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中文論文名稱 軟實力:韓國流行樂/韓流在南韓外交政策中的角色 2008- 2013
英文論文名稱 Soft Power: The Role of K-pop/Korean Wave in South Korea's Foreign Policy (2008 - 2013)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 馮重鈞
研究生英文姓名 Emmanuel Felix Lespron
學號 601330334
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2017-01-09
論文頁數 128頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-翁明賢
委員-曾怡碩
中文關鍵字 軟實力  國際關係  南韓  外交政策  流行音樂 
英文關鍵字 South Korea  Public Diplomacy  International Affairs  Soft Power  Pop Music  KPOP 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本論文旨在探討韓國流行樂/韓流在南韓外交政策中的角色。為了清楚了解南韓的政治體制、行動和計劃如何影響韓流,本論文將其討論的韓流定義為『南韓境內的流行樂』。在這樣的前提下,本論文也會一併討論南韓的政策、法律與規範,以探討韓流對南韓國內政治與社經議題的影響,特別是如何被用以作為行銷南韓國產品牌的軟實力。本論文一開始先了解南韓的歷史與南韓流行樂的起源,分析南韓流行樂在國內與國際上的地位,並期望了解南韓流行樂與其政治、社會與經濟進展的關係。建立起歷史發展的框架後,便可以在其之下討論韓流的概念。最後,研究以分析韓流與其進展做結論,並認識政府對於經營韓流的投資以及未來的規劃與改善。本論文將探索與分析南韓政府利用韓流作為外交軟實力政策的重要概念。
英文摘要 The intention of this thesis is to explore the role of K-pop/the Korean Wave in South Korea's soft power policy. In order to set the foundation, the history of music within South Korea shall be established as well as Hallyu/Harnyu within the context of K-pop in order to understand the impact of political mechanisms, actions, and programs. With this in mind, policies, laws, and regulations shall be examined in order to understand how K-pop has been able to influence the political, social, and economic issues of South Korea, specifically exploring what policies have been implemented in order to help South Korea's Nation-Branding through Soft Power. While the thesis begins with an analysis of K-pop within South Korea and internationally, it seeks to understand the relationship between K-pop and political, social, and economic progress. To arrive at this conclusion, the research first understands the history of
South Korea as well as the development of K-pop. With this perspective established, it is then possible to explore the concept of the Korean Wave through this lens.Ultimately, this work will conclude with resolutions and progress, understanding government efforts within the current landscape as well as identifying future prospects and reviewing recommendations.
Cumulatively, this thesis will evaluate and explore the important concepts that are pivotal to recognizing the role of K-pop/the Korean Wave in South Korea's soft power policy.

論文目次 Index Page
1.Introduction to South Korea & Music 1
1.1 Background Information 1
1.1.1 History of South Korea 3
1.1.1.2 The Political Climate 9
1.1.2 History of Music within South Korea 10
1.1.2.1 Traditional Korean Folk 10
1.1.2.2 Western-Influenced Popular Music 12
1.1.2.2.1 The First Hit 12
1.1.2.2.2 Understanding the Idols 13
1.1.2.3 Trot 16
1.1.2.4 Rock 17
1.1.2.5 Hip-Hop 18
1.1.2.6 Hybrid 19
1.1.2.7 Classical 20
1.1.2.8 Christian 20
1.1.2.9 Musical Exports 21
1.2 Research Objectives and Questions 22
1.3 Methodology 23
1.4 Literature Review 24
1.5 Research Scope and Limitations 28
1.6 Chapter Arrangements 30
2. Understanding the Inception of Hallyu 32
2.1 Trade & Issues in South Korea 32
2.1.1 Financial Issues 34
2.1.2 Political Issues 36
2.2 Issues in Soft Power Diplomacy & Soft Power versus Influence 39
2.3 How the Issues Fueled Hallyu & the Era 43
2.3.1 The Mechanisms, Actions, Programs Integral to K-pop's Success 44
2.3.2 An International Trend 46
2.4 Music & The Soft Power of K-pop 48
2.4.1 Case Study Review 54
2.4.1.1 Asian Masculinity in the Context of K-pop
59
2.4.2 Rain 63
2.4.3 K-pop and Social Media 64
3. Government Policies, Laws & Regulations 70
3.1 Policy Options 70
3.2 Hallyu/Harnyu 72
3.3 The How: The Korean Wave & South Korea’s Nation-Branding Campaign 74
3.3.1 Results of Nation Branding & Impact on Music
82
3.3.2 Korean’s Wave Efficacy and & its Impact on Korea’s Nation Branding 84
3.4 South Korea’s Public Diplomacy as a Policy Tool of Soft Power 86
3.4.1 The Mutual Cultural Exchange Project 87
3.5 Resources 88
4. Impact 90
4.1 Relationship with Diplomats 90
4.2 Economic Spillover 92
4.3 K-pop & English 95
4.4 Problems & Obstacles 96
4.4.1 The K-pop System & Complications 96
4.4.2 Internal Dissatisfaction 100
4.4.3 Treatment of Women 101
4.4.3.1 Slave Contracts 103
4.4.3.2 Specific Examples 106
4.4.3.3 Sexual Abuse 107
4.4.3.4 Improvements 108
4.4.5 Unhealthy Obsessions 109
4.5 Policy 110
4.5.1 Countries Following Suit 111
4.5.2 Overall Soft Power/Foreign Policy Impact 112
5. Conclusion: Resolutions & Progress 114
5.1 Government Efforts & the Current Landscape 114
5.2 Future Prospects 116
5.3 Recommendations 117
Bibliography 119
參考文獻 Bibliography

1. Governmental Documents
a) Office of the United States Trade Representative, “U.S. Korea Free Trade Agreement,” Executive Office of the President (2016), https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/korus-fta (accessed March 13, 2017).
b) Shin, S. O., “Defense Policies of Korea,” The Ambassador Speaks, National Defense College of the Philippines, Quezon City (1999).
c) Staines, J., “Korea | Government to Expand Korean Wave and Overseas Cultural Exchanges,” ASEF: Culture360 (March 13, 2012), http://culture360.asef.org/news/korea-government-to-expand-korean-wave-and-overseas-cultural-exchanges/ (accessed March 13, 2017).
d) Whitney, C. B., “Soft power in Asia: Results of a 2008 multinational survey of public opinion,” Chicago Council on Global Affairs in partnership with EAI (2009), 1-45.

2. Books
a) Macdonald, D. S., & Clark, D. N., “The Koreans: Contemporary politics and society,” Westview Press (1996), http://gyypevok.ru/kydow.pdf (accessed March 13, 2017)
b) Nahm, A. C, “Korea: tradition & transformation: a history of the Korean people,” Weatherhill, Incorporated (1996).
c) Nye, J. Jr., “Soft Power: the Means to Success in World Politics,” Political Science/Public Affairs and Administration. Amazon.com (2005).
d) Prasetyono, E., “Next Steps in ASEAN-Korea Relations for East
Asian Security,” in Ho Khai Leong’s “ASEAN-Korea Relations: Security, Trade and Community Building,” Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore (2007).
e) Russell, M. J., “Pop goes Korea: Behind the Revolution in Movies, Music, and Internet Culture,” Stone Bridge Press (2008), https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=gftM5SjLwV8C&printsec=frontcover&hl=zh-TW&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=true (accessed March 13, 2017).

3. Book chapters
a) Kuwahara, Y., “Hanryu: Korean Popular Culture in Japan," The Korean Wave, Palgrave Macmillan US (2014), 213-221.
4. Journals
a) Chester B. C., “Is [South] Korea Open for Soft Power Diplomacy?” Executive Policy Brief 1, no. 13 (2011): 1-4.
b) East-West Center, “Economic and Social Aspects of Korea-Related Issues,” 1, no. 12 (2016), http://www.eastwestcenter.org/research/visiting-fellow-programs/posco-visiting-fellowship-program/economic-and-social-aspects-of-korea-related-issues (accessed March 13, 2017).
c) Gidwani, K., “Korea and the Asian Financial Crisis,” Stanford (2016).
d) Hernandez, C., “Strengthening ASEAN-Korea Co-operation in Non-Traditional Security Issues,” in Ho Khai Leong’s “ASEAN-Korea Relations: Security, Trade and Community Building,” Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, no. 9 (2007).
e) Kim, R., “South Korean Cultural Diplomacy and Efforts to Promote the ROK’s Brand Image in the United States and Around the World,” John Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (2011), https://web.stanford.edu/group/sjeaa/journal111/Korea2.pdf (accessed December 31, 2016).
f) Lee, S. J., “South Korea’s Soft Power Diplomacy,” East Asia Institute (EAI), Issue briefing. 2009. No. MASI 2009-01.
g) Lee, J. S., “Linguistic hybridization in K‐Pop: discourse of self‐assertion and resistance.” World Englishes 23, 3 (2004): 429-450, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0883-2919.2004.00367.x/abstract (accessed Janurary 4, 2017).
h) Lie, J., “What is the K in K-pop? South Korean popular music, the culture industry, and national identity,” Korea Observer 43, 3 (2012): 339, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292866159_What_Is_the_K_in_K-pop_South_Korean_Popular_Music_the_Culture_Industry_and_National_Identity (accessed December 27, 2016).
i) Shin, H., “Have you ever seen the Rain? And who’ll stop the Rain?:
The globalizing project of Korean pop (K‐pop).” Inter‐Asia Cultural Studies 10, 4 (2009): 507-523, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263262095_Have_you_ever_seen_the_Rain_And_who'll_stop_the_Rain_The_globalizing_project_of_Korean_pop_K-pop (accessed January 2, 2017)
j) Siriyuvasak, U. & Hyunjoon, S., “Asianizing K‐pop: production,
consumption and identification patterns among Thai youth.” Inter‐Asia Cultural Studies 8, 1 (2007): 109-136, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248993793_Asianizing_K-pop_Production_consumption_and_identification_patterns_among_Thai_youth (accessed January 4, 2017)
k) Volodzko, D., “K-pop’s gross double standard for women,” Global
Post:PRI.ORG (April 2016), https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-04-25/k-pop-s-gross-double-standard-women (accessed March 13, 2017).
l) Watson, J., “The Daily: The Soft Power of K-pop,” The Public Diplomat (April 28, 2014), http://thepublicdiplomat.com/2014/04/28/the-daily-the-soft-power-of-k-pop/ (accessed March 13, 2017).
m) Xin, L. W., “Hallyu Power: Cultural Policies of the South Korean
Government,” EAI Background Brief No. 1015 (2015).

5. Newspapers
a) Faiola, A., “Japanese Women Catch the 'Korean Wave,'" The Washington Post (2006).
b) Meinardus, R., “Korean Wave in the Philippines,” The Korea Times (2005).
c) Williamson, L., “The dark side of South Korean pop music,” BBC
News: Asia Pacific (June 2011), http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-13760064 (accessed March 13, 2017).

6. Scholar works online
a) “10 Steps on How to be a Successful K-pop Idol,” K-pop Out of the Box (2016), https://kpopoutofthebox.wordpress.com/2013/12/20/how-to-be-a-successful-kpop-idol/ (accessed January 4, 2016).
b) Columbia University, “Bora Kim,” K-pop (2014), http://arts.columbia.edu/visual-arts/2015/thesis/bora-kim (accessed March 13, 2017).
c) Nast, C., “20 Essential K-pop Songs,” Pitchfork (2016), http://pitchfork.com/features/starter/9475-20-essential-k-pop-songs/ (accessed January 4, 2016).
d) “Controversial foreign K-pop boyband EXP revealed to be Columbia student’s thesis project,” K-pop (April 19, 2015), http://www.koreaboo.com/news/controversial-foreign-k-pop-boyband-exp-revealed-columbia-students-thesis-project/ (accessed January 4, 2016).
e) Shin, h. h., “K-pop craze boosts Korea's public diplomacy,” AsiaOne News (January 2013), http://news.asiaone.com/News/AsiaOne+News/Asia/Story/A1Story20130128-398379.html (accessed January 4, 2016).
f) “Why do they do that? Korean culture and the K-pop industry,” Beyond Hallyu (April 2016), http://beyondhallyu.com/k-pop/how-korean-culture-has-shaped-the-k-pop-industry/ (accessed January 1, 2016).
g) Nye, J. Jr., “South Korea's Growing Soft Power,” Belfer Center (2009), https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/south-koreas-growing-soft-power (accessed March 13, 2017).
h) Tomsen, D., “Horrifying Realities From The World Of Asian Pop Music,” List Verse (May 2015), http://listverse.com/2015/05/19/10-horrifying-realities-from-the-world-of-asian-pop-music/ (accessed November 16, 2016).

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