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中文論文名稱 都市垃圾焚化飛灰摻合淨水污泥以機械研磨製成水泥取代料氯鹽穩定能力之研究
英文論文名稱 A study on the chloride stabilizing ability by mechanical milling to produce cement substitute from MSWI fly ash blended with water treatment plant sludge
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 曾柏倫
研究生英文姓名 Po-Lun Tseng
學號 699480777
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-01-15
論文頁數 86頁
口試委員 指導教授-高思懷
委員-鄭大偉
委員-周錦東
中文關鍵字 焚化飛灰  淨水污泥  水泥  弗氏鹽  氯鹽 
英文關鍵字 MSWI fly ash  water treatment plant sludge  cement  Friedel’s salt  chloride 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 都市垃圾焚化飛灰成份複雜且含有高濃度的重金屬、戴奧辛與氯鹽等問題,因此被歸類為有害廢棄物,資源化的難度高。本研究團隊發現水萃反應灰具有卜作嵐材料的特性,且水萃灰經研磨後的重金屬溶出濃度都相當低。但飛灰中大量的氯鹽即便經過水萃程序仍無法完全洗出,做為水泥摻配料會對水泥漿體的工程性質造成影響。因此本研究將淨水污泥摻合都市垃圾焚化飛灰來製成水泥取代料,並探討摻入水泥後的水泥漿體氯鹽穩定能力。
研究中將不同比例的煆燒淨水污泥與水萃灰混合,以不同濃度NaOH溶液、時間進行研磨活化,活化完之活化粉摻入水泥灌漿,進行7天及28天養護後檢測活化粉、水泥漿體的氯鹽再溶出量及氯鹽穩定能力,並搭配FTIR及XRD來觀察穩定氯鹽的機制。
由實驗結果得知,水萃灰中氯鹽含量高達160,000 mg/kg,當煆燒淨水污泥與水萃灰混合配比為70%比30%時,以水研磨活化96小時之活化粉,取代10%水泥量灌漿養護28天後,水泥漿體的氯鹽溶出量為N.D,氯鹽穩定率高達100%,相對抗壓強度亦提升至96.29%,無論在氯鹽穩定或抗壓強度都有相當好的成果。
英文摘要 The composition of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash is complex, which contains high concentration of heavy metals, dioxins and chloride, was classified as hazardous waste and difficult to be recycled. From the former study, it was found that water-extracted MSWI fly ash (WFA) has the characteristic of pozzolanic property, and the heavy metals leaching potential of WFA are quite low after mechanical milling. Nevertheless, the large amount of chloride in the MSWI fly ash could not be lowed down effectively even after several times of water-extraction, that will impact the utility of the WFA recovery.
In this study, chloride stabilizing ability was explored by mechanical milling and alkali activation for the water treatment plant sludge (CWTPS) blended with WFA, in order to evaluate the feasibility of recovery the MSWI fly ash as cement substitute.
In this study, calcined CWTPS was blended with WFA in different weight ratios, milled and activated by different concentrations of NaOH solution compared with water for different periods to produce the activated powder, replaced a part of the cement, grouted and cured for 7 and 28 days, exam the chloride stabilizing ability of activated powder and the cement paste by FTIR and XRD analysis.
The results showed that, the chloride content of WFA as high as 160,000 mg / kg. When CWTPS blended with WFA in 70% to 30% by weight, milled with water for 96 hours, and then replaced 10% of cement, grouted and cured for 28 days, the chloride leaching concentration of cement paste was non-detectable. The chloride stabilizing rate reached 100%, and the relative compressive strength compared with pure cement reached 96.29%. Both the chloride stabilizing rate and compressive strength presented excellent results.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 前言1
1-1 研究緣起1
1-2 研究目的2
1-3 研究內容2
第二章 文獻回顧4
2-1 焚化飛灰特性4
2-1-1 飛灰之物理特性5
2-1-2 飛灰之化學特性7
2-1-3 水萃處理焚化飛灰9
2-2 淨水污泥特性10
2-2-1 淨水污泥之物理特性10
2-2-2 淨水污泥之化學性質10
2-3 水泥特性與性質11
2-3-1 水泥原料與製程11
2-3-2 波特蘭水泥的分類13
2-3-3 水泥熟料礦物成分與水化作用14
2-4 水泥中氯離子之影響與穩定機制21
2-4-1 水泥中氯離子分類21
2-4-2 氯離子對水泥的影響21
2-4-3 弗氏鹽22
2-4-4 水泥中的弗氏鹽形成22
2-5 無機聚合物23
2-5-1 無機聚合反應23
2-5-2 無機聚合物結構24
第三章 研究方法與材料27
3-1 實驗方法27
3-1-1 實驗設計27
3-1-2 實驗流程圖32
3-2 實驗材料33
3-2-1 都市垃圾焚化飛灰33
3-2-2 淨水污泥33
3-2-3 市售水泥33
3-3 實驗步驟33
3-3-1 兩段水萃程序33
3-3-2 煆燒程序34
3-3-3 研磨活化36
3-4 實驗設備36
3-5 檢測分析38
3-5-1 分析方法38
3-5-2 分析設備41
第四章 結果與討論44
4-1 原料物化特性分析44
4-1-1 焚化飛灰與水萃灰物化特性分析44
4-1-2 淨水污泥與煆燒淨水污泥物化特性分析46
4-2 研磨活化配比探討50
4-2-1 原料中氯鹽含量及不同混合配比計算氯鹽含量51
4-2-2 活化粉氯鹽溶解率51
4-2-3 活化粉氯鹽穩定率52
4-2-4 活化粉性質分析與穩定氯鹽關聯54
4-2-5 水泥漿體氯鹽穩定現象58
4-3 不同濃度鹼液研磨活化探討60
4-3-1 活化粉氯鹽溶解率60
4-3-2 活化粉氯鹽穩定率61
4-3-3 水泥漿體氯鹽穩定現象65
4-4 研磨活化時間之影響68
4-4-1 活化粉氯鹽溶解率69
4-4-2 活化粉氯鹽穩定率70
4-4-3 水泥漿體氯鹽穩定現象73
4-5 EN 196-2:2005 Methods of testing cement試驗結果78
第五章 結論與建議80
5-1 結論80
5-2 建議81
第六章 參考文獻82

圖目錄
圖2-1 水泥製造程序圖12
圖2-2 無機聚合物之結構25
圖3-1 氯鹽分佈說明29
圖3-2 實驗流程圖32
圖3-3 淨水污泥TG/DTA圖(室溫升溫至1000℃,每分鐘上升15℃)35
圖4-1 焚化飛灰粒徑分佈圖45
圖4-2 水萃灰粒徑分佈圖45
圖4-3 淨水污泥外觀 47
圖4-4 淨水污泥粒徑分佈圖47
圖4-5 煆燒淨水污泥外觀48
圖4-6 煆燒淨水污泥粒徑分佈圖 48
圖4-7 淨水污泥煆燒前後之XRD圖50
圖4-8 三種混合配比以5M NaOH研磨活化24小時之氯鹽溶解率52
圖4-9 三種混合配比以5M NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉之氯鹽穩定率53
圖4-10原料及以5M NaOH研磨活化三種混合配比24小時製成活化粉之FTIR圖譜56
圖4-11 原料及以5M NaOH研磨活化三種混合配比24小時製成活化粉之XRD圖57
圖4-12 三種混合配比以5M NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天水泥漿體之氯鹽穩定率59
圖4-13 三種混合配比以5M NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天水泥漿體之相對抗壓強度60
圖4-14 S7A3以三種濃度NaOH研磨活化24小時之氯鹽溶解率61
圖4-15 S7A3以三種濃度NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉之氯鹽穩定率62
圖4-16 S7A3以三種濃度NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉之FTIR圖譜63
圖4-17 S7A3以三種濃度NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉之XRD圖65
圖4-18 S7A3以三種濃度NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天水泥漿體之氯鹽穩定率67
圖4-19 S7A3以三種濃度NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天水泥漿體之相對抗壓強度68
圖4-20 S7A3以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時之氯鹽溶解率69
圖4-21 S7A3以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時製成活化粉之氯鹽穩定率70
圖4-22 S7A3以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時製成活化粉之FTIR圖譜71
圖4-23 S7A3以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時製成活化粉之XRD圖72
圖4-24 S73A以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天水泥漿體之氯鹽穩定率74
圖4-25 S73A以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天水泥漿體之相對抗壓強度75
圖4-26 S73A以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天之水泥漿體FTIR圖譜78

表目錄
表2-1 污泥之化學組成11
表2-2 波特蘭水泥主要成分表14
表2-3 波特蘭水泥化學簡寫符號說明15
表2-4 矽酸鈣鹽類之水化過程及機理17
表4-1 焚化飛灰與水萃灰物化特性44
表4-2 焚化飛灰與水萃灰元素組成46
表4-3 焚化飛灰與水萃灰重金屬含量46
表4-4 淨水污泥與煆燒前後之元素組成49
表4-5 淨水污泥煆燒前後之重金屬含量49
表4-6 淨水污泥煆燒前後之鹼溶出試驗結果50
表4-7 原料加熱萃氯之氯溶出量51
表4-8 不同混合配比之計算氯鹽含量51
表4-9 三種混合配比以5M NaOH研磨活化24小時之氯鹽再溶出量53
表4-10三種混合配比以5M NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天之氯鹽再溶出量58
表4-11 S7A3以三種濃度NaOH研磨活化24小時之氯鹽再溶出量62
表4-12 S7A3以三種濃度NaOH研磨活化24小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天水泥漿體之氯鹽再溶出量67
表4-13 S7A3以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時之氯鹽再溶出量70
表4-14 S7A3以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護7天及28天之氯鹽再溶出量74
表4-15 S7A3以0M NaOH研磨活化24及96小時製成活化粉鹼溶出量74
表4-16 S7A3經不同活化參數製成活化粉取代10%水泥灌漿養護28天水泥漿體以EN 196-2:2005 Methods of testing cement測得實測氯鹽含量79
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