||Afro-Caribbean Political Culture in Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago
||Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
Black Power Movement
Westminster-model parliamentary democracy
|| 本論文為了探討加勒比海黑人政治文化發展，研究者將加勒比海黑人歷史分成三個時期並且各自對照不同的政治文化類型。第一時期是從十五、十六世紀開始進口黑奴到十八世紀中葉解放黑奴，這時期所代表的政治文化類型是原始的政治文化 (parochial political culture)。而這時期的政治文化形成受到兩個要素影響，分別是奴隸制度和農莊社會，這個時期的黑人根本就沒有政治參與的機會。第二個時期從十八世紀中葉至一九六零年代。這個時期所代表的政治文化類型是臣屬的政治文化(subject political culture)，而這個時期的加勒比海黑人政治文化發展受到五個要素影響。
在一九六零年代，一些加勒比海黑人國家已經從殖民母國手中和平取得獨立的地位。但是，獨立後的新國家如何從國內黑人人數上的優勢重建一個符合新國家發展的政治文化呢?那國家認同?文化認同呢?本論文對這些問題都將一一探討並分析前因後果。基本上大多數獨立國家內的黑人都認同新國家的身分，於是就進入第三個時期政治文化發展。第三個時期從一九六零年代到現今，此時期所代表的政治文化類型是參與的政治文化(participant political culture)。有兩個要素影響這個時期的政治文化發展: 過去奴隸制度和殖民主義的後遺症(legacies)與受到英國工黨影響的本地黑人菁英和政黨。過去的殖民背景和殖民教育讓不少加勒比海新興黑人菁英採取或是仿效殖民母國的治國政策，於是在新統治者與人民之間產生了巨大的隔閡。所以，在新的政治文化發展初期和新政權統治初期，新興加勒比海黑人政府面臨到來自內部的挑戰，分別是六零年代的黑權運動(Black Power movement)和拉斯達運動(Rastafarian movement)，他們質疑黑人政府的正當性。
|| Since the African slaves replaced the original Amerindian population, the African ethnic group has become the largest ethnic group in the Caribbean region. The profound legacies of the past slavery and African progeny have played critical roles in shaping present-day diversities of social, economic, and political dimensions in the region. From the transition toward and upon gaining independence from colonial powers, the Caribbean region has so many impressive liberal democratic experiences than other developing countries around the world, especially the manifestations of their inherited political attitudes, present political institutions, the political values, and processes—the adaptation of Westminster system—particularly in the English-speaking Caribbean. In this thesis, I divide the development of Afro-Caribbean political culture into three phases and related to the types of political cultures.
At the first phase, the inhuman slavery and the plantation society influenced the initial development of Afro-Caribbean political culture. Basically, the black population at this time had no choice but submitted themselves to the rule of the whites. At the second phase, the Caribbean region witnessed profound social, economic, and political changes. In this time, there were five elements influencing the development of Afro-Caribbean political culture: education, economic diversification, the emergences of Pan-Africanism, Garveyism, and the Rastafarianism, the labor movement in the 1930s, and the political empowerment between the 1940s and 1950s. What they caused were significant and indelible results in the future.
There were two elements influencing the Afro-Caribbean political culture in the third phase: the legacies of slavery and colonialism and British-educated politicians and British Labour Party-influenced political parties. However, the development faced some internal threatens and challenges from the Black Power Movement and the Rastafarian movement, because they questioned the legitimacy of Afro-Caribbean governments. Actually, this thesis will take three key factors to explain the overall development of Afro-Caribbean political culture.
The Afro-Caribbean political culture is not invariable although there is to some extent a common consensus in each country. The inheritance of political culture and institutions from British Empire has survived for a long time. The educated electorate need more educated leaders to lead them get rid of poverty and unequal distribution. The economic achievement and solutions to employment become major determinants of the electorate to examine the parties’ policies and promises. With the globalization and popularity of Internet, especially the young generation, the increasing discontent with incumbent government and transformation in valuing system emerge among the populace. People would adopt less radical ways rather than the mass media frequently to present their disaffections and viewpoints. The uses of Internet and cyberspace change the way which people receive and exchange information, directly providing an increasing important means of democratic expression as well as a source of public pressure on state authority.
Research Motivation and Research Purpose...................1
Methodology and Research Framework........................10
Setting of Research Field and Limits......................14
Chapter One Historical Backgrounds of Colonialism........17
1.1 Elegy of Black Slaves.................................17
1.2 Emancipation for Black Slaves.........................30
1.3 Social Hierarchy......................................39
Chapter Two Social-class Dimensions of Caribbean Political Culture...................................................51
2.1 Emerging Black Middle Class...........................53
2.2 Elite Dimensions of Afro-Caribbean Political Culture ..................................................67
2.3 “Peau Noir, Masques Blancs” (Black Skin, White Masks)....................................................81
Chapter Three Party Politics.............................95
3.3 Trinidad and Tobago..................................119
Chapter Four Challenges and Changes of Political Culture..................................................133
4.1 From Pan-Africanism to Rastafarianism................134
4.2 From Criticism to Calypso............................144
4.3 The New Tendency.....................................153
Chapter Five Conclusion.................................165
0.1 Development of Afro-Caribbean history contrasts with the types of political
culture .............................................................................................................. 8
0.2 Three countries’ basic introductions ............................................................... 15
1.1.1 Numbers of Negro slaves imported into the Americas .................................. 27
1.2.1 Dates of abolition of slavery in the Americas ................................................ 38
2.2.1 Black leaders in the five independent states .................................................. 72
2.2.2 Black leaders in other smaller Caribbean islands .......................................... 73
2.2.3 Selected social characteristics of top West Indian leaders ........................... 74
2.2.4 Relation between the nationalist typology and some West Indian leaders’
social characteristics and views ..................................................................... 76
3.1.1 General elections results in Barbados, 1951-1999 ....................................... 107
3.2.1 General election results in Jamaica, 1944-1993 .......................................... 111
3.3.1 Population of Trinidad and Tobago by race at the time of independence . 121
4.3.1 Commonwealth Caribbean average electoral turnout, 1950s-1990s ........... 156
5.1 Afro-Caribbean history contrasts with types of political culture ................ 166
0.1 Independent Caribbean countries ................................................................ 16
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