||A Study of Behavioral Models in Organ Donations
||Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
Theory of reasoned action
Theory of cognitive dissonance
Effect of advertising
||在臺灣和其他許多國家同樣發生器官移植需求量不斷地上上升。過去學者對器官捐贈研究的領域大都著重在捐贈態度、主觀規範、捐贈知識、宗教信仰、家庭溝通及捐贈意願等不同的面向，雖然研究結果提供影響器官捐贈的相關訊息，但研究的角度過於分散。因此，本研究結合理性行為理論及認知失調理論和捐贈知識、個人信仰、利他主義、廣告效果及家庭溝通等變數調查影響簽署器官捐贈卡行為之因素。本研究以社會人士及學生為調查對象，總計有效問卷408份，樣本回收率達68%。實證分析結果支持本研究的概念。研究結果顯示捐贈態度、利他主義、廣告效果及降低認知失調對捐贈意願呈現顯著的正向影響，而捐贈意願對捐贈行為呈現顯著的正向影響。此結論呼應Morgan, Miller and Arasaratnam（2002）以理性行為理論探討器官捐贈的研究。本研究提供更寬廣的視野以更進一步了解器官捐贈簽署卡的行為，同時拉近器官捐贈與社會大眾的距離，藉以縮短器官捐贈者與器官移植需求者之間失衡的現象。最後，本研究應用理想解近似偏好順序技術評估在捐贈行為上，器官捐贈的廣告內容或知識的傳遞可針對20歲以下的年齡或是教育程度為碩、博士以上之群體。
||In Taiwan and many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of organs for transplantation is on the rise. Previous studies on the organ donation research field mostly focused on donation attitude, subjective norm, donation knowledge, religion, family communication and willingness to donate organ. Although research result obtains the relevant information of organ donation, the research angle is too dispersed. For this purpose, this study combines theory of reasoned action, theory of cognitive dissonance, knowledge, belief, altruism, effect of advertising and family communication to investigate behavior in signing organ donor card. Questionnaires were collected from 408 adults and undergraduate students, a response rate of 68%. The empirical results support the concept of research. The results also show that donation attitude, altruism, effect of advertising and reduced cognitive dissonance have positive effects and indicate that donor’s intention significantly enhance signing organ donor card. These findings support organ donation research by theory of reasoned action and theory of cognitive dissonance, especially those advanced by Morgan, Miller and Arasaratnam (2002) and Yeung, Kong and Lee (2000). This study provides a broader perspective to further understand the behavior in signing organ donor card. Moreover, the view of organ donation will reduce the imbalance phenomena between organ donor and donee. Finally, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution is presented as an empirical example in signing organ donor card. The result indicates that the advertisement or knowledge of organ donation communicate to target subject on age under 20 years old and degree of master or doctor.
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究範圍 6
第四節 研究流程 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 影響器官捐贈的相關論點 8
第二節 器官捐贈意願的影響因素 18
第三節 器官捐贈行為的影響因素 29
第四節 臺灣非營利組織相關研究與器官捐贈流程及組織 36
第三章 研究設計 42
第一節 研究架構 42
第二節 研究假說 43
第三節 研究變項之定義與衡量 44
第四節 抽樣設計 54
第五節 資料量化分析方法 56
第四章 實證分析結果 58
第一節 前測分析 58
第二節 正式樣本分析 63
第三節 各構面之變異數分析 84
第四節 理想解近似偏好順序技術分析 96
第五章 結論與建議 102
第一節 研究結論 102
第二節 研究貢獻 107
第三節 管理意涵與建議 108
第四節 研究限制及未來研究 115
附錄一 問卷 143
附錄二 人體器官移植條例 148
圖 1-1 研究流程圖 7
圖 2-1 理性行為理論之模型 18
圖 2-2 知識建立之模型 22
圖 2-3 降低認知失調之模型 31
圖 2-4 器官捐贈作業流程 40
圖 3-1 研究架構 42
圖 4-1 本研究結構模式分析結果 75
表 2-1-1 相關研究論點之彙整 9
表 2-1-2 相關研究構面之文獻彙整 11
表 2-4-1 相關非營利組織研究之彙整 37
表 3-1 捐贈態度衡量題項 45
表 3-2 主觀規範衡量題項 46
表 3-3 捐贈知識衡量題項 47
表 3-4 個人信仰衡量題項 48
表 3-5 利他主義衡量題項 49
表 3-6 廣告效果衡量題項 50
表 3-7 捐贈意願衡量題項 51
表 3-8 降低認知失調衡量題項 52
表 3-9 家庭溝通衡量題項 53
表 3-10 捐贈行為衡量題項 54
表 4-1-1 前測樣本特性 60
表 4-1-2 前測題項分析與探索性因素分析 62
表 4-2-1 正式樣本特性 64
表 4-2-2 題項分析與探索性因素分析 67
表 4-2-3 各構面驗證性因素分析結果 70
表 4-2-4 各構面區別效度分析結果 71
表 4-2-5 衡量模式配適度 72
表 4-2-6 結構模式適配度 74
表 4-2-7 研究模式路徑係數結果 78
表 4-2-8 研究模式路徑效果分析 80
表 4-2-9 研究模式與競爭模式之適配度與路徑結果分析 83
表 4-2-10 性別在各構面上之差異性檢定 85
表 4-2-11 年齡在各構面上之差異性檢定 87
表 4-2-12 教育程度在各構面上之差異性檢定 89
表 4-2-13 職業在各構面上之差異性檢定 91
表 4-2-14 月收入在各構面上之差異性檢定 93
表 4-2-15 宗教信仰在各構面上之差異性檢定 95
表 4-2-16 年齡在各評估準則之表現值 98
表 4-2-17 年齡在各評估準則之歸一化之表現值 98
表 4-2-18 年齡在各評估準則加權歸一化之表現值 98
表 4-2-19 正理想解及負理想解之距離衡量值 99
表 4-2-20 正理想解的相對接近度及排序 99
表 4-2-21 教育程度評估準則之表現值 100
表 4-2-22 教育程度在各評估準則之歸一化之表現值 100
表 4-2-23 教育程度在各評估準則加權歸一化之表現值 101
表 4-2-24 正理想解及負理想解之距離衡量值 101
表 4-2-25 正理想解的相對接近度及排序 101
表 5-1 研究假說檢定結果彙整 104
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