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系統識別號 U0002-1308201310072500
中文論文名稱 設計拼圖- 探索輔助想法置換的行動運算工具
英文論文名稱 Design Jigsaw : Exploring a mobile computing tool for supporting idea displacement
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 羅嘉惠
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Hui Lo
學號 897380084
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-23
論文頁數 202頁
口試委員 指導教授-賴怡成
委員-張登文
委員-鄭晃二
委員-劉育東
委員-唐玄輝
中文關鍵字 置換  隱喻  設計拼圖  連結知識  行動化 
英文關鍵字 displace  metaphor  design jigsaw  linking knowledge  mobile 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隱喻經常是建築設計者運用的一種方式。在概念發想階段,建築師常藉由基地相關的特徵進行概念置換,此置換為強調從A來源到B目標的概念轉化過程。因此隱喻置換被認為是延伸創造力的渠道,然而,渠道間行進的置換過程卻隱晦不明,猶如一只黑箱,設計者無法藉由過程知悉進而累積置換的連結知識。本研究試圖藉由探索設計拼圖的行為模式,建構並呈現A到B之間概念的連結知識過程,輔助設計者進行如開放式拼圖般的設計創造。
為達上述研究目的,本論文主要藉由設計者的置換行為實驗與觀察中發現模型雛形,再從相關文獻與系統進行回顧,最後進入模型建構導入系統實作,其研究步驟包括:1) 從設計者實驗之觀察分析,進行相關理論與系統回顧;2) 提出Design Jigsaw設計拼圖模型,企圖以開放式拼圖的比喻與數位化的運算機制,重新群組、比對與組合A與B之間的知識元件,創造出設計拼圖呈現出置換過程;3)發展dJOE(design Jigsaw On sitE)系統,結合基地觀察之設計行動化和裝置之即時性,讓置換發生在基地現場和行動過程當中。4) 進行使用者操作系統與測試,理解系統使用上之效益,發展運用設計拼圖模式產生之行動化基地互動設計。
本研究以dJOE協助設計者進行AB想法置換之間進行探索,在設計拼圖過程中建構起A到B之間的連結知識,從呈現設計者群組、比對與組合的想法置換來回探尋之中,收斂出置換連結又同時呈現開放式結局的設計拼圖參考文本,有助於設計者進行廣度較大且較具深度之設計置換。另外,在研究過程中引介出設計拼圖運算相關比對與基地特徵等複雜性問題,將提供研究者進行未來之後續研究。
英文摘要 Designers often use metaphor, and during concept generation, architects frequently use site-related characteristics to displace concepts. Concept displacement is a process by which a concept is converted from source A to object B and metaphor displacement is considered a channel for extending creativity. However, displacing processes that occur in the channel are as obscure as if they were in a black box. Designers cannot accumulate associated knowledge of concept displacement by using displacing processes. This study involves exploring the behavioral patterns of a design jigsaw, constructing and presenting associated knowledge processes from source A to object B, helping designers to create open-ended jigsaw-like works.
To attain the research goal, the displacing behaviors of designers were observed to identify a prototype model; after conducting a literature review, the model was constructed and the proposed system was implemented. The research comprised: (a) observing and analyzing the experiments of designers and conducting a literature review; (b) proposing a design jigsaw model and using open-ended jigsaw-like metaphors and digital computation to group, compare, and assemble the knowledge components from source A to object B, generating a design jigsaw and presenting the relevant displacement processes; (c) developing a design jigsaw on site (dJOE) system that combines design mobilization of on-site observation and real-time devices, allowing concept displacement to occur on site and in the process of mobilization; and (d) testing the effectiveness of a user operating system and developing a mobilized on-site interactive design by using the design jigsaw model.
In this study, the proposed dJOE system was used to help designers explore concept displacement, moving from source A to object B and building associated knowledge between A and B during the design jigsaw process. This study explores how designers group, compare, assemble, and displace concepts, converging on a design jigsaw reference text that presents displacement, association, and open ending, and helps designers undertake an in-depth and broad design displacement. The complex concepts introduced in the study regarding design jigsaw computation and comparison and site-related characteristics can serve as references for future studies.
論文目次 一. 緒論................................................................................1
1.1 隱喻設計的置換過程..................................................................2
1.2 運算機制輔助呈現置換過程.......................................................4
1.3. 論⽂文概述...................................................................................8
1.3.1 研究問題..........................................................................8
1.3.2 研究目的..........................................................................9
1.4 研究方法..................................................................................11
1.4.1 研究方法回顧.................................................................11
1.4.2 研究⽅法建立.................................................................12
1.5. 論⽂內容架構..........................................................................14
二. ⽂獻回顧:從設計置換到設計拼圖..............................16
2.1.置換設計模式..........................................................................16
2.1.1 置換建築設計.................................................................17
2.1.2 置換的規則.....................................................................21
2.1.3 置換的視覺轉化過程......................................................25
2.2 置換知識建構.............................................................26
2.2.1 置換知識建構的搜尋與連結............................................27
2.2.2 置換知識建構的概念地圖...............................................30
2.2.3 置換知識建構的過程......................................................33
2.3 置換拼圖..................................................................................35
2.3.1 拼圖的元素.....................................................................35
2.3.2 拼圖的提示.....................................................................37
2.3.3 開放式拼圖.....................................................................40
2.4 置換⾏行動化.............................................................................42
2.4.1 置換所⾒見-外在與內在空間..............................................42
2.4.2 置換移動-即畫即尋.........................................................44
2.4.3 置換實境-Jigsaw Making on Site..............................47
2.5 ⼩結.........................................................................................49
三. 運算系統回顧................................................................51
3.1 輔助置換呈現..........................................................................51
3.1.1 置換想法連結相關系統...................................................52
3.1.2 置換概念圖像⽐對相關系統............................................56
3.1.3 置換拼圖相關系統..........................................................59
3.2 輔助置換提⽰示!..........................................................................62
3.2.1 置換概念⼿繪提⽰相關系統............................................63
3.2.3 置換⾏動化之再現回饋系統............................................66
3.3 ⼩結.........................................................................................70
四. Design Jigsaw 設計拼圖模型....................................74
4.1 Before Design Jigsaw-設計拼圖之前.................................75
4.1.1 知識圖塊- Idea Piece.....................................................76
4.1.2 知識圖塊置換關係- si.....................................................78
4.1.3 知識圖塊地圖- IP MAP...................................................80
4.2. Design Jigsaw 設計拼圖.......................................................81
4.2.1 運算流程........................................................................81
4.2.2 找出那盒拼圖-Indexing.................................................85
4.2.3 群組-Grouping..............................................................86
4.2.4 ⽐對->組合- Matching->Combining.............................87
4.3 Design Jigsaw 設計拼圖之運算機制......................................88
4.3.1 設計拼圖規則.................................................................88
4.3.2 設計拼圖結構鄰接串列...................................................91
4.3.3 設計拼圖結構.................................................................94
4.4 Design Jigsaw 設計拼圖過程呈現.........................................98
4.4.1 設計拼圖呈現樣式........................................................101
4.4.2 設計拼圖多媒體呈現.....................................................112
4.4.3 設計拼圖之策略-超規則Meta Rule............................113
4.5小結........................................................................................115
五. design Jigsaw On sitE -dJOE系統........................123
5.1 dJOE 系統架構.....................................................................123
5.1.2 IP知識儲存運算元件.....................................................125
5.1.3 設計拼圖規則基礎運算元件..........................................127
5.1.3 輸⼊入與輸出運算元件.....................................................130
5.2 dJOE系統設備......................................................................133
5.2.1 運算語⾔.......................................................................133
5.2.2 系統設備運作流程........................................................135
5.2.3 外掛輔助.......................................................................137
5.3 dJOE 資料庫.........................................................................140
5.3.1 資料庫建⽴...................................................................141
5.3.2 雲端資料庫儲存形式.....................................................143
5.3.3 本機暫存資料庫............................................................145
5.4 dJOE 介⾯面視覺呈現..............................................................146
5.4.1 介⾯面使⽤用流程說明........................................................147
5.4.1 dJOE介⾯面規劃.............................................................149
5.4.2 dJOE介⾯面使⽤用流程情境模擬........................................151
5.5 dJOE介⾯面實體雛形...............................................................155
六.dJOE之系統使⽤用評估.................................................158
6.1. 評估⽅方法與內容....................................................................158
6.1.1 評估⽅方法.......................................................................159
6.1.2 評估基準.......................................................................160
6.2. 設計實驗:dJOE與傳統設計行為之差異.............................161
6.2.1 實驗說明.......................................................................162
6.2.2 實驗結果.......................................................................163
6.3. 實驗解譯...............................................................................164
6.4. 分析與評估...........................................................................168
6.4.1 dJOE分析....................................................................168
6.4.2 dJOE評估....................................................................171
七.結論與建議...................................................................173
7.1 研究貢獻...............................................................................173
7.2 研究限制................................................................................174
7.3 未來研究................................................................................175
參考文獻...........................................................................177
附錄:...............................................................................190
程式碼.........................................................................................190
圖目錄

圖 1:隱喻置換的過程 10
圖 2:運用隱喻置換的住宅設計(左:Le Corbusier,1923,右:Greg Lynn,2002) 18
圖 3:科比意的廊香教堂隱喻(Hillel Schocken繪製,1984) 19
圖 4:紐約JFK機場( Eero Saarinen,1959) 20
圖 5:水立方,北京國家游泳中心(PTW,2007) 20
圖 6:軀扭之塔(Santiago Calatrava,2005) 21
圖 7:北京國家游泳中心置換運用的三種規則(本論文整理) 23
圖 8:隱喻置換設計過程(本論文整理) 24
圖 9:手繪線稿由A到B的概念置換過程(Santiago Calatrava,1994) 26
圖 10:設計搜尋(Simon,1983) 28
圖 11:設計搜尋的結構(Woodbury,1991) 29
圖 12:設計搜索路徑(Yang,2004) 30
圖 13: 看—動—看模式( Schon and Wiggins,1992) 33
圖 14:看—回饋—行動—看模式(Oxman,2002) 35
圖 15:Design Puzzle的探索概念(Chang,2004) 37
圖 16:第一套以手繪幾何線稿的圖像化設計系統(Sutherland,1963) 40
圖 17:左:開放結局的創意性拼圖 右:一般拼圖(本論文整理) 41
圖 18:雪梨歌劇院概念草圖與基地特色關係(Utzon,1957) 43
圖 19:Tod’s東京表參道旗艦店設計概念說明(Toyo Ito,2005) 43
圖 20 :圖面經過手繪為線條繪製模式(本論文整理) 44
圖 21:利用圖像特徵尋找類似圖像的圖像辨識系統(Lowe,2004) 46
圖 22:PRECEDENT之動態聯結案例機制(Oxman,1993) 52
圖 23:WEBPAD之介面呈現(Oxman and Shabo,1999; Oxman,2004) 53
圖 24 : CampTools 之介面呈現 (Canas, et al.,2004) 54
圖 25:Idea Space System之機制與介面呈現(Segers,2005) 54
圖 26:Idea Map and ICF (Lai,2006) 55
圖 27:ArciMap之機制與介面呈現(Tuncer,2009) 56
圖 28:Stage-of-the-art之圖像比對結果(Wu, et al.,2009) 57
圖 29:利用多重形狀標籤檢索的案例基礎推理系統(Milton,2003) 58
圖 30:設計拼貼流程示意圖(楊麗綺,2004) 59
圖 31:Puzzle Sever的拼圖知識狀態(林長駿,2004) 60
圖 32:EDOS介面呈現模擬(鄭元培,2008) 60
圖 33:Knowledge Puzzle之介面呈現 (Zouaq, et al.,2007) 61
圖 34:Antation Portfolis呈現(Gaver,2012) 62
圖 35:DYNAMO以手繪線稿圖形尋找相關案例之系統(Neuckermans, et al.,2002) 63
圖 36:Sketch4Match以手繪幾何圖形尋找相關圖片之系統(Szanto,2011) 64
圖 37:Draw Something利用簡易線條手繪稿猜測字意(OPGPOP,2011) 65
圖 38:Sketchnotes呈現概念圖(Marquardt and Greenberg,2012) 66
圖 39:PhonySIFT PhonyFerns影像狀態偵測情形(Wagner, et al.,2010) 67
圖 40:edge-tracker之輪廓特徵辨識(Klein,2007) 67
圖 41:APM之概念模型( V. Paelke and M. Sester,2010) 68
圖 42:Insitu呈現概念圖(Paczkowski,2011) 69
圖 43:看-拼圖行動{線稿,群組、比對->組合,草繪}-看的置換模式 76
圖 44:IP元件構成參數 77
圖 45:IP間的連結關係 79
圖 46:置換連結關係 79
圖 47:具連結關係的IP地圖(IP Map) 81
圖 48:F與C拼圖基本模式 82
圖 49:F與C拼圖過程 83
圖 50:置換想法重組收斂的三種拼圖規則 83
圖 51:設計拼圖的置換運算流程 84
圖 52:圖像資料簡化為線條索引之基本四類 85
圖 53:手繪簡易線條與索引提示連結模式 86
圖 54:IP形式F九種分類特徵描述 86
圖 55:IP儲存形式F分類特徵描述 87
圖 56:IP的比對->組合示意 88
圖 57:第一次比對重組規則圖示 89
圖 58:第二次比對重組規則圖示 90
圖 59:Design Jigsaw設計拼圖資料結構鄰接串列 92
圖 60:Design Jigsaw設計拼圖知識構成結構 95
圖 61:Design Jigsaw設計拼圖63種呈現樣式 99
圖 62:Design Jigsaw設計拼圖三角形拼圖型態呈現與結構關係說明 101
圖 63:Design Jigsaw設計拼圖三角形拼圖 索引呈現 102
圖 64:Design Jigsaw設計拼圖 三角形索引、群組呈現與IPs關係說明 103
圖 65:Design Jigsaw設計拼圖三角形不同屬性群組呈現 103
圖 66:d比對呈現 104
圖 67:d比對的組合呈現 105
圖 68:e比對呈現 105
圖 69:e比對的組合呈現 105
圖 70:f比對呈現 106
圖 71:f比對的組合呈現 106
圖 72:g比對呈現 107
圖 73:g比對的組合呈現 107
圖 74:h比對呈現 107
圖 75:h比對的組合呈現 108
圖 76:i比對呈現 108
圖 77:i比對的組合呈現 109
圖 78:j比對呈現 109
圖 79:j比對的組合呈現 109
圖 80:k比對呈現 110
圖 81:k比對的組合呈現 110
圖 82:l比對呈現 111
圖 83:l比對的組合呈現 111
圖 84:Design Jigsaw第四層,第二次比對組合設計拼圖呈現 112
圖 85:Design Jigsaw設計拼圖的多媒體呈現 113
圖 86: dJOE系統主要架構 124
圖 87:專家IP知識分類系統 126
圖 88:規則基礎運算元件 128
圖 89:輸入與輸出運算元件 131
圖 90 : 元件使用運算語言說明 135
圖 91: dJOE設備使用關係圖 136
圖 92:HOPPALA地理資訊儲存介面 139
圖 93:Layar實境介面 140
圖 94:IP圖像經由OpenCV程式解譯 141
圖 95:勞力士學習中心圖像與Open CV程式解譯結果 142
圖 96:IP知識的資料儲存與檢索設定 144
圖 97:下載至本機的IP知識資料,以iPhone平台為例 146
圖 98:Design Jigsaw On site dJOE系統流程 148
圖 99:dJOE App啟動及說明畫面 150
圖 100:dJOE 登入步驟之流程說明 151
圖 101:dJOE 步驟一基地定位之流程說明 152
圖 102:dJOE 步驟二線稿繪製之流程說明 152
圖 103:使用dJOE步驟三流程之說明 153
圖 104:使用dJOE步驟四之流程說明 154
圖 105:使用dJOE步驟五之流程說明 154
圖 106:使用dJOE步驟六之流程說明 155
圖 107:使用dJOE步驟七之流程說明 155
圖 108:iOS不同裝備搭載dJOE 156
圖 109:dJOE於iPAD mini實機上之測試 156
圖 110:dJOE資料輸入於iPHONE實機上之測試 157
圖 111:Linkography的評估要項 160
圖 112:distance graph與設計者圖面之關係對照 161
圖 113 : 實驗基地照片(左:空拍俯視圖,右:基地現況照) 162
圖 114 : 實驗現場照片(左:A組實驗對象,右:B組實驗對象) 162
圖 115 : 實驗使用工具(左:a組使用筆記本及參考書籍,右:b組使用dJOE介面) 163
圖 116:a組受測者之Linkography評估 166
圖 117:b組受測者之Linkography評估 168
表目錄

表 1:輔助置換呈現之運算系統總表 72
表 2:輔助置換提示之運算系統總表 73
表 3:設計拼圖資料結構鄰接串列 120
表4:b組受測者之指標數值記錄 165
表 5:b組受測者之Design Jigsaw設計拼圖三角形呈現樣式記錄 167
表 6:a組受測者之實驗結果記錄 169
表 7:b組受測者之實驗結果記錄 170
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