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系統識別號 U0002-1407200504335700
中文論文名稱 陶懇《魔戒》中的後榮格個體化過程
英文論文名稱 Individuation in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings: Towards a Post-Jungian Reading
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 彭家慶
研究生英文姓名 Chia-ching Peng
學號 691010069
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2005-06-08
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭秋雄
委員-李達三
委員-莫蘭德
中文關鍵字 陶懇  托爾金(別譯)  個體化  榮格  榮格心理分析  後榮格  現代  後現代  自我意識  集體潛意識  自性  原型 
英文關鍵字 J. R. R. Tolkien  Individuation  C. G. Jung  Jungian Psychoanalysis  Post-Jungian  Modern  Postmodern  Ego Consciousness  Collective Unconsciousness  Self  Archetypes 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本論文一共分成四個章節,其內容分別如下。在第一章裡,筆者將先介紹心理學家榮格的個體化理論、潛意識原型的概念以及其在個體化過程中的重要性。接著筆者將簡短回顧過去曾經使用榮格心裡分析方法來探討陶懇《魔戒》的重要研究作品。在本章結尾,筆者試圖點出過去榮格心裡分析中以英雄神話原型為理論基礎的優勢與不足之處。在第二章,筆者將進一步說明將《魔戒》中的英雄角色比擬為自我意識,並不足以詮釋《魔戒》複雜龐大而深刻的哲學觀。從佛洛伊德強調自我意識為人類心靈中心,到後榮格學者們強調以多元觀點重新評估人性,此一演變過程,相當類似現代主義式單一觀點至後現代多元觀點的轉變。然而,在本章中筆者並不是以非我即他的二元思維定義現代與後現代宇宙觀。藉由綜合唐姆及布萊恩等陶懇學者的觀察,筆者認為《魔戒》中曖昧的善與惡的道德掙扎,以及榮格的個體化過程所強調的意識與潛意識的謀和過程,十分符合了人性面對現代主義與後現代主義思維交錯時所造成的心理矛盾。在第三章及第四章中,筆者相當肯定榮格的個體化理論探討《魔戒》的實用性。但在另一方面,筆者強調個體化過程不只是文本中主要角色的特有經驗,而是中土世界眾多族群和個體的集體經驗。這些經驗或許因不同種族、不同性別和不同年齡而有程度上的差異,但是就後榮格學者或後現代主義的角度而言,中土世界的和平並非來自參與者無止盡膨脹自我意識以及非黑及白的善惡二元對立,而是來自於個體間主觀意識互相謀和與協調的結果。
英文摘要 This thesis draws on C. G. Jung’s theory of “individuation” to explore its possible application to a reading of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings (henceforward LOTR). Through the discussion of the four chapters of the thesis I hope to offer a context to examine the usefulness of the Jungian idea of individuation in the study of the psychoanalytic dimension of LOTR. My observations are three fold. First, while many critics have noted that individuation is a prominent psychoanalytic motif in LOTR, past studies are inadequate in that they tend to apply the Jungian concept to the analysis of the main characters, the “heroes,” and specifically Frodo, Aragorn, and Gandalf of the Middle-earth mythology. Second, I maintain that both the Jungian concept and Tolkien’s mythology allows every individual to be a hero/heroine each and together functioning in a closely and sometimes mysteriously connected world. Every person’s individuation is a hero’s/heroine’s individuation. What’s more, these personal individuations impact one another and, taken together, they impact on the collective individuation of their shared community. Finally, on the theoretical front, I maintain that this attention towards the psychoanalytic significance of not only the central but also the marginal characters in a literary work and this attempt to see not just one personal psychic transformation but also the collective psychic transformation of a community are the common concerns of postmodern Jungians and literary critics. This in turn opens up the possibility to discuss postmodernity in both Jungian psychoanalytical theories and LOTR.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract………………….…………………...………..……………………iii
English Abstract…...…………….………………………………….………………..iv
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………...v
Table of Contents…….…………...………………………………….……………....vi
Chapter
I. Individuation in Jungian Psychology and The Lord of the Rings...................1
II. (Post)Modernity in Jung’s theory of Individuation.……………………….14
III. Individuation and Highly Individuated Characters in LOTR……...………36
IV. Individuation and Lesser Individuated Characters in LOTR………………62
Works Cited…..……………………..………………………………….....……….....89
參考文獻 Works Cited
Alister, Ian and Christopher Hauke, ed. Contemporary Jungian Analysis: Post-Jungian Perspectives from the Society of Analytical Psychology. London and New York: Routledge, 1998.
Bradley, Marion Zimmer. “Men, Halflings, and Hero Worship.” Isaacs and Zimbardo 76-92.
Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. New York: Princeton UP, 1949.
Edinger, Edward F. Ego and Archetype. Boston and London: Shambhala, 1992.
Grant, Patrick. “Tolkien: Archetype and Word”. Isaacs and Zimbardo 163-82.
Hauke, Christopher. Jung and Postmodern: The Interpretation of Realities. London and Philadelphia: Routledge, 2000.
Isaacs, Neil D. and Rose A Zimbardo, ed. Understanding The Lord of the Rings: The Best of Tolkien Criticism. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2004.
Jaffe, Aniela. “Individuation”. Carl Gustav Jung: Critical Assessments. Vol. 2. Ed. Renos K. Papadopoulos. London and New York: Routledge, 1992. 375-89.
Jung, Carl Gustav. The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature. Trans. R. F. C. Hull. London and New York: Princeton UP, 1966.
---. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Trans. R. F. C. Hull. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 1968.
---. “The Shadow.” Stein 95-97.
---. “Good and Evil in Analytical Psychology.” Stein 84-94.
Klages, Mary. “What is Postmodernism?” April 21, 2003. English 2010: Modern Critical Thought. [http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/pomo.html] March 20, 2004.
O’Neill, Timothy R. The Individuated Hobbit: Jung, Tolkien, and the Archetypes of Middle-earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.
Petty, Anne C. One Ring to Bind Them All: Tolkien’s Mythology. Tuscaloosa and London: U of Alabama P, 2002.
Plaut, Fred. “What Do I Mean by Identity?”. Alister and Hauke 277-86.
Rosebury, Brian. Tolkien: A Cultural Phenomenon. 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Rowland, Susan. Jung: A Feminist Revision. Cambridge: Polity, 2002.
Samuels, Andrew. “Introduction: Jung and the Post-Jungians.” Young-Eisendrath and Dawson 1-13.
---. Forward. Hauke xi-xiv.
Segal, Robert. A., ed. Jung on Mythology. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1998.
Shippey, Tom. J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
Spice, Wilma H. “A Jungian View of Tolkien’s “Gandalf”. Diss. University of Pittsburgh, 1976.
Stein, Murray, ed. Jung on Evil. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1995.
Stevens, Anthony. On Jung. 2nd ed. New York: Penguin, 1999.
Tolkien, J. R. R. The Fellowship of the Ring. 1954. London: HarperCollins, 1994.
---. The Two Towers. 1954. London: HarperCollins, 1994.
---. The Return of the King. 1955. London: HarperCollins, 1994.
Young-Eisendrath, Polly and Terence Dawson, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Jung. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.
Walker, Steven F. Jung and the Jungians on Myth: An Introduction. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.
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