to the Council and the European Parliament on the Special Framework of Assistance for Traditional ACP Suppliers of Bananas (Council Regulation (EC) No 856/1999)” , Brussels, COM(2002) 763, 2002.
􀂾
---------, “Special framework of assistance for traditional ACP suppliers of bananas (Council regulation 856/1999)” , Brussels, COM(2001)67, 2001.
􀂾
---------, “Green Paper on relations between the European Union and ACP countries on the eve of the 21st century-Challenges and options for a new partnership”, Brussels, COM(96) 570, 1996.
􀂾
---------, “Commission communication to the Council and European Parliament on the development and future of the Common Agricultural Policy”, Brussels, COM (91) 258, 1991.
􀂾
---------, “Green Paper: Perspectives for the common agricultural policy. Communication of the Commission to the Council and the Parliament”, Brussels, COM(85) 333, July 1985.
􀂾
Communication from the Commission to the Council on the "First Come, First Served" method for the banana regime and the implications of a "tariff only" regime, COM(2000) 621 final, p.2 , from http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/html/114948.htm
􀂾
Commission Regulation (EEC) No 1442/93 of 10 June 1993 laying down detailed rules for the application of the arrangements for importing bananas into the Community , from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31993R1442R(02):EN:HTML
􀂾
Commission Regulation (EC) No 2362/98 of 28 October 1998 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EEC) No 404/93 regarding imports of bananas into the Community, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31998R2362:EN:HTML
􀂾
Commission Regulation (EC) No 896/2001 of 7 May 2001 laying down detailed rules for applying Council Regulation (EEC) No 404/93 as regards the arrangements for importing bananas into the Community, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32001R0896:EN:HTML
􀂾
Commission Regulation (EC) No 838/2004 of 28 April 2004 on transitional measures for imports of bananas into the Community by reason of the accession of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2004:127:0052:01:EN:HTML
􀂾
Council Regulation (EEC) No 404/93 of 13 February 1993 on the common organization of the market in bananas, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31993R0404:EN:HTML
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 2686/94 of 31 October 1994 establishing a special system of assistance to traditional ACP suppliers of bananas”, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31994R2686:EN:HTML
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 2320/96 of 28 November 1996 continuing a special system of assistance to traditional ACP suppliers of bananas established by Regulation (EC) No 2686/94, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996R2320:EN:HTML
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 3290/94 of 22 December 1994 on the adjustments and transitional arrangements required in the agriculture sector in order to implement the agreements concluded during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31994R3290:EN:HTML
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 1637/98 of 20 July 1998 amending Regulation (EEC) No 404/93 on the common organisation of the market in bananas, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31994R3290:EN:HTML
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 856/1999 of 22 April 1999 establishing a special frameworkof assistance for traditional ACP suppliers of bananas, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31999R0856:EN:HTML
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 416/2001 of 28 February 2001 amending Regulation (EC) No 2820/98 applying a multiannual scheme of generalised tariff preferences for the period 1 July 1999 to 31 December 2001 so as to extend duty-free access without any quantitative restrictions to products originating in the least developed countries, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32001R0416:EN:HTML
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 216/2001 of 29 January 2001 amending Regulation (EEC) No 404/93 on the common organisation of the market in bananas, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2001:031:0002:0004:EN:PDF
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 2587/2001 of 19 December 2001 amending Regulation (EEC) No 404/93 on the common organisation of the market in bananas, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2001:345:0013:0015:EN:PDF
􀂾
Council Regulation (EC) No 1964/2005 of 29 November 2005 on the tariff rates for bananas, form http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_316/l_31620051202en00010002.pdf
(三)GATT與WTO文件
􀂾
GATT document L/7604.
􀂾
GATT Document DS32/R.
􀂾
WTO document WT/MIN(01)/DEC/1, WT/MIN(01)/15, WT/MIN(01)/16,
􀂾
WTO document WT/DS27/1, WT/DS27/6, WT/DS27/7, WT/DS/27/9, WT/DS27/12, WT/DS/27/15, WT/DS/27/18, WT/DS27/43, WT/DS27/46, WT/DS27/49, WT/DS27/52, WT/DS27/53, WT/DS27/54, WT/DS27/78, WT/DS27/80, WT/DS27/82 , WT/DS27/84, WT/DS27/R/USA, WT/DS27/R/ECU, WT/DS27/R/GTM, WT/DS27/R/HND, WT/DS27/R/MEX , WT/DS27/RW/ECU, WT/DS27/AB/R
􀂾
WTO document WT/DS361/1
􀂾
WTO document WT/TPR/S/190/LCA, WT/TPR/S/190/VCT, WT/TPR/S/190/GRD, WT/TPR/S/190/DMA
􀂾
WTO document WT/TPR/S/186
􀂾
WTO document WT/TPR/S/180
􀂾
WTO document WT/TPR/S/172
􀂾
WTO document WT/TPR/S/148
􀂾
WTO document WT/TPR/S/139
􀂾
WTO document WT/TPR/S/120
􀂾
WTO Document WT/L/607/Add
􀂾
WTO Document WT/L/625.
􀂾
WTO Document WT/DSB/M/49.
􀂾
WTO Document WT/DSB/M/79.
􀂾
WTO Document WT/DS105/1.
(四)期刊
􀂾
Alter, Karen, Meunier and Sophie, “Nested and overlapping regimes in the transatlantic banana trade dispute”, in Journal of European Public Policy, Vol.13, No.3, April 2006 , pags. 362-382.
􀂾
Barco, Anthony P. Maingot del, “La guerra del banano en El Caribe : anticipando cambios globales Plátano”, in Area del Foro internacional, Vol.32, No.1, 1991.
􀂾
Compés López, R.; García Álvarez-Coque, J. M., y Aldanondo, A. M., “La OMC y la solución de diferencias comerciales: el caso del plátano”, in Revista Española de Economía Agraria, No.181,1997, pags.121-156.
􀂾
Cadot, Olivier & Douglas Webber, “Banana Splits: Policy Process, Particularistic Interests, Political Capture, and Money in Transatlantic Trade Politics”, Business and Politics, 2002, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pages 5-39
􀂾
Daugbjerg, C., “Policy feedback and paradigm shift in EU agricultural policy: the effects of the MacSharry reform on the future of reform”, in Journal of European Public Policy, Vol.10 Issue3, June 2003, pags 421-438.
􀂾
Guyomard, Hervé & Chantal Le Mouël “The New Banana Import Regime in the European Union: A Quantitative Assessment”, in The Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Vol.4 No.2, 2003, pags.257-282.
􀂾
Guyomard, Hervé, Chantal Le Mouël, Fabrice Levert and Jahir Lombana, “The Tariff-Only Import Regime for Bananas in the European Union: Impacts on ACP and Non-ACP Suppliers”, in EuroChoices, Vol. 4, Issue 2, 2005, pags.36-41..
􀂾
Harpelle, Ronald N., “Racism and Nationalism in the Creation of Costa Rica’s Pacific Coast Banana Enclave.”, in The Americas , Vol.56, N o.3 , 2000, pags.29-51.
􀂾
Leczykiewicz, Dorota, “Common Commercial Policy: The Expanding Competence of the European Union in the Area of international Trade, German Law Journal, Vol 6 No.11, Novembre 2005, pags 1673-1685.
􀂾
Leitner, Kara and Simon Lester, “WTO Dispute Settlement 1995-2006--A Statistical Analysis”, in Journal of International Economic Law, Vol. 10, No.1, March 2007 , pags. 165-179.
􀂾
Kersten, Lutz, “Impacts of the EU banana market regulation on international competition, trade and welfare”, European Review of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 22 No.3, pp.321-335.
􀂾
Komuro, Norio, “The EC Banana Regime and Judicial Control”, Journal of World, Vol.34 No.5, 2000, pags1-87.
􀂾
Mcmahon, Joseph A., “The EC Regime, the WTO Rulings and the ACP Fighting for Survival?”, in Journal of World Trade,Vol.32 No.4, 1998, pags.101-114.
􀂾
Miller, Shaun & Jared Diamond, “Social sciences: A New World of differences”, in Nature, Vol.441 No.7092, May 2006, pags.411-412.
􀂾
McCorristion, Steve. “market structure isuues and the evaluation of the reform of the eu banana regime”, The World Economy, Vol.23 No.7, July 2000, pags.923-937.
􀂾
Peña, Alberto Fonsca, “La guerra comercial del plátano-Una aproximación desde la teoría de juegos. ” in Revista española de estudios agrosociales y pesqueros, Nº 201, 2004, pags. 127-150.
􀂾
Payne, Tony, “The End of Green Gold? Comparative Development Options and Strategies in the Eastern Caribbean Banana-producing Islands”, Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 41, Issue 3, December 2006, pags. 25-46.
􀂾
Read, Robert, “The Anatomy of the EU-US WTO Banana Trade Dispute”, in The Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Vol.2 No.2, 2001, pags.257-282.
􀂾
Salas, Mauricio & John H.Jackson, “Procedural Overview of the WTO EC-Banana Dispute”, in Journal of international Economic Law, Vol.3 No.1, 2000, pags145-166.
􀂾
Weyerbrok, Silvia, “Reform of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy:How to reach GATT-compatibility?”, European Economic Review, Vol. 42 Issue2, 1998, pags.375-411.
􀂾
“La Unión de Países Exportadores de Banano”, in Nueva Sociedad, No22, 1976, pags.110-114.
(五)會議論文
􀂾
Kasteele, Adelien van de,& Myriam van der Stichele,“Update on the Banana Chain”, in the 2nd Internacional Banana Conference, Abril 2005, pags.8-35, from www.ibc2.org/text/finadoc.pdf .
􀂾
Guyomard, H., C. Le Mouël, and F. Levert, “The tariff-only import regime for bananas in the European Union: setting the tariff at right level is impossible mission.”, Paper presented at the 26th Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, Australia:Gold Coast, August, 2006.
􀂾
Smith, James McCall, “Compliance Bargaining in theWTO: Ecuador and the Bananas Dispute”, paper prepared for the UNCTAD Conference on Developing Countriesand the Trade Negotiation Process, Geneva, 6 November 2003.
(六)網路資料
􀂾
Cashin ,Paul, Montfort Mlachila, Shaun Roache, Guillermo Vuletin, Ping Wang and Tobias Rasmussen, Country Report No.07/97:Esstern Caribbean Currency Union Selected Issues, Washington DC:IMF Publishing, March 2007, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2007/cr0797.pdf.
􀂾
Gillson, Ian, Adrian Hewitt & Sheila Page, Forthcoming Changes in the EU Banana/Sugar Markets: A Menu of Options for an Effective EU Transitional Package,
Overseas Development Institute, 2005, from http://www.odi.org.uk/iedg/Projects/EU_banana_sugar_markets/SUGARreport.pdf
􀂾
Pedro Arias, Cora Dankers, Pascal Liu and Paul Pilkauskas, “FAO Commodity Studies 1:The World Banana Economy 1985-2002”, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 2003, from http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/007/y5102e/y5102e00.htm
􀂾
Rhys, John & Peter Goate, Banana Exports From The Caribbean Since 1992, National Economic Research Associates (NERA), June 2003, from http://www.cbea.org/pdf/nerareport.pdf.
􀂾
Chambron, Anne-Claire, “Bananas:Straightening the bent world of the banana”, European Fair Trade Association(EFTA), 2000, form http://www.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/banana/Doc/banana.rtf.
􀂾
FAO, “Progress report on current work to project international banana trade in 2010”, CCP: BA/TF01/3, 2001, from http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/MEETING/004/Y2016S.HTM
􀂾
FAO, “Organic and Fair Trade Bananas and Environmental and Social Certification in the Banana Sector”, CCP: BA/TF 03/5, 2002, from http://www.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/banana/Doc/Bananebiouk.pdf
􀂾
Cadot, Olivier & Douglas Webber, “Banana Splits and Slipping Over Banana Skins: The European and Trans-Altanic Politics of Bananas”, EUI working paper No. 2001/03, Italy:European University Institute, 2001, from http://cadmus.iue.it/dspace/bitstream/1814/1712/1/01_03.pdf
􀂾
Gillson, Ian, Adrian Hewitt and Sheila Page, “Forthcoming Changes in the EU Banana and Sugar Markets: A Menu of Options for an Effective EU Transitional Package”, Overseas Development Institute, 2005, from http://www.odi.org.uk/iedg/projects/EU_banana_sugar_markets/SUGARreport.pdf
􀂾
Michael Hubbard, Alicia Herbert and Yves Roumain de la Touche, “Evaluation of EU Assistance To ACP Banana Producers”, Eva-EU Association, January 2000, from http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/how/evaluation/evaluation_reports/reports/acp/951501_en.pdf
􀂾
NERA Economic Consulting and Oxford Policy Management, “Addressing the Impact of Preference Erosion in Bananas on Caribbean Countries”, Report prepared for the UKDepartment for International Development, Agosto 2004, from http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/impactpreferenceerosion.pdf.
􀂾
National Economic Research Associates (NERA), “Banana Exports from the Caribbean since 1992,” Preliminary Report Prepared for the Caribbean Banana Exporters Association, London, 2003, from http://www.cbea.org/pdf/nerareport.pdf
􀂾
Borrell, Brent and Maw-Cheng Yang, “EC Bananarama 1992”, Working Paper WPS 523, Washington DC: World Bank, 1990,pags.1-31, from http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1990/10/01/000009265_3960929233332/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
􀂾
EC Press Release, “An EU25 trade deficit of 9 bn euro with the LAC countries in 2005”,11 May 2006,STAT/06/58, from http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=STAT/06/58&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en.
􀂾
EC Press Release, “Commission gives new impetus to resolve banana dispute”, IP/00/707, 05 July 2000,from http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/00/707&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
􀂾
UNCTAD secretariat, “Major Developments and Recent Trends in International Banana Marketing Structures”, 24 Novembre 2003, UNCTAD/DITC/COM/2003/1/Corr.1, from http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditccom20031&c1_en.pdf.
􀂾
“Europe’s Double Standards :How the EU should reform its trade policies with the developing world”, Oxfam International, Oxfam Briefing Paper 22, from www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/trade/downloads/bp22_eutrade.pdf.
􀂾
“Bananas : is there a tariff-only equivalent to the EU tariff rate quota regime? Insights from economic analysis? ”, FAO Trade Policy Technical Notes No.3, Economic and Social Department of FAO, 2006, form http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/j5022e/j5022e00.HTM.
􀂾
European Commission Directorate-General of Agriculture, “AGENDA 2000 CAP Reform Decisions Impact Analyses” , February 2000, from http://ec.europa.eu.int/comm/agriculture/publi/caprep/impact/imp_en.pdf
􀂾
“Analysis of the 2003 CAP Reform”, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD), 2004, from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/62/42/32039793.pdf
􀂾
“The EU Trading Regime –Need for the Regime”, The Caribbean Banana Exporters Association, from http://www.cbea.org/EU/Default.htm.
􀂾
“Banana”, International Network for the improvement of banana and plantain, from http://www.inibap.org/pdf/IN990009_en.pdf
􀂾
“Common organisation of the agricultural markets: introduction”, fromhttp://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l11047.htm
􀂾
“Child Labor and Obstacles to Organizing on Ecuador's Banana Plantations”, Human Rights Watch, from http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/ecuador/2002ecuador.pdf
􀂾
“Latinoamericanos rechazan propuesta europea; negociaciones para fijar posición conjunta”, in Revista de Puentes Quincenal, Vol.2 No.2, 31 enero 2005, from http://www.ictsd.org/puen_quince/05-01-31/art8.htm
􀂾
“Fin a la guerra del banano”, in BBC News, 11 de abril de 2001, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/business/newsid_1272000/1272540.stm.
􀂾
“US payout awarded over pesticide” , in BBC News, 5 November 2007, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7080143.stm.
􀂾
“US banana firm must pay $25m fine”, in BBC News, 17 September 2007, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6999418.stm
三、網站
􀂾
聯合國糧農組織(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO)-- http://www.fao.org/
􀂾
聯合國糧農組織統計數據庫(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Database, FAOSTAT)-- http://faostat.fao.org
􀂾
聯合國商品貿易統計具資料庫(UN Commodity Trade Statistics Database, UN Comtrade)-- http://comtrade.un.org/db/
􀂾
聯合國貿易暨發展會議(United Nations Conference on Trade And Development, UNCTAD)--http://www.unctad.org/
􀂾
拉丁美洲暨加勒比海經濟委員會(Comisión Económica Para América Latina y el Caribe, CEPAL)-- http://www.cepal.org
􀂾
世界貿易組織(World Trade Organization, WTO)--http://www.wto.org/
􀂾
經濟合作暨發展組織(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD)-- http://www.oecd.org/home/
􀂾
歐洲聯盟(European Union, EU)--http://www.europa.eu.int
􀂾
歐盟統計局(Statistical Office of the European Communities, EUROSTAT)-- http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
􀂾
拉丁美洲整合協會(Asociación Latinoameircana De Integración, ALADI)-- http://www.aladi.org/
􀂾
行政院農業委員會WTO農業研究中心--http://www.arcwto.org.tw/
􀂾
中華經濟研究院(台灣WTO研究中心)-- http://www.wtocenter.org.tw/
􀂾
經濟部國際貿易局--http://cweb.trade.gov.tw/default.asp








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