淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1406200516352700
中文論文名稱 台灣與印尼直銷系統比較之研究
英文論文名稱 Comparative Study of Direct Selling Systems in Taiwan and Indonesia
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Management Science
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 悠雲
研究生英文姓名 Yuyun Yuliana
學號 692560781
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2005-05-20
論文頁數 95頁
口試委員 指導教授-廖述賢
委員-鄭景俗
委員-李培齊
中文關鍵字 直銷  關係行銷  網路行銷 
英文關鍵字 Direct selling  relationship marketing  network marketing 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 多層次傳銷是直銷系統中的特殊型式,為關係建立的服務產業。台灣和印尼同時面臨國際競爭和社會結構的轉型,愈來愈多的人投入多層次傳銷產業。多層次傳銷的核心精神是在消費者導向(consumer-oriented)及商業導向(business-oriented)間尋求市場發展的機會。在多層次傳銷產業中,員工的流動性和忠誠度可能會影響組織運作。在本研究中將透過統計分析來驗證台灣和印尼的直銷系統是否存在差異,並找出影響直銷系統的因素。結果顯示,台灣和印尼由於文化上的差異,可能會對於直銷系統產生影響。另外,台灣和印尼也會因人際關係建立的差異而對績效產生不同。再而,銷售技巧在台灣和印尼的差異,也可能對兩地的直銷系統產生影響。最後,本研究將提供兩地的直銷商經營上的指導方針。
英文摘要 Direct Selling companies have come to occupy an essential place in the market economy. The multi-level marketing (MLM) industry which is a special form of direct selling system, is characterized as a network-building service industry. Following international competition and the transformation of the social structure in both in Taiwan and Indonesia, more and more people have been attracted to the multi- level marketing industry. The designing core of a multi-level marketing organization network focuses on giving consideration to market development opportunities between consumer-oriented (self-use consumers) and business-oriented (career- minded sales distributors) direct salespeople. Because the multi- level marketing industry has a loose and open organization structure, control of loyalty and turnover undoubtedly would affect its operation. In this paper, we propose hypotheses and implement statistical test in Taiwan and Indonesia’s multi-level marketing (MLM) companies to analyze whether there is a difference in direct selling systems between Taiwan and Indonesia and also to .analyze the determinant factors that affect the direct selling systems effectiveness in both two countries. By testing six hypotheses, we find that the difference in respective cultures in the societies of Taiwan and Indonesia impact upon the direct selling systems in those two countries. Direct selling systems in both countries also differ along the lines of sales persons' performance in relationship marketing, which are different in various areas. The selling techniques put to use by sales persons in Taiwan and Indonesia’s direct selling show several variances which in turn cause direct selling systems to be different in both countries. Finally, this research also describes the best method for direct selling in each country to get success.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
謝辭.……………………………………………………………………………………I
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………… I
English Abstract………………………………………………………………………..I
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………….……...I
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………III
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………..IV
CHAPTER I:INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motives 3
1.3 Research Objectives 4
1.4 Research Organization 4
1.5 Research Flow 5
1.6 Research Limitation 6
CHAPTER III:LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Theoretical Background 7
2.1.1 Direct Selling System 7
2.1.2 Relationship Marketing 9
2.1.3 Network Marketing 15
2.1.4 Cultural Differences 19
2.2 Related work 21
CHAPTER III:BACKGROUND OF DIRECT SELLING SYSTEM IN TAIWAN AND INDONESIA 24
3.1 Direct Selling in Taiwan 24
3.2 Direct selling in Indonesia 35

CHAPTER IV:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 43
4.1 Research Framework 44
4.2 Research Subject 44
4.3 Sampling 44
4.4 Data Collection 47
4.5 Definition of Variable 48
4.6 Questionnaire design 50
4.7 Method of Analysis 52
CHAPTER V:DATA ANALYSIS 53
5.1 General Analysis Response 53
5.2 Validity and Reliability Instrument 60
5.3 Chi- Square Test 63
5.4 ANOVA analysis (One Way Classification) 73
5.5 Test Result 75
CHAPTER VI:CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 76
6.1 Conclusion/Discussion 76
6.2 Suggestions for Future Research 79
REFERENCES 80
English References: 80
Internet Resources 86
Questionnaire 88

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Summary of Existing Studies on Guanxi 12
Table 2.2 A Commission Percentage 18
Table 2.3 Nationality Status 19
Table 2.4 Summary of Literature of Direct Selling 22
Table 3.1 Economic Demography Factor 27
Table 3.2 Data of Taiwan’s Direct Selling System Companies (1998) 28
Table 3.3 Taiwan’s Multilevel Marketing Industry Outlook (as the end of 2002) 33
Table 3.4 Data of direct Sales in Indonesia 36
Table 4.1 Questionnaire distribution in MLM Taiwan 46
Table 4.2 Questionnaire distribution in MLM Indonesia 47
Table 4.3 Questionnaire design 50
Table 5.1 A summary of Questionnaires and Response Rates 53
Table 5.2 The Profile of the Respondent 54
Table 5.3 Descriptive Statistics Analysis 56
Table 5.4 Validity and Reliability Test Result 61
Table 5.5 Result of Chi -Square Test 64
Table 5.6 Independent t-test result (Culture)……………………………….73
Table 5.7 Independent t-test result (relationship)………………………….73
Table 5.8 Independent t-test result (Selling Technique)…………………...74
Table 5.9 The Test Results 75

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure1.1 Research flow chart 5
Figure 3.1 Sales Amount 33
Figure 3.2 Active Participants (Thousands) 34
Figure 3.3 Registered Enterprises 34
Figure 3.4 Companies in-operation 35
Figure 4.1 Research framework 44
參考文獻 English References:

Aaker D. A. (1998) Strategic market management , New York, Willey.

Alston J. (1989) Wa, guanxi, and inwa: managerial principles in Japan, China, and Korea. BusinessHorizon, 26–31.

Ambler T. (1994) Marketing’s third paradigm: guanxi. Business Strategy Review 5, 69–80.

Ambler T; Styles C. and Xiucun W. (1999) The effect of channel relationships and guanxi on the performance of inter-province export ventures in the people’s Republic of China. International Journal of Research in Marketing 16, 75-87.

Ambranson, N. (1997) Using guanxi-style buyer-seller relationships in China: Reducing uncertainty and improving performance outcomes. ABI/INFORM Global 39

Ambranson N. R. and Ai J. X. (1999) Canadian companies doing business in China: key success factors. Management International Review39, 17–27.

Arias J. (1998) A Relationship marketing approach to guanxi. European Journal of Marketing 32, 145.

Asian Productivity Organization (APO). (1994) Corporate Culture and Productivity: Case Studies in Asia and the Pacific.

Barkacs C.B. (1997) Multi-level marketing and antifraud statues: Legal enterprises or pyramid schemes? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 25.

Bauer H.H; Grether M. and Leach M. (2002) Building customer relations over the internet, Industrial Marketing Management 31, 155-163.

Berry R. (1997) Direct selling: From door-to-door to network marketing. Butterworth-Heinemann University of Oxford.

Bian, Y. (1994) Guanxi and the allocation of urban jobs in China. The China Quarterly 140, 971–999.
Brodie S., Thomas R. W. and John S. (2002) Comparisons of Sales People in Multilevel vs Single Level Direct Selling Organizations. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management

Brunner J. and Taoka G. (1977) Marketing and negotiating in the People’s Republic of China: perceptions of American businessmen who attended the 1975 Canton Trade Fair. Journal of International Business Studies 8, 69–82.

Brunner J. A. and Koh A. C. (1989) The role of guanxi in negotiations in the Pacific Basin. Journal of Global Marketing 3, 7–23.

Chan Y.K. (1999) At the crossroad of distribution reform: China’s recent ban on direct selling. Business Horizons 42, 41-46.

Chen; Der-Fa Robert; and Shiuh-Tarng Cheng. (1998) The Management of MLM Companies in Taiwan.” Proceedings of AM2000 Academy of Marketing Annual Conference.

Chen D.R. and Shiuh-Tarng C. The Behavior of independent distributors of MLM companies in Taiwan. The 11 International Conference on Comparative Management.

Chen D.R; Shu-Yin W. and Shiuh-Tarng C. The success factors for direct selling business.

Coughlan A.T. and Grayson K. (1998) Network marketing organizations: Compensation plans, retail network growth, and profitability. International Journal of Research in Marketing 15, 401-426.

Crittenden V.L. and Crittenden W.F. (2004) Developing the sales force, growing the business: The direct selling experience. Business Horizons 47, 39-44.

Davies H; Leung K.P; Luk T.K; and Wong Y.H. (1995) The benefits of ‘guanxi’- the value of relationships in developing the Chinese market. Industrial Marketing Management 24, 207–214.

de Ruyter K (2001) Antecedents of commitment and trust in customer-supplier relationships in high technology markets. Industrial Marketing Management 30, 271-286.

Dong-Qing Y. and John J.L. (2003) Channel redistribution with direct selling. European Journal of Operational Research 144, 646.

Duffy L.D. (2005) Direct Selling As the Next Channel. The Journal of Consumer Marketing 22, 43.

Fan Y. (2000a). Guanxi and relationship marketing: does the link exist? The Proceedings of Academy of Marketing Conference 2000.

Fan Y. (2002) Questioning guanxi: definition, classification and implications. International Business Review 11, 543-561.

Fock K.Y. and Woo K. (1998) The China market: strategic implications of guanxi. Business StrategyReview7, 33–44.

Fontenot R.J. and Hyman M. R. (2004) The Antitrust implications of relationship marketing, Journal of Business Research 57, 1211-1221.

Gibb A. and Li J. (2003) Organizing for enterprise in China: what can we learn from the Chinese micro, small, and medium enterprise development experience, Futures 35, 403-421.

Gold T. B. (1985) After comradeship: personal relations in China since the Cultural Revolution. The China Quarterly 104, 657–675.

Gronroos C. (1999) Relationship marketing: Challenges for the organization. Journal of Business Research 46, 327-335.

Gruen and Thomas W. (1995) The Outcome Set of Relationship Marketing in Consumer Markets. International Business Review 4, 447-469.

Harris W. (2004) Network Marketing or Pyramid Scheme? Black Enterprise 35, 102.

Helfert G. and Vith K. (1999) Relationship marketing teams: Improving the utilization of customer relationship potentials through a high team design quality, Industrial Marketing Management 28, 553-564

Holmlund M. (2004) Analyzing marketing management. Industrial Marketing Management, 279-287.

Hwang K. (1987) Face and favor: the Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 944-974.
I

Iacobucci D. and Ostrom A. (1996) Commercial and interpersonal relationships; using the structure of interpersonal relationships to understand individual-to-individual, individual-to-firm, and firm-to-firm relationships in commerce. International Journal of Research in Marketing 13, 53-72.

Kipins A. B. (1997) Producing guanxi: Sentiment, self, and subculture in a North China village. DukeUniversity Press.

Kothandaraman P. and Wilson D.T. (2000) Implementing relationship strategy, Industrial Marketing Management 29, 339-349.

Leek S. & Turnbull W.P. (2003) Interactions, relationships and networks in a changing world, Industrial Marketing Management 32, 87-90

Leung T.K.P; Luk S.T.K; and Wong Y.D. (1995) The benefits of “Guanxi”: The value of relationships in developing the Chinese market. Industrial Marketing Management 24, 207-214.

Lovett S; Simmons L. C., and Kali R. (1999) Guanxi versus the market: ethics and efficiency. Journal of International Business Studies 30, 231.
Liu J.J and Dong Q.Y. (2003) Channel redistribution with direct selling. European Journal of Operational Research 144.
Luk S.T.K., Fullgrabe L. and Li S.C.Y. (1999) Managing direct selling activities in China: A cultural explanation, Journal of Business Research 45, 257-266.

Luo, Y. (1997). Guanxi and performance of foreign-invested enterprises in China: an empirical inquiry. Management International Review 37, 51–71.

Merilles B. & Miller D. (1999) Direct selling in the west and east: The relative roles of product and relationship (Guanxi) drivers. Journal of Business Research 45, 267-273.

Morgan R.M. and Hunt S. (1999) Relationship-based competitive advantage: The role of relationship marketing in marketing strategy. Journal of Business Research 46, 281-290.

Morganosky A.M. (1997) Retail involvement in direct marketing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 4, 145-151.

Morris M.H. and Brunyee J. (1998) Relationship marketing in practice myths and realities. Industrial Marketing Management27, 359-371.

O’Malley L. and Prothero A. (2004) Beyond the frills of relationship marketing 57, Journal of Business Research 57, 1286-1294.

Palmer A.J. (1996) Integrating brand development and relationship marketing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 3, 251-257.

Parel C.P.(1973) Sampling Design and Procedures, A/D/S, Singapore.

Pearce II J. A., and Robinson R. B. Jr (2000) Cultivating guanxi as a foreign investor Strategy. Business Horizons 43, 31–39.

Peterson R.A. and Thomas R.W. (1996) What is direct selling?-Definition, perspectives, and research agenda. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management 16.

Rosenbloom B. (2003) Marketing Channels: A management view. Chicago, Dryden Press.

Rozin P. (2003) The evolution of intelligence and access to the cognitive unconscious. Progress in psychobiology and physiological psychology 6, 245-280.

Ryals L. (2002) Are your customers worth than money? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 9, 241-251.

Samiee S. and Walters P.G..P. (2003) Relationship marketing in an international context: A literature review. International Business Review 12, 193-214.

Sharma A; Taokas N; Saren M; and Kyziridis (1999) Panagiotis; antecendents and consequences of relationship marketing: Insights from business service salespeople. Industrial marketing Management 28, 601-611.

Shesadri S. and Mishra R. (2004) Relationship marketing and contract theory. Industrial Marketing Management 33, 513-526.

Sheth J.N. and Parvatiyar A. (1995) The evolution of relationship marketing. International Business Review 4, 397-418.

Simmons L. C. and Munch J. M. (1996) Is relationship marketing culturally bound: a look at guanxi in China. Advances in Consumer Research 23, 92–96.

Standifird S.S. and Marshall R. S. (2000) The transaction cost advantage of guanxi-based business practice. Journal of World Business 35, 21–42.

Stewart B; John S; and Thomas R.W. (2002) The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 22, 67.New York.

Thomas R.W; Stewart B. and John S. (2005) Differences in turnover predictors between multilevel and single level direct selling organizations. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 15, 91. London.

Tsang W.K. (1998) Can guanxi be a source of sustained competitive advantage for doing business in China?”. The Academy of Management Executive12, 64.

Vander J.P. and Wiliam W.K. (2002) Marketing fraud: An approach of differentiating multilevel marketing from pyramid schemes. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing.

Wong Y. H. (1998) Key to key account management: relationship (guanxi) model. International Marketing Review 15, 215–231.

Wong C.S; Wong Y; Hui C; and Law K.S. (2001) The significant role of Chinese employees’ organizational commitment: implications for managing employees in Chinese societies, Journal of World Business 36, 326-340

Xin K. R. and Pearce, J. L. (1996). Guanxi: connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal 39, 1641–1659.

Yang M.M. (1986) The art of social relationships and exchange in China. unpublished doctoral dissertation,University of California at Berkeley.

Yang M. M. (1994) Gifts, favors, banquets: The art of social relationship in China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Yao D.Q.L; and John J. (2003) Channel redistribution with direct selling. European Journal of Operational Research 144, 646-658.


Yeung I.Y.M. and Tung R. L. (1996) Achieving business success in Confucian societies: the importance of guanxi. Organisational Dynamics 25, 54–65.

Yi L.M. and Ellis P. (2000) Insider-outsider perspectives of Guanxi. Business Horizons 43, 25-30.


Internet Resources

Amway (1997) Amway and Rubbermaid launch strategic alliance in Japan. available at http: //www.amway.com/infocenter/pressrel/pressrel34/asp.

Direct sales World-China (2004). http://www.nmworld.com/pages/countries/Taiwan/main.html.

Direct Selling Association US (2004): “2004 Direct Selling Growth and Outlook Survey” available at www.dsa.org/fact Sht 01.stm

Fair Trade Commission, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. Survey of Multi-level Marketing
2001. Internet WWW page, at URL: http://www.ftc.gov.tw.

Market Profile on Taiwan http://www.tdctrade.com/mktprof/asia/mptai.htm

Taiwan Direct Selling Industry Market Research, Trends & Intelligence. http://www.the-infoshop.com/study/eo15489_selling.html.

World Federation of Direct Selling Association: “Worldwide Direct Sales Data” (2004), available at http://www.wfdsa.org/statistics.













論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2010-07-11公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2005-07-11起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信