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系統識別號 U0002-1309201705310700
中文論文名稱 數位的透明性
英文論文名稱 The Digital Transparency of Architecture
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 趙婉婷
研究生英文姓名 Wan-Ting Chao
學號 603360347
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2017-06-15
論文頁數 143頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳珍誠
共同指導教授-賴怡成
委員-張恭領
委員-柯純融
中文關鍵字 透明性  現象性透明性  數位設計  織理性  構築 
英文關鍵字 Transparency  Phenomenal Transparency  Digital Design  Textile  Tectonic 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要   透明性做為建築設計的重要操作手法之一,在過去即有相當豐富的討論。例如Colin Rowe對現象性的透明性之定義:透過「疊加」、「互相滲透」、「矛盾性」、「共時性」、「空間-時間」等五種性質來說明空間透明性的呈現。透明性的討論支撐了某一向度的現代建築開展,包括John Hjduck至New York Five的抽象形式、日本當代建築師的曖昧內外空間、五十嵐太郎表皮的映像性、隈研吾構造與視覺等,皆是屬於對透明性設計手法的探討。

  本研究開始於這樣的提問:進入數位時代後,對於建築透明性的闡釋是否會有差異? 本文試圖以研究者個人對於數位設計工具的理解出發,探討透明性的設計操作方法於新工具下新的可能性。數位時代所伴隨而生的數位設計與製造工具,與傳統工業時代的設計方法與工具有顯著差異。特別是參數化設計,可將建築構件微小細碎化,同時處理大量幾何運算,並藉由調整參數而產生出不可預測的結果。因此本文試圖運用參數化設計,透過物件的操作與建築物構件的拆解重組,探討視覺與構造中的透明性。

  如果以數位的方式重新詮釋Colin Rowe的透明性的特質由具象到抽象,可概略分為構成與現象兩部分。構成包括Colin Rowe所謂的疊加性、互滲性;矛盾性則跨越構成與現象,產生獨特的奇點;現象則包括共時性與空間-時間。設計操作第一階段,藉由數位設計工具可處理大量漸變及細碎化的特性,發現摩爾紋、漸變等手法,相對於傳統設計工具較能突破矛盾性,達到共時性及空間-時間的現象;至於疊加與互相滲透則可以透過密度、交錯、編織與聚合等手法操作。第二階段則是運用調整參數所產生出不可預測結果的特質,以簡易的變形黏貼功能,產生不同的平面與柱牆類型;試圖藉由其細碎化,於不同視角皆可感受到跳視與空間扁平化等現象性透明性。

  由上述的操作後推論,數位透明性的特質與可能性:(一)數位設計與製造工具增加了設計的繁複度和維度,因此將自然而然產生具有透明性的構成。(二)數位製造工具的使用改變了原有的材料性,原材料經過分解重新編織生成新的材料性。(三)由於細碎化導致維度的開展,以及聚合拼貼產生抽象、意象與具象間的關係轉換,出現了現象性的新向度,進而產生透明性。最後提出重新定義設計元素來操作透明性:藉由拆解事物組成的元素及特質,互相疊加與滲透的重新定義,使意義和形式之間產生轉換時的跳躍,另類的透明性於是出現。
英文摘要   “The ideology of Transparency” is one of the important operational methods expressed in architectural design. Numerous studies and researches had been made by regarding to “Transparency” from pass till present. For instant, Colin Rowe defines Phenomenon Transparency as: Superimposition, Interpenetration, Ambivalence, Simultaneity and Space-Time, these five features illustrate the present of spatial Transparency. The discussions of Transparency support certain dimension of modern architecture, including the abstract form studies by John Hjduck, to “New York Five”, the vague interior and exterior space of the contemporary Japanese architecture, the Reflectional Transparency of Taro Igarashi and the of structural form and visual express of Kengo Kuma’s work, etc., which expressed the ideology of transparency.

  This research study begins with the question of whether there is any difference in interpreting transparency in architectural in the digital age. The research attempts to explore the possibilities of design approach towards achieving “Transparency” with new tools, based on the researcher’s understanding of digital design tools. Digital design methods and fabrication tools along the digital age are significantly different from the traditional industrial method. In particular, the parametric design allows the architecture components to be finely fragmentized, dealing with a large amount of geometric operations, and by tuning the parameters to produce unpredictable results. Therefore, the research aims to explore the possibility of visual forms and structural in transparency via parametric design, through object operation, deconstruct and recompose of architecture components.

  Re-interpreting “transparency” of the Colin Rowe in the digital way from reality to abstract can be divided into two parts, composition and phenomenon. The composition part includes Colin Rowe's superimposition and interpenetration. Ambivalence crosses the composition and phenomenon, which produces unique singularity. The phenomenon includes simultaneity and space-time. In the first stage of design, compares to traditional design tools, digital tools can process large amounts of gradual changing and fragment, therefore, find out Moiré Pattern and Gradient might be the way to break through ambivalence and then achieve simultaneity and space-time phenomenon. As for superposition and interpenetration, they can be operated by density, staggered, weaving and aggregation and other manipulation. The second stage is by the feature of adjusting parameters to produce unpredictable outcome, using simple function such as morph and orient, to create varied types of plan and pillar. Attempt by fragmentize, to bring out in different view of facade and flattened space of Phenomenon Transparency.

  As a conclusion for the studies above, the features and possibilities of digital Transparency includes: (1) Digital design and manufacturing tools increase the complexity and dimensions of design, thus, it naturally generates composition with Transparency; (2) The use of digital fabrication tools to change the original materiality through the decomposition and reweave the raw material; (3) As the fragmentation leads to unfold dimensions, and the transfer between abstract, image and reality, emerge the new dimensions of phenomenon, thereby generating transparency. At last, propose redefining design elements to operate Transparency: by dismantling the elements and feature of composition of things, redefining superimposition and interpenetration, meaning and form leaping through transfer, different Transparency then appears.
論文目次 圖目錄
圖 1圖底認知與NOLLI MAP ......................................................................................................... 10
圖 2西方繪畫透視 ........................................................................................................................ 11
圖 3東方繪畫透視1 ..................................................................................................................... 11
圖 4東方繪畫透視2 ..................................................................................................................... 12
圖 5 SUPER FLAT ............................................................................................................................. 12
圖 6立體派三時期作品。初期立體派、分析立體時期、綜合立體時期畫作 ............................. 13
圖 7科比意繪畫與建築 ................................................................................................................ 14
圖 8歐普藝術作品1 ..................................................................................................................... 15
圖 9歐普藝術作品2 ..................................................................................................................... 15
圖 10正射投影與軸側投影 .......................................................................................................... 16
圖 11科比意平移翻轉透視、平面及剖面法 ................................................................................ 17
圖 12 FORM-FINDING ..................................................................................................................... 17
圖 13 1D 轉3D ............................................................................................................................ 17
圖 14透明性《TRANSPARENCY》與畫作分析 ............................................................................... 18
圖 15現代主義中的物理性與現象性透明性建築 ........................................................................ 18
圖 16 DIAMOND MUSEUM C. JOHN HEJDUK, 1967 ...................................................................... 20
圖 17 COOPER UNION 學生作品1 ................................................................................................ 21
圖 18 COOPER UNION 學生作品2 ................................................................................................ 21
圖 19 JOHN HEJDUCK WALL HOUSE II , 1973 .................................................................................. 21
圖 20從透明性到解構 .................................................................................................................. 22
圖 21當代的物理透明性 .............................................................................................................. 22
圖 22物理性的映像性 .................................................................................................................. 22
圖 23現象性的映像性:HERZOG & DE MEURON 青山PRADA、DAN GRAHAM。 ........................ 23
圖 24半透明與錯視性 .................................................................................................................. 23
圖 25物理性半透與材料構成的半透明。 .................................................................................... 24
圖 26曖昧、流動的透明性 .......................................................................................................... 24
圖 27藤本壯介HOUSE NA ........................................................................................................... 25
圖 28 CECIL BALMOND《異規》 .................................................................................................... 26
圖 29雷澤與梅本《新興建構圖集》 ........................................................................................... 27
圖 30梁柱板系統的演變 .............................................................................................................. 29
圖 31伊東豊雄,台中歌劇院 ....................................................................................................... 29
圖 32表參道TOD'S、銀座MIKIMOTO GINZA、SERPENTINE PAVILION。 ..................................... 30
圖 33藤本壯介 HOUSE N,2006................................................................................................. 31
圖 34 WORLD PEACE PAVILION IN COPENHAGEN ............................................................................. 31
圖 35視覺的透明性,廣重美術館與安藤廣重浮世繪畫 ............................................................. 33
圖 36構造的透明性,石頭美術館與直藏廣場 ............................................................................ 34
VI
圖 37 BJARKE INGELS SERPENTINE GALLERY PAVILION ...................................................................... 35
圖 38 THEVERYMANY PAVILON .................................................................................................... 35
圖 39藤本壯介蛇形藝廊 .............................................................................................................. 36
圖 40 藤本壯介WOOD HOUSE ..................................................................................................... 36
圖 41薄膜結構:ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2015 ................................................................ 37
圖 42張拉系統:CECIL BALMOND H_EDGE .................................................................................. 37
圖 43大自然、幾何與模式,截取自《新興建構圖集》 ............................................................. 38
圖 44既有建築透明性 .................................................................................................................. 40
圖 45數位建築特質與透明性的關係 ........................................................................................... 41
圖 46細碎化、跳視與空間扁平化 ............................................................................................... 42
圖 47視覺、透明性、既有透明性建築及數位建築的關係 ......................................................... 43
圖 48 DOT MOIRÉ PATTERN ............................................................................................................ 46
圖 49 WAVE MOIRÉ PATTERN ........................................................................................................... 47
圖 50 GRADIENT TO CHAOS ............................................................................................................ 48
圖 51 GRADIENT MERGE ................................................................................................................. 49
圖 52 RHINO平面 .......................................................................................................................... 50
圖 53 YPE A平面與程式 ................................................................................................................ 51
圖 54 TYPE B平面與程式 .............................................................................................................. 52
圖 55 TYPE C平面與程式 .............................................................................................................. 53
圖 56 TYPE D平面與程式 .............................................................................................................. 54
圖 57 TYPE E平面與程式............................................................................................................... 55
圖 58 TYPE C平面與程式 .............................................................................................................. 56
圖 59 TYPE A桿件與程式 .............................................................................................................. 57
圖 60 TYPE B桿件與程式 .............................................................................................................. 58
圖 61 TYPE C桿件 ......................................................................................................................... 59
圖 62 TYPE C桿件程式 .................................................................................................................. 60
圖 63 TYPE D桿件 ......................................................................................................................... 60
圖 64 TYPE D桿件與程式 .............................................................................................................. 61
圖 65編織凳(W) ........................................................................................................................... 63
圖 66編織凳W3構造示意圖 ...................................................................................................... 64
圖 67編織凳W4構造示意圖 ...................................................................................................... 64
圖 68編織凳W4製作過程.......................................................................................................... 65
圖 69錯視凳( I )於第一模式:特定角度產生的均質圖案 ............................................................ 66
圖 70錯視凳( I )於第二模式 : 在各個旋轉角度產生的視覺效果 ................................................ 67
圖 71折線椅 (LINEAR CHAIR) ........................................................................................................ 68
圖 72折線椅L發展過程:開放折線椅........................................................................................ 68
圖 73折線椅L發展過程:迴圈折線椅........................................................................................ 69
圖 74環形椅 (TORUS CHAIR) ........................................................................................................ 69
圖 75環形椅設計過程 .................................................................................................................. 70
圖 76交卡凳-A............................................................................................................................. 70
VII
圖 77交卡凳A設計過程與單元型態 ............................................................................................ 71
圖 78交卡凳A實體模型 ............................................................................................................... 72
圖 79交卡凳A組裝圖 ................................................................................................................... 72
圖 80交卡凳B消點透視與平行透視模擬圖 ................................................................................ 73
圖 81交卡椅B視角與材質模擬 ................................................................................................... 74
圖 82交卡椅B桿件寬度X方向及高度Z方向組構圖 ................................................................. 75
圖 83交卡椅B桿件厚度Y方向組構圖 ........................................................................................ 75
圖 84分形,CECIL BELMOND《異規》、解構再編織柱子 ............................................................. 76
圖 85線迴圈構造 – XYZLOOP1 ..................................................................................................... 77
圖 86線迴圈構造 – XYZLOOP1模型與承重 ................................................................................. 78
圖 87線迴圈構造 – XYZLOOP2 ..................................................................................................... 78
圖 88線迴圈構造 – XYZLOOP2 組構方式 .................................................................................... 79
圖 89線迴圈構造 – XYZLOOP2 模型單元 .................................................................................... 80
圖 90線迴圈構造 – XYZLOOP2 模型單元 .................................................................................... 81
圖 91線迴圈構造 – XYZLOOP2模型與承重 ................................................................................. 81
圖 92線迴圈構造 – XYZLOOP2 ..................................................................................................... 82
圖 93單元拱原理 .......................................................................................................................... 83
圖 94拼圖半拱組合 ...................................................................................................................... 84
圖 95拼圖半拱模型單元 .............................................................................................................. 84
圖 96拼圖半拱組合 ...................................................................................................................... 85
圖 97拼圖半拱組合模型 .............................................................................................................. 85
圖 98聚合 AGGREGATE ................................................................................................................. 86
圖 99泡BUBBLE .......................................................................................................................... 87
圖 100泡BUBBLE 單元與透視圖 .................................................................................................. 88
圖 101浮FLOAT ............................................................................................................................ 89
圖 102浮FLOAT 單元與透視圖 .................................................................................................... 90
圖 103涓TRICKLE .......................................................................................................................... 91
圖 104涓TRICKLE單元與透視圖 .................................................................................................. 92
圖 105滴DROP ............................................................................................................................. 93
圖 106滴DROP單元與透視圖 ..................................................................................................... 94
圖 107泡BUBBLE、浮FLOAT、涓TRICKLE、滴DROP模型照片1 ............................................... 95
圖 108泡BUBBLE、浮FLOAT、涓TRICKLE、滴DROP模型照片2 ............................................... 96
圖 109牆體形變架構 .................................................................................................................... 97
圖 110框架形式 ........................................................................................................................... 98
圖 111內牆類型 ........................................................................................................................... 99
圖 112 UNIT_ MORPH_ WALL_1 ................................................................................................... 100
圖 113 UNIT_ MORPH_ WALL_2 ................................................................................................... 101
圖 114平面與等角透視 .............................................................................................................. 102
圖 115透視具有歐普藝術漸變的動態透明性 ............................................................................ 102
圖 116細緻的桿件於某些角度於視覺上看似消失了 ................................................................. 102
VIII
圖 117柱子單元、平面 .............................................................................................................. 103
圖 118具歐普藝術效果的錯視的柱-牆單元 .............................................................................. 103
圖 119等角透視 ......................................................................................................................... 104
圖 120消點透視 ......................................................................................................................... 105
圖 121單元與平面 ...................................................................................................................... 106
圖 122 MORPH後產生的牆面 ..................................................................................................... 107
圖 123平面以及MORPH後產生的平面 ..................................................................................... 108
圖 124 MORPH後產生的牆面等角透視圖 .................................................................................. 109
圖 125MORPH後產生的牆面 ..................................................................................................... 110
圖 126 MORPH後產生的牆面 ..................................................................................................... 111
圖 127 MORPH WALL A ................................................................................................................ 111
圖 128 MORPH WALL B ................................................................................................................ 112
圖 129 MORPH WALL C ................................................................................................................ 112
圖 130 MORPH WALL C ................................................................................................................ 113
圖 131 MORPH WALL D ............................................................................................................... 113
圖 132 MORPH WALL E ................................................................................................................ 114
圖 133 MORPH WALL F ................................................................................................................ 114
圖 134 MORPH WALL G ............................................................................................................... 115
圖 135疊加後產生的建築 .......................................................................................................... 115
圖 136疊加後產生的建築立面 ................................................................................................... 116
圖 137疊加後產生的建築透視 ................................................................................................... 116
圖 138既有的透明性 .................................................................................................................. 117
圖 139數位與傳統的透明性與本研究的範圍及未來方向 ......................................................... 118
圖 140三、四章透明性手法與產生之效果 ................................................................................ 119
圖 141構成及現象與透明性性質的關係 .................................................................................... 120
參考文獻 【相關書目】
《自然的建築》,隈研吾,2014,五南圖書出版股份有限公司
《新興建構圖集》,雷澤與梅本,2012,中國工業建築出版社
《關於現代建築的16章》,五十嵐太郎,2010,田園城市文化事業出版社
《透明性》,Colin Rowe,2008,中國工業建築出版社
《異規》,Cecil Balmond,2008,國工業建築出版社
《形態構成解析》,田學哲等,2005,中國建築工業出版社
《當代建築思潮與評論》,孫全文,2004,田園城市
《Transmaterial Next:A Catalog of Materials that Will Redefine Our Future》, Blaine Brownell, 2017, Princeton Architectural Press
曾成德〈伊東豐雄與流動性建築的追索〉,《dA雜誌—流動性,Fluidity》,台北,2006。田園城市出版社

【相關論文與期刊】
《以參數化設計探討空間光影序列之構築》,蔡敏仕,2016,淡江建築學系碩士論文
《以數位構築詮釋布料之透明紋理》,邱薰慧,2015,淡江建築學系碩士論文
《透明性操作之呈現》陳妙如,2011,淡江建築學系碩士論文

【參考網站】
藤本壯介:絕對透明的反透明性 http://www.tongimes.com/post/327.html
流動&液態的建築表情—伊東豐雄建築作品之式樣分析研究 http://blog.xuite.net/bbcnews6w/
Cloud building by Junya Ishigami team to provide floating landmark in Copenhagen harbor https://www.dezeen.com/2014/07/21/junya-ishigami-svendborg-architects-copenhagen-harbour-peace-symbol-cloud/
龔書章:建築史論專題-建築經典導讀http://ocw.nctu.edu.tw/course_detail.php?bgid=5&gid=0&nid=417#.WXG6MYSGOcU
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