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系統識別號 U0002-1306200819503000
中文論文名稱 美國速食產業、生活飲食習慣與肥胖問題之關係
英文論文名稱 The Relationship of American Fast-Food Industry, Lifestyle with Dietary Habit and Obesity
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 陳怡臻
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Jen Chen
電子信箱 101328013012345@yahoo.com
學號 695250109
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-10
論文頁數 106頁
口試委員 指導教授-紀舜傑
委員-陳怡宜
委員-蔡有光
中文關鍵字 速食店  外食  自動化  肥胖  BMI值  麥當勞  行銷  超大尺碼  糖尿病  學童飲食習慣  食物遊說  學校贊助 
英文關鍵字 Fast-Food Restaurant  Eating Away from Home  Automobile  Obesity  BMI(Body Mass Index)  McDonald  Marketing  Supersize  Diabetes  School Children Dietary Habits  Food Lobbying  School Sponsorship 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 1960年以後,美國速食產業改變了美國人的生活型態和飲食習慣;同時肥胖危機卻也圍繞著美國人的生活。近十年來,學者專家和美國社會開始對速食是否造成美國人普遍肥胖產生爭議。速食產業因應汽車量產和加工食品產業的相得益彰,改變美國的飲食習慣。速食飲食減少備餐時間且便宜廣為忙碌的現代美國人所喜愛。速食產業得以規模化經濟除了量產和媒體行銷外,也在學校教育下功夫並且影響政府施政。雖然速食產業幫助美國各公私立學校教育活動,但是營養午餐速食化卻也影響學生飲食習慣的養成。當速食產業推出「超大尺碼」行銷策略讓美國人增加了飲食份量,卻也逐漸延伸到和身體有關的尺寸如衣服、鞋子、家具等等。最重要的,肥胖不再只是基因問題更是與環境息息相關的問題。本論文除了探討速食產業的崛起和對美國生活飲食習慣的影響外,並檢視美國人肥胖的情形和肥胖所延伸的疾病。最後針對速食造成的肥胖爭議作研究討論,期許國內外都能正視國人健康攸關一個的國家的競爭力,唯有健康概念的建立才能在速食產業和消費者間追求雙贏。
英文摘要 During 1960-1970, American fast-food industry comes out and influences American lifestyle and dietary habit; meanwhile, obese crisis occurs on their surrounding. Recent decade, experts and people in America think about this controversial issue of obesity and fast food related. Automobile industry and food-processing industry provide a well-endowed environment for new fast-food industry. Fast food regarded as the prepared food shortens the time of meal preparing and is so popular in the United States. Thanks for technology, large scale economy development of fast food industry is resulted from media marketing and mass production. Besides, fast-food industry sponsors school education programs, and impacts decision making of government with lobbying. Although fast-food industry offers financial donations for private and public schools in the United States, it influences more children dietary habit by lunch contracting and vending machine. “Supersize” is a well-known marketing strategy in fast-food restaurants that you buy more and save more. Thus, American people get used to eating a large portion. The supersize of body extends from their clothes, shoes, furniture to everywhere. Most importantly, obesity is not only caused by genetic determinism but worked out according to social surrounding. After discussing the history of fast-food industry, American lifestyle and dietary habit, we are going to realize the correlation between obesity and disease and looking over the circumstance of American weights (Their Body Mass Index). The thesis also mentions that who should take responsibility for American obesity. Finally, the thesis is looking forward seeing people in any countries have good health condition and then pursuing win-win situation for consumers and producers.
論文目次 目 次
圖 次 IV
表 次 VI
第一章 緒論 - 1 -
第一節 前言 - 1 -
第二節 研究動機 - 2 -
第三節 研究目的與問題 - 3 -
第四節 研究方法與限制 - 4 -
第五節 研究流程 - 5 -
第六節 章節安排 - 6 -
第二章 文獻探討 - 7 -
第一節 速食產業的崛起與興盛 - 7 -
第二節 速食文化與美國飲食文化的相關探討 - 10 -
第三節 肥胖之地-美國人如何變成世界最胖的人 - 12 -
第四節 種族、貧窮、疾病與肥胖的關係 - 20 -
第三章 美國速食產業的發展 - 24 -
第一節 速食的定義 - 24 -
第二節 速食產業的發展概況 - 27 -
第三節 速食的成功之道-以麥當勞為例 - 31 -
第四節 美國人吃了什麼樣的速食? - 34 -
第四章 60年代後美國與速食 - 43 -
第一節 家庭結構與生活轉型 - 43 -
第二節 速食消費與媒體傳播 - 50 -
第三節 美國人的超大尺碼 - 55 -
第四節 兒童飲食習慣的養成 - 60 -
第五節 學校與速食 - 64 -
第五章 速食引發肥胖的探究與爭議 - 69 -
第一節 肥胖的定義與美國人肥胖情形 - 69 -
第二節 家庭收入、種族與肥胖的關係及其速食消費 -74 -
第三節 肥胖與疾病 - 83 -
第四節 肥胖的責任歸咎 - 86 -
第六章 結論 - 92 -
參考文獻 - 97 -
中文部分 - 97 -
英文部分 - 97 -
網路部分 - 104 -
圖 次
圖1‧ 研究流程圖..................................... - 5 -
圖2‧ 紐約人對牛舌與波菜、漢堡的偏好投票〈1925〉..... - 11 -
圖3‧ 美國各區1991-2000 肥胖比例情況................ - 17 -
圖4‧ 美國兒童肥胖折線圖............................ - 19 -
圖5‧ 美國青少年肥胖折線圖.......................... - 19 -
圖6‧ 美國人在飲食與建身上的消費趨勢................. - 20 -
圖7‧ 美國大學生肥胖程度............................ - 22 -
圖8‧ 美國大學飲食攝取表............................ - 22 -
圖9‧1940 年到1975 年美國境內速食店經銷權狀況........ - 26 -
圖10‧1940 年到1975 年美國境內各食品與服務經銷權狀況. - 26 -
圖11‧ 美國1994-1996 馬鈴薯消耗情形................. - 36 -
圖12‧1977 年至1995 年美國人外食情況................. - 46 -
圖13‧1999 年食品公司廣告費用........................ - 53 -
圖14‧USDA 調查美國人70 年代與90 年代飲料消耗變化.... - 54 -
圖15‧麥當勞薯條份量................................ - 57 -
圖16‧兒童肥胖生態學模型............................ - 63 -
圖 17‧1976-2002 年美國成年人(20-74 歲)肥胖情形....... - 70 -

圖18‧已開發國家肥胖(BMI 超過30)排名................ - 70 -
圖19‧1991-2000 年 美國各州BMI 體重標準、過重以及肥胖報告- 75 -
圖20‧2006 年美國人體重與種族、性別、教育程度和收入的情形- 81 -
圖21‧2006 年美國速食大城排名........................ - 82 -
圖22‧1993-2006 年美國人消費變化(以飲食與健身消費為主)- 90 -
圖23‧速食產業、飲食習慣與肥胖問題之關係............ - 92 -

表 次
表 1‧MONSTER THICKBURGER 的營養表....................... - 13 -
表2‧以BMI 指數超過30 為基準,全美國各州成人病態型肥胖的比例- 15 -
表3‧美國速食產業簡表............................... - 29 -
表4‧麥當勞餐點中含有HFCS ........................... - 38 -
表5‧2000 年美國連鎖餐飲業分類排名中前兩名........... - 50 -
表6‧美國食品品牌與其產品名稱....................... - 56 -
表7‧1996 年兒童零用錢購買報告....................... - 62 -
表8‧1990 年初期參與CHANNEL ONE 廣告贊助的食品公司.... - 65 -
表9‧GIBSON CITY-MELVIN-SIBLEY UNIT#5 HIGH SCHOOL 2004 年10 月份營養午餐... - 67 -
表10‧2006 年 美國各州BMI 體重標準、過重以及肥胖報告. - 71 -
表11‧2006 年美國東南區與西南區各州人口種族結構...... - 75 -
表12‧2006 年美國新英格蘭區各州人口種族結構.......... - 77 -
表13‧美國所得州排名暨肥胖程度對照.................. - 79 -
表14‧2006 年 圖21 州肥胖比例表...................... - 82

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Sharples,Tiffany. 2007. “Lifelong Effects of Childhood Obesity”.TIME Magazine. December.
http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1692184,00.html?iid=sphere-inline-sidebar(Accessed May 1.2008)

Wallis, Claudia. 2004. “The Obesity Warriors”. TIME Magazine, Vol.163 (23). June 7. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,994389,00.html?internalid=ACA (Accessed May 1,2008)

Sandelman & Association for FREE Top 10 Fast-Food Markets
http://www.sandelman.com/store/category.aspx?categoryID=27

Sandelman & Association for Quick-Track Fast-food and pizza restaurants sample report
http://www.sandelman.com/products/sampleReportQuickTrack.pdf

U.S Census Bureau States& Country Quick Fact
http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html

United States Department of Agriculture http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome
美國農業部提供營養和食物相關資訊

USDA of What's In The Foods You Eat Search Tool
http://199.133.10.140/codesearchwebapp/codesearch.aspx
美國農業部提供13,000種美國常見食物的營養明細
United States Food and Drug Administration

http://www.fda.gov/
美國食品暨藥物管理局
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