淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1406201222224000
中文論文名稱 主管與部屬交換關係、工作滿意與生活滿意關聯性之研究-以心理資本為中介效果
英文論文名稱 The Study on the Relationships among Leader-Member Exchange, Job Satisfaction, and Life Satisfaction: the Mediating Effect of Psychological Capital
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系企業經營碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Executive Master’s Program of Business Administration(EMBA) in Management Sciences
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 陳麗雯
研究生英文姓名 Li-Wen Chen
學號 799620058
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-05-26
論文頁數 104頁
口試委員 指導教授-廖述賢
共同指導教授-吳啟絹
委員-費吳琛
委員-陳水蓮
中文關鍵字 主管與部屬交換關係  工作滿意  生活滿意  心理資本  結構方程模式 
英文關鍵字 LMX  Psychological capital  Job satisfaction  Life satisfaction  Structural Equation Modeling 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在現今全球經濟狀況下,企業組織面臨了比以往更加挑戰的經營環境,而個人面對的工作壓力與生活環境壓力也是有增無減,而組織成員是否具有高度的工作滿意以及對組織的認同往往是一個企業組織能否順利運作以面對這訊息萬變的環境的重要因素之一。本研究透過問卷調查,以台灣金控業與資訊電子製造業下之員工為抽樣對象,探討不同產業下,透過個人心理資本的中介效果,了解主管與部屬交換關係(Leader-Member Exchange,LMX)、工作滿意及生活滿意之關連性研究,本研究將319份有效問卷透過線性結構化方程式模型,將LMX對心理資本、工作滿意與生活滿意的影響進行理論模型驗證。結果發現:(1)LMX對影響心理資本正向影響;(2)心理資本能正向影響工作滿意與生活滿意;(3)LMX對工作滿意與生活滿意的影響中,心理資本具有完全中介效果。同時本研究亦發現,產業特性在LMX-生活滿意、心理資本-生活滿意之間具有差異。最後就本研究之研究發現與管理意涵作探討並提出建議,以供學術界與企業界參考之用。
英文摘要 In today's global economic situations, business organizations face a more challenging operating environment than ever before, while the personal face of pressure of work and living environment is also increasing pressure. And, organization members have a high degree of job satisfaction, as well as the organization's identity is often an important factor for an enterprise's ability to smooth operation and to face of the economic environment changing. The data was collected from 319 employees of financial holding and high-tech industry in Taiwan. Objective of the study is to test the mediating effect of Psychological Capital on the relationship between Leader-Member Exchange(LMX), Job satisfaction and Life satisfaction. In this study, we propose research hypotheses and verify them in the basis of 319 samples by using structural equation model (SEM). Our empirical findings indicate that (1) Good LMX increases psychological capital; (2) Psychological capital enhance both job satisfaction and life satisfaction; (3) Psychological capital serves as a mediator between job satisfaction and Life satisfaction. Further, from the multi-group analysis to the said industry , the difference is found between LMX to life satisfaction and psychological capital to life satisfaction. At the end, We discuss implications of these findings, suggestions, and directions for the executives of the said industry.
論文目次 中文摘要........................................................................ I
英文摘要...........................................................................II
目錄..............................................................................III
表目錄...................................................................................VII
圖目錄.......................................................................... IX
第一章緒論....................................................................................1
1.1研究背景與動機..........................................................................1
1.2研究目的.................................................................................4
1.3研究流程..............................................................................5
第二章 文獻探討............................................................................6
2.1領導理論的發展.............................................................................6
2.1.1主管與部屬交換關係(LMX)的內涵.............................................7
2.1.2 LMX相關研究..........................................................................10
2.1.3小結.....................................................................12
2.2心理資本..................................................................13
2.2.1心理資本的定義與內涵........................................................14
2.2.2心理資本的構面.................................................17
2.2.3以心理資本為中介效果之相關研究...................................21
2.2.4 小結................................................................................22
2.3工作滿意.........................................................................23
2.3.1工作滿意的定義.................................................................23
2.3.2工作滿意相關研究......................................................24
2.3.3小結.....................................................................................26
2.4生活滿意.............................................................................26
2.4.1 生活滿意的定義............................................................27
2.4.2 生活滿意相關研究............................................28
2.4.3 小結..........................................................................29
2.5 研究假設........................................................29
2.5.1 LMX與工作滿意、生活滿意......................................29
2.5.2領導型態與心理資本.................................30
2.5.3心理資本與工作滿意、生活滿意..................................31
2.5.4工作滿意與生活滿意.....................................32
2.5.5產業別之多群體比較..........................................33
2.6 LMX、心理資本、工作滿意與生活滿意之相關變項探討........................39
2.6.1研究地圖之探討.....................................................39
第三章研究方法.......................................................43
3.1研究架構.......................................................43
3.2研究變數操作型定義與測量工具...............................................44
3.2.1「主管與部屬交換關係LMX」之操作性定義與測量工具.........................44
3.2.2「心理資本」之操作性定義與測量工具...........................................45
3.2.3「工作滿意」之操作性定義與測量工具...........................................46
3.2.4「生活滿意」之操作性定義與測量工具...........................................46
3.2.5企業及人口統計變項...............................................47
3.3研究對象與抽樣設計..................................................48
3.3.1研究對象.......................................................48
3.3.2抽樣設計.......................................................49
3.4問卷預試與信效度分析..........................................50
3.5資料分析方法......................................................51
第四章資料分析.......................................................56
4.1敘述性統計分析.....................................................56
4.2估計方法之選擇........................................................58
4.3測量模型分析........................................................59
4.3.1驗證性因素分析......................................................59
4.3.2信度分析.....................................................61
4.3.3效度分析.......................................................62
4.4相關分析........................................................65
4.5理論模型分析.....................................................67
4.5.1假設驗證........................................................67
4.5.2中介效果檢定.......................................................69
4.5.3理論模型分析.......................................................71
4.6不同產業別分析........................................................71
4.6.1相關分析........................................................72
4.6.2產業多群體分析....................................................74
4.7共同方法變異檢測(CMV)..............................................76
第五章結論與建議........................................................77
5.1研究結論.......................................................77
5.2管理意涵及貢獻.......................................................80
5.3研究限制與未來研究方向.............................................86
中文文獻........................................................89
英文文獻.......................................................93
附件......................................................................101

表目錄
表2.1 LMX之相關實證研究................................................... 11
表2.2 樂觀與悲觀解釋型態者對好事與壞事的歸因傾向.............................20
表2.3心理資本為中介效果之相關研究.......................................................21
表2.4工作滿意定義.................................................23
表2.5工作滿意、主管與部屬交換關係(LMX)相關議題之研究.....................25
表2.6生活滿意定義......................................................27
表2.7生活滿意相關實證研究......................................................28
表2.8 研究地圖之綜合文獻整理...............................................35
表3.1金控業樣本......................................................49
表3.2資訊電子製造業樣本...........................................49
表3.3問卷預試發放對象....................................................50
表3.4問卷前測題數分配與信度分析....................................................51
表3.5本研究採用之共同方法變異處理方法......................................54
表4.1人口變項資料表.................................................57
表4.2觀察變項之平均數、標準差、偏態與峰度...........................................58
表4.3各變項驗證性因素分析結果.....................................................60
表4.4正式問卷因素信度分析結果表.....................................................61
表4.5因素建構信度......................................................62
表4.6因素收斂效度分析結果表...............................................63
表4.7因素區別效度.......................................................64
表4.8構面相關矩陣........................................................65
表4.9變項路徑彙總表....................................................68
表4.10直接效果與間接效果..................................................69
表4.11金控業相關分析..............................................72
表4.12資訊電子製造業相關分析.......................................................72
表4.13產業多群體分析變數.....................................................75
表4.14金控業及電子製造業路徑係數比較表.........................................76
表5.1研究假設與驗證結果彙整表......................................................77

圖目錄
圖1.1各產業GDP成長率.........................................................3
圖1.2研究流程.........................................................5
圖2.1心理資本之內涵....................................................16
圖2.2工作特徵模式.....................................................24
圖2.3研究地圖.......................................................34
圖3.1研究架構圖..................................................43
圖4.1研究路徑圖........................................................71
參考文獻 中文文獻
1. Seligman, M. E. P. (1997)。學習樂觀樂觀學習(洪蘭譯)。台北市:遠流。(原作1991年出版)。
2. 王祥禹(2008)。臺灣旅館業主管轉型領導、員工目標導向、組織公民行為之研究–以LMX為干擾變項。輔仁大學餐旅管理學系碩士論文。
3. 王志蓮(2007) 。領導者-成員交換關係、員工心理契約與組織公民行為關係之研究-以南部科學工業園區研發人員為對象。南台科技大學技職教育與人力資源發展研究所碩士論文。
4. 朱國榮(2010)。工作壓力與工作生活品質關聯性之研究-心理資本之中介效果。國防大學管理學院國防決策科學研究所碩士論文。
5. 李牧衡(2008)。資訊工作人員之心理資本對工作滿意及生活滿意之影響。國立中央大學資訊管理學系碩士論文。
6. 林孟蓉(2006)。領導型態、激勵措施認知、工作滿意度與離職傾向之研究。國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
7. 林麗玲(2001)。員工工作滿意度和生活滿意度之關係探討─以護理人員為例。國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
8. 林行宜(1993)。企業高階主管之親信關係暨親信角色之研究。國立 台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。
9. 邱漢松(2008)。台灣資訊工作人員的樂觀程度研究—以某大型金控公司資訊部為例。國立中央大學資訊管理學系碩士論文。
10. 胡敦親(2009)。民航機師休閒活動參與、休閒效益、知覺壓力與生活滿意度關係之研究-以長榮航空公司為例。銘傳大學觀光研究所碩士在職專班碩士論文。
11. 胡秀華(2004)。主管與部屬之交換關係對獎酬決策的影響:台灣與美國之比較。國立臺灣大學商學研究所博士論文。
12. 許靜怡(2000)。LMX 關係品質之質性研究。國立中正大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
13. 戚樹誠(1996)。探索企業主管的親信關係。中山管理評論,4(1),1-15。
14. 粘毓華(2011)。創造表面從眾行為對情緒耗竭影響之研究:因應策略與心理資本的干擾中介效果。國立彰化師範大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
15. 曹佩雯(2009)。家長式領導對組織認同影響之研究—心理資本的中介效果。國防大學管理學院資源管理及決策研究所碩士論文。
16. 張家榦(2009)。主管與部屬交換關係、組織鑲嵌、工作滿意度與工作績效之關聯性研究─以金融購併機構為例。淡江大學管理科學研究所碩士論文。
17. 張信政(2009)。組織變革不確定感、轉換型領導對心理資本與組織公民行為關係之研究。國立成功大學高階管理碩士在職專班論文。
18. 張雲玫(2006)。主管與部屬交換關係品質、心理賦能對員工工作滿足之影響─內外控人格干擾效果之探討。國立中央大學企業管理學系碩士在職專班碩士論文。
19. 張文榮(2011)。市場導向、行銷能力、創新能力與組織績效之關聯性研究。淡江大學管理科學研究所博士論文。
20. 陳青勇(2010)。台灣地區最近十年領 導者-成員交換(LMX)領導理 論碩博士論文分析。國立台南大學教育經營與管理研究所博士論文。
21. 陳美秀(2009)。台灣民眾生活滿意度-主觀財務狀況感受與客觀所得之分析。國立中正大學國際經濟所碩士論文。
22. 黃浩軒(2009)。心理賦權對組織承諾與離職傾向之影響:心理資本中介效果。國防大學管理學院資源管理及決策研究所碩士論文。
23. 楊淑忻(2007)。台灣銀行業僕人式領導、領導與成員交換關係、組織認同及服務導向公民行為關係模式之研究。長榮大學經營管理研究所碩士論文。
24. 廖國鋒、陳素子(2003)。領導者情緒智力對領導效能、部屬合作行 為與組織承諾影響關係之研究。人力資源管理學報,3(4),1-24。
25. 蔡進雄(2006)。論心理資本與學校經營領導。台灣教育雙月刊,639。
26. 劉明裕(2006)。主管部屬相似性、員工目標導向與工作績效、工作滿足感之關係研究:領導者成員交換關係品質之中介效果與人際技能之干擾效果。輔仁大學管理學研究所碩士論文。
27. 盧麗如(2006)。組織文化、主管領導風格、員工工作滿意度與組織績效之研究。國立中正大學企業管理所碩士論文。
28. 羅娸禎(2008)。主管部屬交換關係對知識分享的影響—以工作滿意為中介變項。中國文化大學國際企業管理研究所碩士論文。
29. 蘇雯鈴(2003)。管理活動對主管-部屬關係品質影響之研究。銘傳大學國際企業管理研究所碩士論文。
30. 鐘小鋼(2010)。職場精神 精神 與心理擁有感之關聯性:心理資本的中介效果。國防大學管理學院運籌管理學系碩士論文。

英文文獻
1. Adams, G. A., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (1996). Relationships of job and family involvement, family social support, and work–family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 411-420.
2. Anderson, J.C., & Gerbing, D.W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach.Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.
3. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Pearson Professional.
4. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
5. Bandura (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman, New York.
6. Brockman, B. K., & Morgan, R. M. (2006). The moderating effect of
organizational cohesiveness in knowledge use and new product
development. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(3), 295-307.
7. Campbell, D.T., & Fiske, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), 81-105.
8. Cohrs, J. C., Abele, A. E., & Dette, D. E. (2006). Integrating situational and dispositional determinants of job satisfaction: Findings from three samples of professionals. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 140, 363-395.
9. Cribbin, J. J. (1972). Effective Managerial Leadership. American Management Association Inc.
10. Dansereau, F., Cashman, J., & Graen, G. B. (1973). Instrumentality theory and equity theory as complementary approaches in predicting the relationship of leadership and turnover among managers. Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 10, 184-200.
11. Dansereau, F., Graen, G. B., & Haga, W. (1975). A vertical linkage dyad approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 46-78.
12. Deluga, R. (1994). Supervisor Trust Building, Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 315-326.
13. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.
14. Dienesch, R., & Liden, R. (1986). Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, 72(2), 237-240.
15. Ding, L., Velicer, W., & Harlow, L. (1995). Effect of estimation methods, number of indicators per factor and im-proper solutions on structural equation modeling fit indices. Structural Equation Modeling, 2, 119-143.
16. Epitropaki, O., & Martin, R. (2005). From ideal to real: A longitudinal study of the role of implicit leadership theories on leader–member exchanges and employee outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 659-676.
17. Fine, S. B. (1991). Resilience and human adaptability: Who rises above adversity? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45, 493-503.
18. Flach, F. (1988). Resilience: Discovering a new strength at times of stress. New York: Ballantine.
19. Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader–member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 827-844.
20. Ghiselli1, R.F., Lopa1,J.L., & Bai,B., (2001). Job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intent among food-service managers. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(2), 28–37.
21. Golden, T. J., & Veiga, J. F. (2008). The impact of superior–subordinate relationships on the commitment, job satisfaction, and performance of virtual workers. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 77-88.
22. Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247.
23. Graen, G., & Scandura, T. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. In L. Cummings & B. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 9, 175-208. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
24. Graen, G., Cashman, J., & Haga, W. (1975). A role-making model of leadership informal organizations: A developmental approach. In J. Hunt & L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership Frontiers, 143-166. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
25. Graen, G. B. (2004). New frontiers of leadership, LMX leadership: The series. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
26. Graves, L. M., Ohlott, P. J., & Ruderman, M. N. (2007). Commitment to family roles: effects on manager’s attitudes and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 44-56.
27. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279.
28. Harris, K. J., Wheeler, A. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (2009). Leader–member exchange and empowerment: Direct and interactive effects on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 371-382.
29. Higgins, C. A., Duxbury, L. E., & Irving, R. H. (1992). Work–family conflict in the dual career family. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 51(1), 51-75.
30. Hmieleski, K.M., & Carr, J.C. (2007).The Relationship between Entrepreneur Psychological Capital and Well-Being. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research,27(5), 3.
31. Hoppock, R. (1935). Job satisfaction. New York: Harper.
32. Hollis (1998). Sex comparisons in life satisfaction and sychosocial adjustment scores with an older adult sample: Examining the effect of sex role differences in older cohorts. Journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 10(3), 59-77.
33. Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J., & Morgeson, F. (2007). Leader–member exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 269-277.
34. Ilies, R., Wilson, K. S., & Wagner, D. T. (2009). The spillover of daily job satisfaction onto employees’ family lives: the facilitating role of work–family integration. Academy of Management Journal, 52(1), 87-102.
35. Jerald, G., & Robert, A. B. (1995). Behavior Organizations: Understanding and Managing The Human Side of Work (5th Ed.), Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
36. Karatepe, O. M., & Baddar, L. (2006). An empirical study of the selected consequences of frontline employees’ work–family conflict and family–work conflict. Tourism Management, 27, 1017-1028.
37. Lapierre, L. M., Hackett, R. D., & Taggar, S. (2006). A test of the links between family interference with work, job enrichment and leader–member exchange. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55, 489-511.
38. Lent, R. W., Nota, L., Soresi, S., Ginevra, M. C., Duffy, R. D., & Brown, S. D. (2011). Predicting the job and life satisfaction of Italian teachers: Test of a social cognitive model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 91-97.
39. Lent, R. W., Singley, D., Sheu, H. B., Gainor, K. A., Brenner, B. R., & Treistman, D. (2005). Social cognitive predictors of domain and life satisfaction: exploring the theoretical precursors of subjective well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 429-442.
40. Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale redevelopment. Journal of Management, 24, 43-72.
41. Liden, R., Wayne, S., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A Longitudinal Study on the Early Developmentof Leader-Member Exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 87-128.
42. Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-Member Exchange Theory: The Past and Potential for the Future. Personnel and Human Resources Management, 15, 47-119.
43. Litt, M. D. (1988). Self-efficacy and perceived control: cognitive mediators of pain tolerance. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54(1), 149-160.
44. Luthans, F., Luthans, K. W., & Luthans, B. C. (2004). Positive psychological capital: Beyond human and social capital. Business Horizons, 47(1), 45-50.
45. Luthans, F., Avey, J., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: toward a micro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 387-393.
46. Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., & Peterson, S. J. (2010). The development and resulting performance impact of psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21, 41-67.
47. Luthans, & Avolio (2005). The Psychological Capital of Chinese Workers: Exploring the Relationship with Performance. Management and Organization Review, 1(2), 249-271.
48. Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
49. Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2004). Human, Social, and Now Positive Psychological Capital Management: Investing in People for Competitive Advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33(2), 143-160.
50. Mariano, N., & Pilar, Q. (2005). Absorptive capacity, technological opportunity, knowledge spillovers, and innovative effort. Technovation, 25, 1141-1157.
51. Martin, R., Thomas, G., Charles, K., Epitropaki, O., & McNamara, R. (2005). The role of leader–member exchanges in mediating the relationship between locus of control and work reactions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 141-147.
52. Mattila, A.S., & Enz, C.A. (2002). The role of emotions in service encounters. Journal of Services Research, 4(4), 268-277.
53. McMurray, A. J., Pirola-Merlo, A., Sarros, J. C., & Islam, M. M. (2010). Leadership, climate, psychological capital, commitment, and wellbeing in a non-profit organization. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(5), 436-457.
54. Mishra, S. (1992). Leisure activities and life satisfaction in old age: A case study of retired government employees living in urban areas activities. Adaptation and aging, 16(4), 9.
55. Northouse, P. (2001). Leadership: Theory and Practice - Second Edition. Sage Publications, USA.
56. Parker, S. K., & Ohly, S. (2008). Designing motivating jobs. In R. Kanfer, G. Chen, & R. Pritchard (Eds.), Work motivation: Past, present, and future. 233-284. Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.
57. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88,879-903.
58. Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E. (1968). Managerial attitudes and performance Homewood, Ill.: R. D. Irwin. Research. Research in Personnel and Human Resources. Management, 10, 345-394.
59. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247.
60. Schimmack, U., Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2002). Life-satisfaction is a momentary judgment and a stable personality characteristic: The use of chronically accessible and stable sources. Journal of Personality, 70(3), 345-384.
61. Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., & Cogliser, C. C. (1999). Leader–member exchange (LMX) research: A comprehensive review of theory, measurement, and dataanalytic practices. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 63-113.
62. Schulman, Keith, & Seligman (1993). Is optimism heritable? A study of twins. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(6), 569-574.
63. Schyns, B., & Collani, G. (2002). A new occupational self-efficacy scale and its relation to personality constructs and organizational variables. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 219-241.
64. Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, Florence, C., Borders, & Tyrone, F. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321-325.
65. Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 124(2), 240-261.
66. Tierney, P., Farmer, S., & Graen, G. (1999). An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology, 52, 591-620.
67. Toor, S., & Ofori, G. (2010). Positive Psychological Capital as a Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 4-24.
68. Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2004). Further evaluation of the Children's Hope Scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 22, 320-337.
69. Veenhoven, R. (1984). Conditions of Happiness. Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
70. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: John Wiley.
71. Walumbwa, Peterson, Avolio, & Hartnell (2010). An investigation of the relationships among leader and follower psychological capital, service climate, and job performance. Personnel Psychology, 63, 937-963.
72. Yukl, G. (1994). Leader in Organizations (3th ED.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hal.
73. Zhao, X., Qu, H., & Ghiselli, R. (2011). Examining the relationship of work–family conflict to job and life satisfaction: A case of hotel sales managers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1), 46-54.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2012-07-17公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2012-07-17起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信