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系統識別號 U0002-1308201803535200
中文論文名稱 尼加拉瓜對美外交政策(2006~2017):對尼國與中美地區之政治、經濟與安全意涵
英文論文名稱 "Nicaragua Foreign Policy towards United States (2006-2017); Politic, Economic and Security Implications for Nicaragua and Central America Region".
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 伊厚和
研究生英文姓名 Jorge Alberto Irias Schiffman
學號 601330326
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-06-28
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-林穎佑
委員-陳麒安
委員-李大中
中文關鍵字 外交  國際關係  外交政策  尼加拉瓜  美國  政治  經濟  安全  意涵  動力 
英文關鍵字 Foreign Policy  International Relations  Diplomacy  Nicaragua  U.S.  Politic  Economy  Security  Implications  Dynamics 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 外交政策可以被描述和確定為一個國家在與其他國家互動中的活動和關係的指南。正如在研究中解釋和分析的那樣,外交政策受到國內考慮/國內政治或其他國家行為的影響。
這項研究的目的是通過分析尼加拉瓜國內對兩國間政治、經濟和安全影響以及相互作用來了解尼加拉瓜的外交政策。
本研究將使用定性和定量方法收集和分析有關該主題的適當數據/信息。研究數據將來自尼加拉瓜公共政治人物的文獻分析和訪談。研究人員利用外交政策理論和外交關係作為研究框架來描述和分析研究。由於兩國的國家利益和國內政治行為導致尼加拉瓜及美國外交政策受限。
該研究總結了尼加拉瓜應發展可能資產提升本國民主,以改善尼加拉瓜對美國及其他國家之外交政策。
英文摘要 Foreign Policy can be describe and determinate as the guide of activities and relationships of one state in its interactions with other states. As it is explain and analyzed in the research Foreign Policy is influence by Domestic considerations/Domestic Politics or behavior of other state. The purpose of the research will be to understand Nicaragua Foreign Policy towards U.S. by analyzing Nicaragua Domestic considerations on Politics, Economic and Security implications between both states and how this influence in their interactions. This research will use qualitative and quantitative method to collect and analyzed the proper data/information regarding the topic. The research data will be collected from Document Analysis and Interviews from Public Politics figure in Nicaragua. The researcher used Foreign Policy theory and Diplomatic Relations as the frame of the study to describe and analyzed the research. Nicaragua-U.S. Foreign Policy will be limited to both countries behavior towards their National Interest and Domestic Politics. The research concludes on the possible assets Nicaragua has to develop the democracy in the country in a way to improve Nicaragua Foreign Policy with U.S. and other states.
論文目次 Chapter I: Introduction
1.1 Background ……………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Research Objectives ……………………………………………………………………... 7
1.3 Research Approach ………………………………………………………………………. 10
1.4 Literature Review ……………………………………………………………………….. 12
1.4.1 Historical Background of Nicaragua Foreign and Diplomatic Relations with U.S. (1937-1990)…………………………………………………………………………………… 12
1.4.2 Nicaragua-U.S. Foreign and Diplomatic Relations during President Ortega’s Administration (2006-2017). Political, Economic and Security Dimensions. ……… 16
1.4.3 Analyzes Nicaragua-U.S. Foreign and Diplomatic Relations taking in count; Political, Economic and Security Implications. ………………………………............................ 19
1.4.4 Analyzes the Political, Economic and Security implications of Nicaragua-U.S bilateral Interactions in the Region. …………………………………………………………… 20
Chapter II: Historical background of Nicaragua-Foreign Relations with United States ……………………………………………………………………………………………22
2.1 Somoza Family Administration (1937-1979) ………………………………………… 22
2.1.1 The policy on Coup d’ etat ……………………………………………………………… 23
2.1.2 U.S Position on the National Guard …………………………………………………… 25
2.1.3 Cold war settings ………………………………………………………………………… 32
2.2 Daniel Ortega Administration (1990-2006) ………………………………………………33
2.2.1 The Sandinistas ………………………………………………………………………… 34
2.2.2 Elections in 1990’s ……………………………………………………………………… 43
2.2.3 The period of Democracy (1990-2006) …………………………………………………45
Chapter III: Nicaragua-United States Foreign Relations (2005-2017)…………………… 47
3.1 Political Dimensions …………………………………………………………………….. 48
3.1.1 Nicaragua-U.S. Diplomatic Ties………………………………………………………… 48
3.1.2 Issues between Nicaragua-U.S. Relations ……………………………………………… 51
3.1.3 U.S. Strategy for Central America ……………………………………………………… 52
3.1.4 U.S. Assistance to Nicaragua …………………………………………………………… 54
3.2 Economic Dimensions …………………………………………………………………… 55
3.2.1 CAFTA-DR ………………………………………………………………………………..55
3.2.2 Millennium Challenge Corporation ……………………………………………………….61
3.2.3 USAID Program Assistance ……………………………………………………………… 63
3.2.4 Advocacy for Democratic Process Increased …………………………………………….. 67
3.3 Security Dimensions ……………………………………………………………………… 67
3.3.1 Temporary Protect Status (TPS) …………………………………………………………. 67
3.3.2 Counter Narcotic Corporation: International Control Strategy Report (INCSR)………… 69
Chapter IV: Analyzes the Impact of Nicaragua-U.S. Foreign Relations in Central America and Nicaragua according their Dynamics and Implication on the Isthmus ………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
4.1 Nicaragua-U.S. Diplomatic Ties …………………………………………………………. 72
4.1.1 Regional Integration ……………………………………………………………………… 75
4.1.2 Foreign Actors Influence …………………………………………………………………. 77
4.2 CAFTA-DR ……………………………………………………………………………… 79
4.3 USAID Program Assistance ……………………………………………………………… 82
4.4 Counter Narcotics Cooperation: International Narcotics Strategy Report (INCSR) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 86
V Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………… 91
References …………………………………………………………………………………… 94


參考文獻 • AlcantaraSaez, Manuel (2008). Politicians and Politics in Latin America. Lynne Rienner Publishers. United States. Page 265-275.
• Cameron, Maxwell A. &Hershberg, Eric (2010). Latin America’s left turn; Politics, Policies & Trajectories of Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. United States. Page 171-209.
• Evans, Peter B., Jacobson, Harold K. & Putnam, Robert D. (1993). Double-Edge Diplomacy; International Bargaining and Domestic Politics. University of California Press. United States. Page 5-6; 303-315; 363-367.
• Gritzner, Charles F. , “Nicaragua” (2010),/ Charles F. Gritzner; Modern World Nations. P. 10-30.
• Finnemore, Martha, and Kathryn Sikkink (1998). International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization, Vol. 52, No. 4, International Organization at Fifty: Exploration and Contestation in the Study of World Politics, pp. 887-917.
• United States Department of State; U.S relations with Nicaragua; Bureau of Western Hemisphere of Affairs, Fact Sheet. December 16, 2016.
https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1850.htm
• Jeffry A. Frieden and David A. Lake. International Political Economic; Perspectives on Global Power and Wealth; Economies in Development, pp. 443-505.
• Jeffry A. Frieden: Globalization and Exchange rate Policy, The Future of Globalization: Explorations in Light Trubolence, ed. Ernesto Zedillo, pp. 344-357.
• Mearsheimer, John (1994). "The False Promise of International Institutions". International Security (3): 5–49. Do: 10.2307/2539078.
• Mackerras, Collin (2001); The New Cambridge handbook of Contemporary China, Cambridge University press institution, page 184.
• Nye, Joseph: Soft Power Theory. “Bound to lead: The Changing Nature of American Power, 1990.
• Shen, Simon (2016); Hong Kong in the world: implications to geopolitics and competitiveness; The Chinese University of Hong Kong, page 286-287.
• Snyder, Robert & Hager, Robert (2013). “The U.S and Nicaragua: Understanding the Breakdown in Relations.
• Smith, Peter H. (2012). Democracy in Latin America; Political Change in Comparative Perspective. Oxford University Press. United States. Page 7-10; 283-285; 323-324.
• Oakland Ross (2014-07-14). "Nicaragua-Chinese partnership announces planned route for proposed inter-oceanic canal". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. The eastern portion of the channel’s length will include the construction of a 400-square-kilometer lake, according to Chinese engineer Dong Yung Song. As a result, he said, the canal’s construction will not reduce the depth of Lake Nicaragua itself.
• RibandoSeelke, Clare. Nicaragua: Political Situation and U.S. Relations, report, March 17, 2008; Washington D.C
digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822585/m1/5/:
• Catholic Institute for International Relations; “Nicaragua: The right to Survive”; North River Press, University of Texas (2007); p. 45-55.
• Security Council, United Nations (1987). “The Situation in Central America: Threats to International Peace Initiatives”. Forty second session. Item 34 of the provisional agenda.
https://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/CR%20HN%20GT%20NI%20SV_870807_EsquipulasII.pdf

Interviews
6. Benjamin Lanzas: President of Nicaraguan Chamber of Construction (CNC)
Dates of Interview: March 23, 2017
7. Jose Adan Aguerri: Top Council of the Private Company (COSEP )
Date of Interview: June 08, 2017
8. Arnoldo Aleman Lacayo: Ex-President of Nicaragua (1997-2002)
Dates of Interview: September 15, 2017/ April 02, 2018
9. Jorge Alberto Irias Ayala: Deputy of Central America Parliament
Dates of Interview: June 23, 2017; September 18, 2017; April 05, 2018
10. Maria Fernanda Aleman: Ex-First Lady (1997-2002)
Dates of Interview: September 15, 2017; April 2nd, 2018; April 5th, 2018.

Internet References
• https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=fof4DAAAQBAJ&pg=PA286&dq=china-nicaragua&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=china-nicaragua&f=false
• https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=k7TpKehD5pQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Nicaragua+and+China+relations&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
• https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=ySH5F_-giJEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Nicaragua-United+States+Relations
• http://www.pronicaragua.org/en/newsroom/press-releases/637-nicaragua-and-the-people-s-republic-of-china-ready-to-develop-telecommunications-project
• http://www.chinafile.com/reporting-opinion/viewpoint/china-nicaraguan-canal
• http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2012/09/25/2003543642
• http://russiancouncil.ru/en/inner/?id_4=4182#top
• http://nicaraguadispatch.com/2014/04/nicaragua-looks-to-russia-to-modernize-army/
• http://www.globalresearch.ca/washingtons-nightmare-comes-true-the-russian-chinese-strategic-partnership-goes-global/5397245.
• http://fpif.org/new-nicaragua-canal-china-barges/
• http://www.globalresearch.ca/washingtons-nightmare-comes-true-the-russian-chinese-strategic-partnership-goes-global/5397245
• http://www.boatersresourcecenter.com/nicaragua-canal/
• http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centam/nicaragua-canal.htm
• http://www.jarquingarcia.com/page.php?id=20&lang=en
• http://www.geneva-academy.ch/RULAC/state.php?id_state=155
• http://www.centralamericadata.com/en/search?q1=content_en_le:%22Interoceanic+canal%22&q2=mattersInCountry_es_le:%22Nicaragua%22
• http://www.nicaraguahoy.info/oppenheimer-sobre-el-canal-el-mayor-desastre-ambiental/

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-CvOgKUzxI

• http://www.confidencial.com.ni/tema/891

• http://memoriacentroamericana.ihnca.edu.ni/uploads/media/tareas123.pdf

• http://www.envio.org.ni/articulo/4964

• http://www.envio.org.ni/busqueda/consulta.php?f=idzona&v=ni

• http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/324200-gran-canal-interoceanico-nicaragua-cifras/?gclid=CJ_5qdyipsQCFdcRgQod2DgAdw

• https://books.google.com.tw/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7419BgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=related:5BD0z1NV_vsJ:scholar.google.com/&ots=qy10FwazOF&sig=ZtjkpgI2fYDqRvkDNAdpXMoE4r0&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=nicaragua&f=false
• http://global.britannica.com/place/Nicaragua
• http://www.envio.org.ni/articulo/1418
• https://archive.org/stream/keypacificnicar02colqgoog#page/n32/mode/2up
• https://archive.org/details/keypacificnicar02colqgoog
• https://archive.org/details/keypacificnicar02colqgoog
• https://web.stanford.edu/group/arts/nicaragua/discovery_eng/history/background.html
• http://www.cfr.org/infrastructure/nicaraguas-grand-canal/p36468
• http://thediplomat.com/2016/03/chinas-fantasy-canal-doing-real-damage-in-nicaragua/
• http://www.dw.com/en/china-taiwan-ties-at-stake-over-nicaragua/a-16898482
• http://freebeacon.com/national-security/moscow-building-spy-site-nicaragua/



Spanish References
• MINGOB: Ministerio de Gobernacion (Ministry of the Interior).
https://www.migob.gob.ni/
• MIFIC: Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Comercio (Ministry of Development, Indistry and Trade).
http://www.mific.gob.ni/
• La Prensa Nicaragua. The buildup of The Canal is going. National Journal of Nicaragua. pp. 55-65. (Nicaragua Journalist)
https://www.laprensa.com.ni/2017/12/01/politica/2339775-canal-interoceanico-de-nicaragua-inviable-por-que-no-derogar-ley
• COSEP: Consejo Superior de la Empresa Privada (Superior Council of Private Enterprise). Private Investors Opinion regarding the buildup of the Interoceanic Canal. September 26 2013.
http://www.cosep.org.ni/index.php/comunicaciones/monitoreo-de-medios/5259-monitoreo-de-noticias-empresariales-22-de-abril-de-2016
• Plan de Gobierno en pro desarrollo de Nicaragua. Estatutos Legales del proyecto Canal Interoceánico. (Plan Government of Ortega’s Administration)
https://www.votonica.com/campana-2016/blog/plan-de-gobierno-del-fsln-para-2017-2021/
• Entrevista con el Presidente del Consejo Superior de la Empresa Privada (COSEP), Benjamin Lanzas. Opinión Pública acerca de la construcción del Canal Interoceánico.
• Congreso de Nicaragua adjudica a firma china la construcción de canal interoceánico». El Heraldo. 14 de junio de 2013. Consultado el 14 de junio de 2013.

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