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系統識別號 U0002-1406200600453500
中文論文名稱 1980年代蘇聯對波蘭轉變外交政策之研究
英文論文名稱 Soviet Foreign Policy toward Polish Transition in the 1980s
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 俄羅斯研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Slavic Studies
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 張又尹
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Yin Chang
學號 690090112
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-01
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 指導教授-彼薩列夫
委員-魏百谷
委員-郭武平
委員-彼薩列夫
中文關鍵字 布里茲涅夫主義  戈巴契夫  新思維  團結工會  戒嚴令 
英文關鍵字 Brezhnev Doctrine  Gorbachev  New Thinking  Solidarity  Martial Law 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本論文主要的研究目的在於希望能以客觀且公正的的方式來探討蘇聯對於波蘭長期以來傳統的外交政策,其中包含政治、經濟、意識型態與國家安全等方面。進入了1980年代,蘇聯的外交利益卻受到波蘭工人運動的挑戰。如果這是1968年捷克斯洛伐克的情況或許會比較容易些,但是波蘭工人運動的主角卻是長期共產主義合法性來源的勞工階級。因此使得蘇聯不得不小心翼翼的處理波蘭事件。隨著首相兼波共第一書記雅澤魯塞斯基實行戒嚴令與成立軍事委員會來管理國家。從莫斯科的觀點來看,這樣的措施是一種意想不到的決定,不僅摧毀了團結工會的力量同時避免了波蘭的內戰與蘇聯的軍事入侵。
由於戈巴契夫的上台與新思維的倡導使得蘇聯對於東歐的外交政策產生重大的改變,戈巴契夫強調:每個國家都有權選擇自己的生活方式。因此波蘭為了選擇自己的生活方式而召開了圓桌會議並且使得團結工會合法化,這也是東歐共產國家第一個除了共產黨以外合法的工會。自此,團結工會便以合法的名義與波共進行一連串的政治與經濟的談判。最後也造成了波蘭第一個非共政府的誕生,這也是東歐首次出現的非共政府。
在政治、經濟與意識型態的利益上,蘇聯也許會做出讓步。但是考量到蘇聯整個國家安全利益這點,蘇聯似乎不會輕易的妥協。尤其當蘇聯的軍隊還駐守在東德境內,波蘭的地理位置對於蘇聯來說仍是相當的重要。為了緩和蘇聯的疑慮,波蘭首相馬佐維基表示: 波蘭正處於兩個世界當中,在歷史與文化上,波蘭與西方有著強烈的關連,但是波蘭的安全卻寄託於東方。同時波蘭也是一個試驗的場所,如果波蘭出現無政府狀態,那麼將損害其他國家改革的力量,甚至是整個東西關係。因此波蘭不會太快的背離蘇聯。
英文摘要 The motive of this dissertation is attempting to discuss the long-term traditional Soviet foreign policies toward Poland with an un prejudiced and clinical way, including political, economic, ideological and national security. As we enter the 1980s, Soviet foreign interests had been challenged by the Polish workers’ movement. It might be easier if this event had happened in Czechoslovakia in 1968, unfortunately, the essence of Polish workers’ movement is labour class, the source of legitimacy of long-term Communism. That’s why the Soviet must deal with it carefully. While Wojciech Jaruzelski announced the establishment of military council and implementation of Martial law. From Moscow’s standpoint, this was a master stroke, breaking the power of Solidarity and doing it without civil war and without the use of Soviet force.
Due to obtainment of Gorbachev’s power and advocacy of New Thinking made Soviet policies toward East Europe to switch completely. Gorbachev emphasized: Every nation has right to choose the way they live. In order to choose their life, Poland convened the so-called Conference of Round Table, and meanwhile, the Solidarity obtained the legitimacy. This is the first legal union in the East Europe,. Since then, Solidarity, with legal nominal, negotiated a series of political and economic reform with Polish Communist Party. And finally, it caused the appearance of the first Polish non-communist government in the East Europe.
Under political, economic and ideological interests, Soviet might make a concession. But when Kremlin considered the area of Soviet national security, Soviet might not compromise easily. When Soviet’s troops were still stationed in the East-Germany, the position of Poland for Moscow was still quite importance. In order to alleviate Soviet’s fears, Poland can’t deviate from Moscow quickly.
論文目次 目 錄

第一章 序論.................................1
第一節 研究動機.............................1
第二節 前人研究成果.........................3
第三節 研究範圍與目的.......................4
第四節 研究的途徑...........................5

第二章 1980年代蘇聯對東歐政策之轉變.........7
第一節 1980年代初期蘇聯對東歐的政策.........8
第二節 戈巴契夫上台面臨的困境...............14
第三節 戈巴契夫的外交新思維.................20

第三章 1980年代波蘭的轉變...................29
第一節 團結工會的崛起與鎮壓.................30
第二節 第九次波共代表大會的召開.............37
第三節 戒嚴令的實行.........................42
第四節 戒嚴令結束後波蘭的發展...............47
第五節 圓桌會議的舉行與影響.................63
第六節 波蘭第一非共政府的成立與困境.........71

第四章 1980年代蘇聯對波蘭轉變時的政策.......81
第一節 團結工會對蘇聯的挑戰.................83
第二節 戒嚴令對於蘇聯的涵義.................89
第三節 戈巴契夫對圓桌會議的態度與影響.......95
第四節 戈巴契夫對波蘭非共政府的因應與處理...100

第五章 結論.................................105

參考資料.....................................109
壹、英文書籍與報紙...........................109
一、英文書籍與期刊...........................109
二、英文報紙.................................110
貳、中文書籍與報紙...........................113
一、中文書籍.................................113
二、中文報紙.................................113
參、俄文期刊與報紙...........................114
一、俄文期刊.................................114
二、俄文報紙.................................114
參考文獻 參考資料

壹、英文書籍與報紙

一、英文書籍與期刊

1. Archerson Neal, The Struggle For Poland,
New York: Random House, 1987.
2. Asmus Ronald D., Brown J. F, Keith Crane, Soviet Foreign Policy and the Revolution of 1989 in East Europe, Santa Monica: RAND, 1991.
3. Asmus Ronald D., Syzayna, Polish National Thinking in a Changing Europe, Santa Monica: RAND, 1991.
4. Bialer Seweryn, Poland and The Soviet Imperialism, Foreign Affairs,59,No.3, 1980, pp.522-533.
5. Blazyca Gerge, Ruzard Rapacki, Poland into the 1980: Economy and Society in Transition,
London: Printer Publisher, 1991.
6. Brown Archie, The Gorbachev Factor,
New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
7. Brown J. F, Poland Since Martial Law,
Santa Monica: RAND,1988.
8. Brumberg Abraham, Poland: Genesis of a Revolution,
New York: Random House, 1983.
9. Byrnes Robert F., After Brezhnev: Sources of Soviet Conduct in the 1980s,
Bloominton: Indiana University Press, 1983.
10. Chafetz Glenn, Gorbachev, Reform and The Brezhnev Doctrine: Soviet Policy Toward Eastern Europe 1985-1990, Connecticut: Praeger, 1993.
11. Garton Ash Timothy, The Polish Revolution: Solidarity, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984.
12. Gatis Charles, The Bloc That Failed: Soviet-East European Relations in Transition,
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
13. Gorbachev Mikhail, Perestroika, London: Collins, 1987.
14. Holden Gerard, The Warsaw Pact: Soviet Security and Bloc Politics, New York: United Nation University, 1989.
15. Jacobsen Carl G., Soviet Foreign Policy,
London: Macmillian, 1989.
16. Johnson A. Ross, Poland in Crisis, Santa Monica: RAND, 1982.
17. Johnson A. Ross, East European Military Establishments: The Warsaw Pact Northern Tier,
Santa Monica: RAND, 1980.
18. Kanet Roger E., Soviet Foreign Policy in the 1980s,
New York: Praeger Publisher, 1982.
19. Kolankiewicz Gerge, Poland : politics, economics, and society, New York: Pinter Publishers, 1988.
20. Kramer Mark, Polish Workers and the Post-Communist Transition 1989-1993, Europe-Asia Studies, 1995.
21. Labedz Leopold, Poland under Jaruzelski: A Comprehensive Sourcebook on Poland During and After Martial Law, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984.
22. Lair Robin F., Hoffman Erik P., Soviet Foreign Policy in a Changing World, New York: Aldine Publishing Company, 1986.
23. Lynch Allen, The Soviet Study of International Relations, London: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
24. Meiklejohin Terry Sarah, Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe, Michigan: Yale University Press, 1984.
25. Prizel Ilya, Michta, Andrew A, Polish Foreign Policy Reconsidered: Challenges of Independence,
New York: St. Martin Press, 1995.
26. Prizel Ilya, Michta, Andrew A, Post-Communist Eastern Europe: Crisis and Reform, New York: St. Martin Press, 1992.
27. Simon Henri, Poland 1980-82 : class struggle and the crisis of capital, Michigan: Black & Red, 1985.
28. Singer Daniel, Solidarity-The Road to Power(Poland), Nation: THE, 1989.
29. Singh Darshan, Soviet Foreign Policy Documents 1989, India: Sterling, 1990.
30. Spring D.W, The Impact of Gorbachev,
London: Printer Publisher, 1991.
31. Szayna Thomas S., Polish Foreign Policy Under a Non-Communist Government: Prospects and Problems,
Santa Monica: RAND, 1990.
32. Woodby Sylvia, Gorbachev and the Decline of Ideology in Soviet Foreign Policy, San Francisco: Westview Press, 1989.

二、英文報紙

1. Battiata Mary, Government Announced In Poland, Washington Post, September 8, 1989.
2. Battiata Mary, Poles told Reform Plan Will Carry Social Cost, Washington Post, September 30, 1989.
3. Battiata Mary, Solidarity Tells How It Will Cure Poland, Washington Post, September 12, 1989.
4. Boyes Roger, Jaruzelski-Puppet, Patriot or Politician? , The Times, December 12, 1985.
5. Burns F. John, Soviet Paper Publishes Amiable Walesa Article, New York Times, April 5, 1989.
6. Cody Edward, EC Ministers Vote New Aid to Poles, Washington Post, October 4, 1989.
7. Dewar Helen and Devroy Ann, Senate Agrees on Aid to Poland, Hungary as Walesa Begins Visit, Washington Post, November 14, 1989.
8. Diehl Jackson, Jaruzelski Calls For Pluralism, Washington Post, January 17, 1989.
9. Diehl Jackson, Jaruzelski Removes 5 Vice Premier, 13 Cabinet Ministers, Washington Post, November 13, 1985.
10. Diehl Jackson, Jaruzelski Steps Aside As Premier of Poland, Washington Post, November13,1985.
11. Diehl Jackson, New Polish Prime Minister Plans “Coalition” Rule, Washington Post, September 28, 1988.
12. Diehl Jackson, Poland Reshuffles Politburo Posts; Leaders Postpone Solidarity Action, Washington Post, December 22, 1988.
13. Diehl Jackson, Polish Government Approves Major Reorganization Plan, Washington Post, Octorber 24, 1987.
14. Diehl Jackson, Polish Party Split Over Talking With Solidarity, Washington Post, September 8, 1988.
15. Diehl Jackson, Polish Strikes Raise Sensitive Issue of Political Pluralism, Washington Post, May 5, 1988.
16. Diehl Jackson, Polish Talks To Begin Amid Aura of Crisis, Washington Post, February 6, 1989.
17. Diehl Jackson, Solidarity and Party Reach Agreement To Avert Crisis, Washington Post, June 9, 1989.
18. Diehl Jackson, Solidarity Gambles That Talks Are Promising Path to Reform, Washington Post, September 17. 1988.
19. Diehl Jackson, Strikes in Poland Raise Prospect of Popular Uprising, Washington Post, April 26, 1988.
20. Diehl Jackson, Warsaw, Solidarity Seal Accord, Washington Post, April 6, 1989.
21. Dobbs Michael, Gorbachev Seeks Ties With Solidarity-Led Poland, Washington Post, November 25, 1989.
22. Dobbs Michael, In Poland, Gorbachev Evokes Czar, Washington Post, October 8, 1988.
23. Dobbs Michael, Moscow Hints Acquiescence to Move, Washington Post, August 18, 1989.
24. Dobbs Michael, Moscow Indicates Acceptance of Polish Political Shift, Washington Post, August 18, 1989.
25. Dobbs Michael, Polish Prime Minister Praises Soviet Leaders, Washington Post, November 26, 1989.
26. Dobbs Michael and Cody Edward, Gorbachev Open to Solidarity Contacts, Washington Post, July 6, 1989.
27. Echikson William, In Poland, full shelves come before Solidarity, The Christian Science Monitor, November 30, 1988.
28. Echikson William, Whither Poland’s independent trade union…eight years later, The Christian Monitor, September 2, 1988.
29. Flora Lewis, A Pole in Moscow, New York Times, March 9, 1986.
30. Flora Lewis, A smile in Poland, Between Two Worlds, Washington Post, October 19, 1989.
31. Graham Bradley, Poland Presents West With Dilemmas, Washington Post, August 19, 1989.
32. Harden Blaine, Kohl’s Visit Today Stirs Mixed Feelings in Poland, Washington Post, November 9, 1989.
33. Harden Blaine, Poland Seeks Border Guarantees, Washington Post, November 11, 1989.
34. Harden Blaine, Warsaw Rite Recalls Terrors Of Stalin Era, Washington Post, October 31, 1989.
35. Horne D.A., Gorbachev Urges Communists To Join Solidarity Government, Washington Post, August 23, 1989.
36. Horne D.A., Jaruzelski Accepts a Solidarity-Led Government, Washington Post, August 18, 1989.
37. Horne D.A., Jaruzelski Narrowly Wins Polish Presidency, Washington Post, July 20, 1989.
38. Horne D.A., Jaruzelski Urges Talks on Crisis, Washington Post, August 16, 1989.
39. Horne D.A., Solidarity Activist to Be Polish Premier, Washington Post, August 19, 1989.
40. Horne D.A., Walesa Offers Coalition With Communists’ Allies, Washington Post, August 8. 1989.
41. Kaufman T. Michael, A Pole Woos, and Wins, Gorbachev, New York Times, March 10, 1986.
42. Kirkpatirck Jeane, Walesa Is Right: Help Poland Now, Washington Post, November 20, 1989.
43. Pfaff William, Poland: An Uncertain Path, but the Only One, International Herald Tribune, February 2, 1989.
44. Poland Demands Truth on Massacre, South China Morning Post, November 27, 1989.
45. Rowen Hobart and Devroy Ann, Bush Urges Allies, International Lenders to Increase Aid to Poland, Washington Post, September 28, 1989.
46. Swoboda Frank, Walesa Makes Passionate Plea For U.S. Investment in Poland, Washington Post, November 15, 1989.
47. Swoboda Frank and Oberdorfer Don, Walesa Urges Europe’s Economic Integration, Washington Post, November 17, 1989.
48. Zbigniew Brzezinski, This is the Big Moment in Eastern Europe, Washington Post, August 20, 1989.

貳、中文書籍與報紙

一、中文書籍

1. 葉書宗撰,蘇聯歷史檔案選編,第三十一卷,上海,社會科學文獻出版社,2002年。
2. 戈巴契夫著,譚天譯,俄羅斯的教訓,台北,貓頭鷹,2000年。
3. 易君博,政治理論與研究方法,台北,三民書局,1988年。
4. 張京育,國際關係與國際政治,台北,幼獅文化事業公司,
1983年。
5. 林碧炤,國際政治與外交政策,台北,五南出版公司,1990年。
6. 查理索格比著,胡祖慶譯,國際關係,台北,五南圖書出版社,1995年。
7. 李正鴻撰,波蘭外交政策之研究─從國家安全角度分析〈一九八九至一九九九年〉,台北:淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文,2001年。
8. 蘇宏達撰,一九八九年波蘭民主運動之研究,台北:政治大學外交研究所碩士論文,1990年。
9. 戴育毅撰,波蘭政經體制改革之研究:團結工聯與波共政權互動之背景與演變,台北:政治作戰學校政治研究所碩士論文,1990年。
10. 冉弘毅撰,波蘭團結工會自由化運動之研究:1980年到1983年,台北:政治作戰學校政治研究所碩士論文,1985年。
11. 吳環足撰,戈巴契夫東歐政策之研究:一九八五至一九九一年,台北:淡江大學歐洲研究碩士論文,1995年。

二、中文報紙

1. 波蘭當局稱重建工業,下月起關閉列寧船廠,大公報,十一月一號,1988年。
2. 波共頭子難捨總統之位,人民日報,七月二號,1986年。
3. 波蘭決擺脫蘇聯控制,中央日報,九月十號,1989年。
4. 亞魯塞斯基當選波蘭總統,中國時報,七月二十一號,1989年。
5. 梅斯納爾爾向波黨十大做政府報告,自由時報,七月二號,1989年。
6. 蘇聯外長訪問波蘭,展開外交新頁,自由時報,十月二十五號,1989年。
7. 為了使政府改革派進入議會,波共與團結工會商對策,香港文滙報,
六月九號,1989年。

參、俄文期刊與報紙

一、俄文期刊

1. Бухарин Николай, Внутренние факторы польской революции 1989 г, Международный Исторический Журнал, N7, январь-февраль 2000.
http://history.machaon.ru/all/number_07/anonsvak/revolution/bukharin/index.html
2. Лыкошина Лариса,Специфика состояния общественного сознания и революция 1989 г. в Польше, Международный Исторический Журнал, N7, январь-февраль 2000. http://history.machaon.ru/all/number_07/anonsvak/revolution/lykoshina/index.html.
3. Милякова Лидия, Внешнеполитические концепции польской оппозиции 1980-1989 гг., Международный Исторический Журнал, N7, январь-февраль 2000. http://history.machaon.ru/all/number_07/anonsvak/revolution/milyakova/index.html.
4. Новопашин Юрий, Восточноевропейские pеволюции 1989 г.: Проблемы
изучения, Международный Иторический Журнал, N7, январь-февраль 2000.
http://history.machaon.ru/all/number_07/anonsvak/revolution/novopashin/index.html.
5. Ольга Майорова, Польша 80-х годов: поиск пути к компромиссу, Международный Исторический Журнал, N7, январь-февраль 2000. http://history.machaon.ru/all/number_07/anonsvak/revolution/mayorova/index.html.
6. Фельдман Дмитрий, Россия и Восточная Европа: От "Холодной Войны" к новому мировому порядку, Международный Исторический Журнал, N7, январь-февраль 2000. http://history.machaon.ru/all/number_07/anonsvak/revolution/feldman/index.html.

二、俄文報紙

1. Белоцерковский Вадим, Разгром Солидарности, Независимая, 14 Декабря, 2001.
2. Внешняя политика и перестройка, выступления Э. А. Шеварднадзе, Правда, 24 Октября, 1989 .
3. Встреча преставителей партий и движений, Правда, 5 Ноября, 1987.
4. Встреча руководящих деятелей государств-Участников Варшавского договора, Правда, 6 Декабря, 1980.
5. Выступления на пленуме ЦК КПСС, Правда, 8 Февраля, 1990.
6. Дальнейшая демократизация общества: Углубление социалистического самоуправлениянарода, Правда, 26 Февраля, 1986.
7. За Дело-Без раскагки, Правда, 6 Августа, 1988.
8. Куранов Александр, Начался суд над Ярузельским, Независимая газета,
16 Мая, 2001.
9. Куранов Александр, Порнография в Польше остается легальной,
Независимая Газета, 27 Апреля, 2000.
10. Молодежь принимает эстафету, Правда, 13 Июля, 1988.
11. О перестройке и кадровой политике партии, Правда, 28 Января, 1987.
12. О перестройке и кадровой политике партии: Углублять социалистический демократизм развивать самоуправление, Правда, 28 Января, 1987.
13. Основаные направления экономического и социального развития СССР на 1981-1985 годы и на период до 1990 года, Правда, 5 Марта, 1981.
14. Продолжение доклада товарища Горбачева М. С., Правда, 26 Февраля, 1986.
15. Продолжение доклада товорища Горбачева М.С.: В сердечной обстановке, Правда, 27 Апреля, 1985.
16. Резолюция XXII съезда Коммунистикческой Партии Советского Союза по политическому докладу Центрального Комитета, Правда, 6 Марта, 1986.
17. Смирнов Марк, Судьба Понтифика, Независимая Газета, 8 Апреля, 2005.
18. Старцев Сергей, Новая международная инициатива Горбачева,
Независимая Газета, 29 Марта, 2001.
19. Совестско-Югославская Декларация: Обогащать сотрудничество во всех сферах, Правда, 19 Марта, 1990.
20. Сообщение Польской Рабочей Партии, Правда, 31 Августа, 1980.
21. Участникам и огранизаторам выставки: ГДР в Москве, Правда, 17 Сентября, 1988.
22. Фокина Ксения, Память польского декабря, Независимая Газета, 20 Декабря, 2000.
23. Х Съезд Польской Объединенной Рабочей Партии, Известия, 1 Июля, 1986.
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