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中文論文名稱 全球化下歐洲聯盟境內人口販運問題之研究
英文論文名稱 Study on the Problem of Human Trafficking in European Union under Globalization
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 謝采臻
研究生英文姓名 Tsai-Chen Hsieh
學號 696290534
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-01-14
論文頁數 131頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭秋慶
委員-汪琉瑋
委員-卓忠宏
中文關鍵字 歐洲聯盟  人口販運  全球化  全球治理 
英文關鍵字 European Union  Human Trafficking  Globalization  Global Governance 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 80年代以來,隨著邊境開放、金融鬆管、先進的通訊科技發展和便利的交通建設下,推動了經濟全球化的蓬勃發展和國際移民的高流動現象,全球化現象在冷戰結束後更加盛行。然而,全球化的發展也開通了地下市場,導致跨國犯罪現象的惡化。受到全球性產業和廉價勞工的需求刺激,人口販運成為近年來成長最快速的犯罪行為,人口販運現象遍及全球。受害者被迫日以繼夜的提供性服務和勞力,甚至販賣器官等。歐盟國家境內,隨著歐盟擴大和歐洲單一市場的建立更是加劇了人口販運的問題,歐盟赫然成為人口販運全球最主要的市場之一。

面對全球性問題挑戰時,國際間興起了透過全球治理的途徑,動員國際間所有行為者來共同解決。歐盟統合之下所建立的治理體系,提供歐盟會員國合作的平台,透過多層級面向來發展打擊人口販運政策和行動。

本文首先分析全球化時代、冷戰結束和歐盟單一市場建立三大因素對人口販運的影響,並觀察歐盟會員國如何在歐盟治理平台下與國際、國家和非政府組織合作,試探三者在治理途徑過程的互動及其扮演的角色,並檢視歐盟治理在對抗人口販運問題上的成效。
英文摘要 Globalization became more prevalent since 1980’s following by the open borders, financial deregulation along with the latest development of advancing information, communication and transportation technologies facilitating economic globalization as well as propelling international migration. However, globalization itself has also profited illicit market and fostered transnational crimes. Driven by the huge market demand of cheap labor and prostitution, human trafficking has been considered as the fastest-growing crime activity in recent years and is now worldwide. The victims are forced to provide labor or sexual service day and night, even compelled to sell organs or other kinds of servitudes. And these problems of human trafficking have been aggravated by the eastern enlargement and the freedom of movement of people in the European Union, which, consequently, has grown to be one of the major markets of human trafficking.

Global Governance appears as a new approach to deal with global challenges by mobilizing all the actors to solve the problem. The governance system built by the European Integration provides a platform for the EU members to develop anti-trafficking policy and actions through a multi-level aspect.

This thesis firstly analyzes how the phenomenon of human trafficking was aggravated by globalization, the end of Cold War and the establishment of Single European Market. The second part gives an overview on how, in EU, its members cooperate with International Organizations, nation states and NGOs
then followed by the analysis of the interactions and the different roles of the actors. Finally, the study concludes by assessing the current efforts EU has achieved on fighting against human trafficking.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究途徑與研究方法 6
第三節 文獻評論 9
第四節 研究範圍與限制 13
第五節 研究架構 15
第二章 歐盟國家之間人口販運的猖獗 17
第一節 歐盟境內人口販運加劇的因素 17
一、 全球化快速發展下帶來的衝擊 17
二、 後冷戰國際安全局勢轉變帶來的影響 26
三、 歐盟單一市場造成人口販運惡化 33
第二節 人口販運現象的流動與型態 37
一、 全球的人口販運市場 37
二、 歐盟境內的人口販運市場 41
第三節 人口販運的影響 56
一、 在受害者層面 56
二、 在國家層面 58
第三章 歐盟從事對抗人口販運之作為 61
第一節 歐盟發展國際間的合作 62
一、 歐盟簽署聯合國人口販運議定書 62
二、 歐盟協助他國打擊人口販運 66
第二節 歐盟提供會員國之間人口販運法律趨同 70
一、 打擊人口販運合作在基礎條約中的規範 70
二、 相關法規與政策的發展 76
第三節 歐盟會員國之間強化警政司法合作 86
一、 歐洲警政署作為資源整合的平台 86
二、 歐洲司法合作單位擔任諮詢與協調者的角色 89
第四節 歐盟推動會員國之間公部門和第三部門交流 91
一、 加強警政司法人員交流的STOP行動與AGIS行動 92
二、 推動會員國的非政府組織之間合作的DAPHNE計劃 93
第四章 歐盟打擊人口販運合作之成效與限制 101
第一節 各治理層次所扮演的角色 101
一、 歐盟發揮的治理效用有限 101
二、 會員國作為主要的執行者 102
三、 非政府組織有其一定的角色 104
第二節 檢視歐盟對抗人口販運合作的績效 107
一、 踏出了打擊人口販運合作的第一步 107
二、 歐盟治理層級的有限性 109
第五章 結論 113
參考文獻 120

圖表目次
圖次
圖一:研究架構圖 16
圖二:中西歐國家境內受害者國籍(2005-2006年) 29
圖三:巴爾幹地區人口販運流動圖 30
圖四:國內存在人口販運現象的歐洲國家數量(2000-2008年) 34
圖五:全球人口販運流動圖 40
圖六:全球人口販運受害者資料 41
圖七:歐洲性販運受害者國籍(2005-2007年) 45
圖八:歐洲人口販運罪行和其他罪行中女性罪犯比例(2003-2006年) 47
圖九:歐洲性販運流動圖 52
圖十:人口販運意涵 64

表次
表一:文獻回顧 10
表二:歐盟會員國人口販運來源國、中繼國、目的國一覽表 43
參考文獻 一、 中文書目
(一) 專書
______(2002),非傳統安全威脅研究報告,台北市:國家安全局。
王泰銓(2008),歐洲聯盟法總論,台北:台灣智庫。
王泰銓主編(2006),歐洲聯盟條約與歐洲共同體條約譯文及重要參考文件,
台北市:翰蘆圖書出版有限公司。
江啓臣(2009),國際組織與全球治理概論,台北:五南圖書出版有限公司。
俞可平主編(2003),全球化:全球治理,北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
陳春山(2007),2020全球趨勢與全球治理,台北:聯經出版公司。
陳麗娟(2010),里斯本條約後歐洲聯盟新面貎,台北:五南圖書出版社。
黃富源(2007),跨國人口販運之態樣、原因及防治策略之研究,台北市:內
政部入出國及移民署。
龐中英主編(2006),中國學者看世界-全球治理卷,香港:和平圖書有限公
司。
林祐聖譯(2005),David Held等著,治理全球化-權力、權威與全球治理
(Governing Globalization: Power, Authority and Global Governance),台北:韋伯文化國際出版有限公司。
沈宗瑞、高少凡等譯(2007), David Held等著,全球化大轉變-全球化對政
治、經濟與文化的衝擊(Global transformations: politics, economics and
culture),台北:韋伯文化國際出版有限公司。
吳國卿譯(2006),Moisés Naím著,誰劫走了全球經濟-全球化的五大戰爭
121
(Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers and Copycats are Hijacking the Global
Economy),台北:時報文化出版企業股份有限公司。

(二) 期刊/論文
刁仁國(2008),非法移民與人口販運問題,第二屆「國境安全與人口移動」
學術研討會,209-225,桃園:中央警察大學移民研究中心。
李光桓(2007),歐盟刑事司法合作之研究,南華大學歐洲研究所碩士論文。
李貴雪(2009),歐盟警政合作在歐洲統合過程中的發展與限制,國境警察學
報,11:93-129。
姜家雄(2010),歐洲聯盟與打擊人口販運,中國政治學會年會暨「能知的
公民?民主的理想與實際」學術研討會,高雄:中山大學。
柯慶忠(2005),歐盟警察組織簡介,國境警察學報,4:25-55。
柯麗玲(2007),人口販運概念之研究,檢察新論,2:61-81。
張亞中(2001),全球治理:主體與權力的解析,問題與研究,40(4):1-24。
陳正芬(2008),歐洲人口販運之現況與展望-以德國為中心,檢察新論,
3:204-224。
陳明傳(2008),國際防制人口販運問題之研究,第二屆「國境安全與人口
移動」學術研討會,159-182,桃園:中央警察大學移民研究中心。
汪毓瑋(2006),全球治理脈絡下因應組織性犯罪之理論與實踐,遠景基金會
季刊,7(3):1-34。

(三) 雜誌
葉心慧(2007),「大西洋奴隸貿易-非洲人口販賣血淚史」,經典雜誌,
113:136-147。


二、 外文書目
(一) 專書
Cameron, S. and Newman, E. (eds.) (2008), Trafficking in humans: Social, cultural and political dimensions, New York: United Nations University Press.
Crawford, A. (ed.) (2002), Crime and Insecurity-The Governance of Safety in Europe, UK: Willan Publishing.
Friman, H. Richard and Reich, S. (eds.) (2007), Human trafficking, human security, and the Balkans, USA:University of Pittsburgh Press.
Jonsson, A. (ed.) (2009), Human Trafficking and Human Security, London: Routledge.
Kara, S. (2009), Sex Trafficking- Inside the Business of Modern Slavery, New York: Columbia University Press
Rijken, C. (2003), Trafficking in Persons: Prosecution from a European Perspective, The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.
Scarpa, S. (2008), Trafficking in Human Beings - Modern Slavery, USA:Oxford University Press.
Shelley, L. (2010), Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press.

(二) 專書文章
Goodey, J. (2003), “Recognising organized crime’s victims-The case of sex trafficking in the EU”, in Adam Edwards and Peter Gill (eds.), Transnational organised crime : perspectives on global security, New York : Routledge.

Kelly, L. (2005), “You Can Find Anything You Want:A Critical Reflection on Research on Trafficking in Persons with and into Europe”, in Frank Laczko and Elzbieta Gozdziak (ed.), Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey, Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
Koslowsk, R. (2001), “Economic Globalization, Human Smuggling and Global Governance”, in David Kyle and Rey Koslowski (eds.), Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives, US: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Medved, F. and Cullen, P. (2002), “Counteracting Human Trafficking: An Analysis of European Union Policy”, in Malcolm Anderson and Joana Apap (eds.) Police and Justice Co-operation and the New Europe Borders, Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Miko, F. T. (2007), International Human Trafficking, in Kimberly L. Thachuk (ed.), Transnational Threats: Smuggling and Trafficking in Arms, Drugs and Human life, USA: Prager Security International.
Obokata, T. (2006), “EU Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: Past, Presentand Future”, in Elspeth Guild and Paul Minderhoud (eds.), Immigration and Criminal Law in the European Union-The Legal Measures and Social Consequences of Criminal Law in Member State on Trafficking and Smuggling in Human Beings, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Pierre, J. and Peters, B. Guy (2000), “Governance at Three Levels,” in Jon Pierre and B. Guy Peters, Governance, Politics and the State, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Värynen, R. (2005), “Illegal Immigration, Human Trafficking and Organized Crime”, in George J. Borjas and Jeff Crisp (eds.), Poverty, international migration, and asylum, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wong, D. (2005) “The Rumor of Trafficking”, in Willem van Schendel and Itty Abraham (eds.), Illicit Flows and Criminal Things- States, Borders, and the Other Side of Globalization, USA: Indiana University Press.

(三) 期刊
Aronowitz, A. A. (2001), “Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: The Phenomenon, the Markets that Drives it and the Organisations that Promote it”, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, Vol. 9, 163-195.
Askola, H. (2007), “Violence against Women, Trafficking, and Migration in the European Union”, European Law Journal, Vol.13, No.2, 204-217.
Corrin, C. (2005), “Transnational Road for Traffic: Analysing Trafficking in Women from and through Central and Eastern Europe”, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 57, No.4, 543-560.
Goodey, J. (2004), “Sex trafficking in women from Central and East European Countries: promoting a “victim-centred” and “woman-centred” approach to criminal justice intervention”, Feminist Review, No. 76, 26-45.
Mameli, P. A. (2002), “Stopping the Illegal Trafficking of Human Beings”, Crime, Law and Social Change, Vol.38, 67–80.
Obokata, T. (2003), “EU Council Framework Decision on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings: A Critical Appraisal”, Common Market Law Review, Vol.40, No.4, 917-936.
Salt J. (2000), “Trafficking and Human Smuggling: A European Perspective”, International Migration, Special Issue 2000/1, 31-56.
Salt, J. and Stein, J. (1997), “Migration as a Business: The Case of Trafficking”, International Migration Vol. 35, No.4, 467-494.
Smartt, U. (2003), “Human trafficking: Simply a European problem?”, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice,Vol.11, No.2, 164-177.
Twomey, P. (2000), “Europe’s Other Market-Trafficking in People”, European Journal of Migration and Law, Vol.2, 1-36.

三、 會議發表文章
___________, “Corruption and Human Trafficking: The Grease that Felicitates
the Crime”, paper presented at The Vienna Forum to fight Human
Trafficking, 13-15 February 2008.
___________, “Technology and Human Trafficking”, paper presented at The
Vienna Forum to fight Human Trafficking, 13-15 February 2008.
Helga Konrad, “Trafficking in Human Beings - The Ugly Face of Europe”, paper presented at European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings- Global Challenge for the 21st Century, 18-20 September 2002.
Nicole Lindstrom, “Regional Sex Trafficking Networks and International Intervention in the Balkans”, paper presented for the 45th Annual International Studies Association Convention, Montreal, March 2004


四、 網路資源
_______, “Terrorism & Trafficking: Finding the Nexus”, IAST, spring 2002,

Ben Hall, “A Single Market in Crime”, Centre for European Reform, August
1999, < http://www.cer.org.uk/articles/n_7_4.html>
Moisés Naím , “Five Wars of Globalization”, Foreign Policy, January 1, 2003
on>
Phil Williams, “Combating Human Trafficking: Improving Governance
Institutions, Mechanisms & Strategies”, in Cornelius Friesendorf (Ed.),
Strategies against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector, (Vienna: National Defence Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sports, 2009)


五、 官方文獻
(一) 美國國務院(U.S. Department of State)
Trafficking in Persons Report 2006
Trafficking in Persons Report 2007
Trafficking in Persons Report 2008
Trafficking in Persons Report 2009
Trafficking in Persons Report 2010

(二) 國際移民組織(International Organization for Migration)
Frank Laczko and David Thompson (eds.) (2000), Migrant Trafficking and Human Smuggling in Europe: a Review of the Evidence with Case Studies from Hungary, Poland and Ukraine
Conny Rijken (2005), The European Legal Framework to Fight Trafficking in Human Beings.
(三) 歐洲司法單位(Eurojust)
Annual Report 2008
(四) 歐洲理事會(Council of Europe)
Athanassia P. Sykiotou (2007), Trafficking in human beings: Internet recruitment
(五) 歐洲網絡打擊販運人口網絡(La Strada International)
La Strada-European Network against Trafficking in Women: Facts and practices
La Strada International Annual Report 2007
La Strada International Annual Report 2008
(六) 歐洲聯盟(European Union)
Commission Communication to the Council and the European Parliament on trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation, COM (96) 567 final, 20.11.1996.
Commission Decision setting up the Group of Experts on Trafficking in Human Beings, L 277/29, 20.10.2007

Commission Working Document Evaluation and monitoring of the implementation of the EU Plan on best practices, standards and procedures for combating and preventing trafficking in human beings, COM(2008) 657 final, 17.10.2008
Council Decision 2002/630/JHA of 22 July 2002 establishing a framework programme on police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (AGIS), OJ L 203, 1 August 2002.
Council Decision on the signing, on behalf of the European Community, of the United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime and its Protocols on combating trafficking in persons, especially women and children, and the smuggling of migrants by land, air and sea, L 30/44, 1.2.2001.
Council Directive 2004/81/EC of 29 April 2004 on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration, who cooperate with the competent authorities, OJ L 261, 6 August 2004.
Council EU plan on best practices, standards and procedures for combating and preventing trafficking in human beings, C 311/1, 9.12.2005
Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings, OJ, L203, 1 August 2002
European Parliament and Council Decision 803/2004/EC of 21 April 2004 adopting a programme of Community action (2004 to 2008) to prevent and combat violence against children, young people and women and to protect victims and groups at risk, OJ L 143, 30 April 2004.
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings, and protecting victims, repealing Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA, COM(2010)95 final, 29.3.2010
Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament Based on Article 10 of the Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings, COM(2006) 187 final, 02.05.2006.
The European Commission: Report of the Experts Group on Trafficking in Human Beings 22 December 2004.
(七) 歐洲警政署(European Police Office)
Europol Annual Report 2007
Europol Annual Report 2008
European Organised Crime Threat Assessment 2009
Trafficking in Human Begins in the European Union: a Europol Perspective, 2009
Trafficking of woman and children for sexual exploitation in the EU: The
involvement of Western Balkans Organised Crime, 2006
(八) 聯合國(United Nations)
Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrant by Land, Sea and Air
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially in
Women and Children
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
(九) 聯合國人口基金組織(United Nations Population Fund)
State of world population 2006-A Passage to Hope: Women and International
Migration
(十) 聯合國毒品暨犯罪問題辦公室(United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime)
An Introduction to Human Trafficking, 2008
Trafficking in Persons: Analysis on Europe, 2009.
Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns, 2006
Trafficking in Persons to Europe for sexual exploitation, 2010
(十一) 聯合國難民總署(UN High Commissioner for Refugees)
John Morrison and Beth Crosland (2000), “The Trafficking and Smuggling of
Refugees: the end game in European asylum policy?”, Working Paper No.
39.
Comments on the proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the
Council on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings, and protecting victims (COM (2010)95, 29 March 2010)
Observations by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and
the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees on the Proposal for an
EU Council Framework Decision on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings


六、 網路資源
美國國務院(U.S. Department of State)
http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/index.htm
國際移民組織(International Organization for Migration) http://www.iom.int/jahia/jsp/index.jsp
歐洲司法單位(Eurojust)
http://www.eurojust.europa.eu
歐洲理事會(Council of Europe)
http://www.coe.int/
歐洲網絡打擊販運人口網絡(La Strada International- European Network Against
Trafficking in Human Beings) http://www.lastradainternational.org
歐洲聯盟資訊網(European Union Information Website)
http://www.euractiv.com/
歐洲警政署(European Police Office)
http://www.europol.europa.eu
歐盟聯盟官方網站(The European Union)
http://europa.eu
聯合國毒品暨犯罪問題辦公室(United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime)
www.unodc.org
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