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中文論文名稱 菲律賓專業技術人才的國際移動
英文論文名稱 The Professionals and Skilled Migration from the Philippines
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 亞洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Asian Studies
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 石仲文
研究生英文姓名 Jhong-Wun Shih
學號 699260021
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-06-07
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡青龍
委員-吳德美
委員-劉梅君
中文關鍵字 專業技術人才  國際勞工移動  人才回流  菲律賓 
英文關鍵字 Professionals  Skilled workers  International Migration  Return Migration  the Philippines 
學科別分類
中文摘要 身為全球第四大勞力輸出國,菲律賓勞工對於海外就業持相當開放的態度,同時,國內不穩定的政經環境與嚴重的勞動市場問題,也迫使更多勞工移出海外。特別從19世紀初,因為美國殖民之因,許多身俱專業技能的菲律賓人才逐步移民美國。近二十年來,由於中東、亞洲地區對於藍領勞工的大量需求,菲律賓的海外就業結構已不再以專業技術人才為主,而是以低技術勞工為主要移出族群。但不論金錢或技術的回流,海外專業技術人才的貢獻都不容小覷。
本研究透過多項數據、經濟指標、與案例討論,來探討菲律賓專業技術人才的國際移動。同時將菲律賓專業技術人才移出,分三個方面探討:專業技術人才的供給、進行國際移動的原因、以及專業技術人才的貢獻。
首先,在菲律賓政府高等教育普及化的目標下,加上對於未來就業的期望,專業技術人才主要源於高等教育、技術訓練的培育。而菲律賓的專業技術人才之所以選擇海外就業,主要基於三個因素,包含兩國間的推拉力、政府對外簽訂的雙邊協議、以及自身的移民文化。在貢獻方面,專業技術人才的平均匯回金額均高於海外勞工的平均匯回金額。而菲律賓專業技術人才的回流也為國內帶來技術與人力資本的挹注。另一方面,菲律賓也訂立人才回流計畫,並提供相當的誘因,期盼大量的海外人才、技術、及資本的回流,為菲律賓下一個階段的發展做出貢獻。
英文摘要 As the fourth largest labor-export country, Filipino workers have extremely open-minded attitude to working overseas. Also, more and more workers are forced to move abroad to working due to the unstable political-economic environment and awful labor-market problem.
Especially since the early 19th century, because of its colonization by America, a lot of Filipino professionals moved to the United State. However, in the last two decades, high demands for blue-collar workers from Middle-East and East Asia have led to the structure of OFWs change. It was not dominated by professionals and high-skilled workers but the semi-skilled or low-skilled workers. Nevertheless, professionals and high-skilled workers still have a strong effect on the contribution of remittances and skills return.
This paper tries to explore the professionals and skilled migration from the Philippines by several economic indicators and case studies. This paper was divided into three parts: supply of the Professionals and Skilled workers, the factors of international skills migration, and their contributions to the Philippines.
With the objective of popularizing higher education and the expectation for jobs, more and more students have receiving higher education and training programs. There are three main factors combine to cause the professionals and skilled migration. Which are the push-pull factors, bilateral agreements, and the culture of migration. Skilled migrants tend to have higher average remittance than per OFW remitted. In addition, the Philippines published a return migration program in 2011, which may help the Philippines’ development foundation solider.
論文目次 第一章、緒論1
第一節、研究背景1
第二節、研究動機與目的9
第三節、相關研究與定義12
第四節、研究架構與方法20
第二章、經濟發展與人力勞動情況26
第一節、經濟發展26
第二節、人力資源32
第三節、勞動市場36
第三章、專業技術人才的背景51
第一節、專業技術人才國際移動的背景51
第二節、專業技術人才供給來源55
第四章、專業技術人才國際移動的因素62
第一節、勞動市場的因素-以推拉理論因素探討62
第二節、跨國協議67
第三節、移民文化74
第五章、專業技術人才的貢獻與政策探討82
第一節、海外匯款82
第二節、技術回流88
第三節、吸引回流政策探討92
第六章、結論96
參考文獻101

表目錄:
表1- 1:2010年新僱用與再僱用的海外勞工數按所在國家分6
表1- 2:2004-2010年海外就業勞工新僱用人數按職業分7
表1- 3:2007-2010年海外勞工匯回平均金額按職業分8
表2- 1:1950-2010年東南亞主要國家的年平均GDP成長率(%)26
表2- 2:與他國之營業成本指標比較30
表2- 3:1970-2010年三產業部門佔GDP比率及就業人口比率(%)31
表2- 4:2000年、2005年及2010年人口概況 35
表2- 5:1980-2010年15歲以上人口、勞動力及參與率 37
表2- 6:1998-2010年勞動力人數(千人)按教育程度分 39
表2- 7:1987-2010年就業人口(千人)及其比率(%)按性別分40
表2- 8:1998-2010年就業人口的教育程度與比率(%)40
表2- 9:2006-2010年就業人口(千人)及其比率(%)按教育程度、性別分41
表2- 10:2004-10年,國內就業人口中的職業類別比率(%)43
表2- 11:2006-10年男女就業人口中的職業類別比率44
表2- 12:1987-2011年失業率、未充分就業率與勞動力未充分利用率47
表2- 13:1990-2010年失業率(%)按年齡群組分49
表2- 14:2007~2010年失業率按教育程度分 49
表3- 1:1975-1995年專業技術人才的移民型態比率53
表3- 2:1996-2010年專業技術人才的移民型態比率54
表3- 3:菲律賓大學(大專)按區域與公私立類別分59
表3- 4:1990-2009年菲律賓大學畢業生按科系分60
表3- 5:2005年TVET技能訓練分類61
表4- 1:2009年第一季菲律賓海內外缺工統計64
表4- 2:菲律賓專業技術就業之國內外平均薪資差異66
表4- 3:菲律賓所簽署之勞動協議按國別分 67
表4- 4:日本與菲律賓經濟夥伴協定:護士與看護工的許可程序73
表4- 5:菲律賓海外就業計畫76
表4- 6:1999-2009年大學及更高學歷畢業生人數按科系分80
表4- 7:2000-05年申請技職訓練及已取得證書者按技術類別分81
表5- 1:1990至2010年菲律賓的海外匯款比率按匯出區域分84

圖目錄:
圖1- 1:1990-2000年亞洲四小虎GDP成長率比較圖3
圖1- 2:研究架構21
圖2- 1:1970-2010年每人平均GDP28
圖2- 2:1960-2010年人口數及成長率32
圖2- 3:2010年人口金字塔圖33
圖2- 4:1987-2010年勞動力人數比率按年齡群組分38
圖2- 5:1987-2010年就業人口按就業身份分48
圖2- 6:1980-2010年男女失業率比較圖48
圖3- 1:菲律賓1965年至2010年公私立大學數量60
圖5- 1:1995至2010年的海外現金匯款金額與成長率 83
圖5- 2:1995至2010年海外專業技術人才人數與匯款金額所佔比率86
圖5- 3:1995至2010年海外專技人才、海外勞工的平均匯款金額及
其比較87
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網站資料:
ADB, Asian Development Bank.
http://www.adb.org/

BSP, The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.
http://www.bsp.gov.ph/index.asp

BLES, Bureau of Local Employment Statistics.
http://www.bles.dole.gov.ph/

CHED, Commission on Higher Education
http://www.ched.gov.ph

DOLE, Department of Labor and Employment
http://www.dole.gov.ph/

Doing Business
http://www.doingbusiness.org

ILO, International Labor Organization.
http://www.ilo.org/global/lang--en/index.htm

NSO, National Statistics Office.
http://www.census.gov.ph/index.html

POEA, Philippine Overseas Employment Administration.
http://www.poea.gov.ph/

The Migration Information Source.
http://www.migrationinformation.org/

TESDA, The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/

UNCTAD, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=2068

UNDP, United Nations Development Programme.
http://www.undp.org/

World Gazetteer,
http://www.world-gazetteer.com
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