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系統識別號 U0002-1402201412440000
中文論文名稱 層狀材料TiSe2之電荷密度波研究
英文論文名稱 Study of charge-density waves in the layered material TiSe2
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 物理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Physics
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 鄭智謙
研究生英文姓名 Chih-Chien Cheng
學號 600210057
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-01-15
論文頁數 67頁
口試委員 指導教授-杜昭宏
委員-湯茂竹
委員-葉炳宏
中文關鍵字 硬X光  電荷密度波  層狀材料 
英文關鍵字 Hard X-ray  Charge-Density Wave  Layered Material 
學科別分類 學科別自然科學物理
中文摘要 電荷密度波(CDW)常出現於低維度材料,即具有異向性一維的線性鏈或二維的平面的材料,如K0.3MoO3、NbSe3、TaS2、 K2Pt(CN)4Br0.332H2O等皆屬於這類的材料;在眾多電荷密度波材料中,二維層狀結構的TiSe2已受到長時間的關注,據文獻記載其電荷密度波會出現於(H±0.5 K±0.5 L±0.5)的位置並為對掌形電荷有序。
在經過退火過後, TiSe2受溫度影響Se元素會有些許消散使晶格排列改變,如此一來可能會造成相變溫度的轉變,本論文利用電子微探分析(Electron Probe Microanalyzer)確定Se含量,並藉由電性和磁性量測來估計其相變溫度,並藉由X-ray的散射來確認實際TiSe2的電荷密度波相變溫度,如此能了解不同的退火溫度樣品的品質會出現差異,且探討Se含量和退火溫度對相變溫度造成的影響 。
英文摘要 The modulated structure due to the formation of charge density wave (CDW) usually exists in low-dimensional materals, such as K0.3MoO3, NbSe3, TaS2, K2Pt(CN)4Br0.332H2O and so on. The study of the charge modulations are mostly relied on the use of electron beams, x-rays, and neutrons. Among them, x-rays have the merits of high-spatial resolution and sensitive to charges over other two probes. In this study, we use the high-resolution x-rays to investigate the CDW modulation in a layered compound TiSe2 under different annealing temperatures.
Measurements on a series of crystals of TiSe2 being annealed at different temperatures show the different conductivity behavior, which were observed to relate to the Se contents by the use of Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalyzer.Using high-resolution x-ray scattering, many satellite reflections caused by the CDW were located at positions (H± 0.5 K± 0.5 L± 0.5) at low temperatures, and the transition temperature of CDW was also observed to depend on annealing temperatures.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 緒 論.............................................................................1
第二章 理 論.............................................................................2
2-1 同步輻射......................................................................................2
2-2 布拉格繞射 (Bragg's Law).........................................................5
2-3 晶體結構......................................................................................8
2-4 電子微探分析 (Electron Probe Microanalysis, EPMA)...........13
2-5 電荷密度波材料 (Charge Density Wave Materials)................15
2-5.1 層狀材料 (Layered Materials)........................................15
2-5.2 電荷密度波 (Charge Density Wave)..............................18
2-5.3 自由電子費米氣體 (Free Electron Fermi Gas)..............21
2-5.4 激子凝聚態 (Exciton Condensate Phase).......................27
第三章 實驗方法.....................................................................31
3-1實驗設施.....................................................................................31
3-1.1 光束線BL07A................................................................31
3-1.2 實驗站設置......................................................................33
3-1.3 低溫系統..........................................................................36 
3-2 實驗方法....................................................................................39
3-2.1 光源校準..........................................................................39
3-2.2 數據量測..........................................................................43
第四章 實驗數據與討論.........................................................45
4-1 實驗數據..................................................................................45
4-2 SH0626-TiSe2...........................................................................48
4-2.1 SH0626-TiSe2實驗數據.................................................48
4-2.2 SH0626-TiSe2數據討論.................................................57
4-3 SH1027-TiSe2...........................................................................59
4-3.1 SH1027-TiSe2實驗數據.................................................59
4-3.2 SH1027-TiSe2數據討論.................................................64
第五章 結 論...........................................................................65
參考文獻...................................................................................67

圖目錄
圖(2-1-1) 同步輻射光源波段介紹........................................................2
圖(2-1-2) 同步輻射加速器設施示意圖................................................3
圖(2-1-3) 插件磁鐵的發光機制............................................................4
圖(2-1-4) 插件磁鐵的光源孔徑大小....................................................4
圖(2-1-5) 插件磁鐵的光子能量和光亮度分布....................................4
圖(2-2-1) 布拉格繞射表示圖................................................................7
圖(2-2-2) 建設性干涉............................................................................7
圖(2-2-3) 破壞性干涉............................................................................7
圖(2-3-1) 單位晶胞................................................................................8
圖(2-3-2) 晶系結構..............................................................................10
圖(2-4-1) (a)電子探測微分析儀構造, (b)波譜儀分析機制..............13
圖(2-5-1) 1T-TiSe2及2H-TiSe2結構圖...............................................16
圖(2-5-2) TiSe2單層鍵結結構圖........................................................16
圖(2-5-3) 金屬電性質能帶示意圖......................................................18
圖(2-5-4) 二維週期性晶格扭曲..........................................................20
圖(2-5-5) 自由電子氣體的色散關係..................................................23
圖(2-5-6) T=0時,不同維度下的 χ(q )..............................................24
圖(2-5-7) 正常狀態的一維氣體金屬..................................................26
圖(2-5-8) Peierls預測的一維氣體金屬..............................................26
圖(2-5-9) Tise2俯視C軸的布里淵區...................................................28
圖(2-5-10) 傳導帶L、價帶Γ和spanning vectors的關係......................28
圖(2-5-11) 擴張範圍的布里淵區..........................................................29
圖(2-5-12) Exciton生成電荷密度波的機制.........................................29
圖(2-5-13) (a)Excitonic Insulator, (b)Peierls insulator..........................30
圖(2-5-14) Exciton condensate和Peierls distortion機制的對應圖......30
圖(3-1-1) BL07A光束線八環繞射儀.................................................33
圖(3-1-2) 低溫恆溫器載具..................................................................37
圖(3-1-3) 低溫恆溫器..........................................................................37
圖(3-1-4) 溫控器..................................................................................37
圖(3-1-5) 氦氣壓縮機..........................................................................37  
圖(3-1-6) 渦輪真空幫浦......................................................................37
圖(3-1-7) 鈹窗......................................................................................38
圖(3-1-8) 架設低溫系統後的繞射儀..................................................38
圖(3-2-1) 針尖高低校準......................................................................40
圖(3-2-2) 針尖左右校準......................................................................40
圖(3-2-3) 針尖和φ環角向器..............................................................42
圖(3-2-4) 望遠鏡..................................................................................42
圖(3-2-5) 望遠鏡的水平......................................................................42
圖(3-2-6) 完成校正後的整體情況......................................................42
圖(4-1-1) 化學氣相傳輸法..................................................................45
圖(4-1-2) TiSe2電荷轉換示意圖........................................................46
圖(4-1-3) 樣品TiSe2(a)SH0626 700℃,(b)SH1027 550℃-1,
(c)SH1027 550℃-2..............................................................47
圖(4-2-1) SH0626退火後Se含量.......................................................48
圖(4-2-2) TiSe2電性量測....................................................................49
圖(4-2-3) 電性量測相變溫度的預測..................................................50
圖(4-2-4) 霍爾效應量測......................................................................50
圖(4-2-5) 不同退火溫度下的磁性量測(a)650℃,(b)700℃,
(c)850℃,(d)950℃................................................................51
圖(4-2-6) 磁性量測的倒數分析..........................................................52
圖(4-2-7) TiSe2磁性量測相變溫度的預測........................................52
圖(4-2-8) Bragg Peak(0 1 5)三個方向的量測(a)H方向, (b)K方向, (c)L方向.............................................................................53
圖(4-2-9) QCDW 三個方向的溫度對積分強度變化...........................54
圖(4-2-10) QCDW 三個方向的溫度對半高寬變化...............................55
圖(4-2-11) Q(-0.5, 1, 5)L方向的溫度對積分強度變化.......................56
圖(4-2-12) Q(-0.5, 1, 5)L方向的溫度對半高寬變化...........................56
圖(4-2-13) 電性量測與磁性量測的相變溫度預估比較......................57
圖(4-2-14) QCDW(-0.5 -0.5 4.5)和Q(-0.5 1 5)的相變溫度比較............58
圖(4-3-1) SH0626退火後Se含量.......................................................59
圖(4-3-2) QCDW 三個方向的溫度對強度變化...................................60
圖(4-3-3) QCDW 三個方向的溫度對半高寬變化...............................61
圖(4-3-4) QCDW (0.5 0.5 4.5) L方向的溫度對積分強度變化............62
圖(4-3-5) QCDW (0.5 0.5 4.5) L方向的半高寬變化............................62
圖(4-3-6) QCDW (0.5 0.5 4.5) XRD的溫度對積分強度變化..............63
圖(4-3-7) QCDW (0.5 0.5 4.5) XRD的溫度對半高寬變化..................63


表目錄

表(2-3-1) 晶系結構..............................................................................9
表(4-2-1) SH0626退火後TiSe2成分變化..........................................48
表(4-2-2) Bragg Peak(0 1 5)三個方向的半高寬整理........................54
表(4-3-1) SH0626退火後TiSe2成分變化.........................................59
參考文獻 1.Matthias M. May, Two ways of suppressing charge density waves in 1T-TiSe2 (2010).
2.國家同步輻射研究中心 NSRRC
3.Insertion Devices, Ching-Shiang Hwang, NSRRC (2008)
4.R. J. Singh, Solid State Physics(2011)
5.ISTerre Electron Probe Microanalysis Facility
6.G. Gruner, Density Waves in Solids (1994).
7.G. Li et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99.027404 (2007).
8.J.P. Castellan et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110.196404(2013)
9.Xiao Zhe Jing, Fundamentals of Solid State Physics
10.R. Peierls, Annalen der Physik, Volume 396, Issue 2, 121–148 (1930).
11.H. P. Hughes, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. Volume 10, L319 (1977).
12.F. J. Di Salvo et. al., Phys. Rev. B, 14(10):4321(1976).
13.D. Jerome, T.M. Rice, and W. Kohn, Excitonic Insulator, Physical Review, Vol. 158, No. 2, pp. 462–475 (1967).
14.A. Kocan, Charge density waves in low-dimensional metals (2007).
15.C. Monney et. al., Phys. Rev. B, 79, 045116 (2009)
16.S. Hellmann et al., Nature Communications 3,Article number:1069 (2012).
17.BL07A八環繞射儀操作手冊
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