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系統識別號 U0002-1306200717461200
中文論文名稱 信用交易條件下整合供應商與零售商之供應鏈系統的最適訂購與運送策略
英文論文名稱 Optimal ordering and replenishment strategies for a supplier-buyer integrated supply chain system under trade credit
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Management Science
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 蘇家嫻
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Hsien Su
學號 889560057
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-09
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-歐陽良裕
委員-姚景星
委員-陳山火
委員-陳茂生
委員-鄧進財
委員-黃文濤
委員-張春桃
中文關鍵字 整合存貨模式  信用交易  定價  生產  運送 
英文關鍵字 Integrated Inventory Model  Trade Credit  Pricing  Production  Shipment 
學科別分類
中文摘要 全球化時代,市場競爭愈趨激烈,企業要創造利潤並提高附加價值,就需要讓供應鏈體系中的物流、資訊流和金流管理能夠完全整合。信用交易亦稱為「信貸」或「賒購」,是為企業最普遍使用和接受的短期資金來源。供應商經常藉由提供信用交易來提升銷售量,降低存貨;同時,零售商亦可以利用在賒帳期間銷售貨品所得到的收入投資獲利。過去許多研究都證實付款方式會影響零售商的訂購以及庫存。隨著商業環境的改變和信用交易使用的頻繁,至今,已有不少文獻探討有關信用交易的存貨模式。但因信用交易的形式日新月異,許多目前已廣被使用的信用交易條件不是被忽略就是未納入研究考量。
本論文以供應鏈的觀點,運用管理科學的計量方法,透過數學模式的建立,探討在供應商和零售商存貨整合的情況下,三個廣被使用的信用交易條件對供應鏈整體獲利的影響。本論文包含五個章節,第一章首先說明本論文之研究動機與目的、相關文獻探討和論文結構。第二章研究在供應商和零售商同時提供信用交易的情況下,當產品的需求情形會隨零售商所提供賒帳期間的長短變動時,決定使得供應鏈整體獲利最大的最適訂購、運送以及存貨策略。第三章則探討當零售商於特定期間內提早付清貨款就可享受價格折扣的優惠;否則,就必須在最後付款限期內付清全額貨款的情況下,買賣雙方應如何共同定訂最適的零售價格、訂購週期、訂購數量,以及在一個生產週期中供應商運送給零售商的次數,而使得供應鏈整體獲利有最大值。第四章討論當供應商提供的信用交易條件與零售商訂購的數量有關時,買賣雙方應如何共同定訂最適決策,使得供應鏈整體獲利有最大值。最後,第五章對本文各章所建構的存貨模式做一總結,同時提出未來的研究方向。
英文摘要 Under the progression in globalization and fierce market competitions, in order to create benefits and raise additional value, the coordination of three basic flows within the supply chain, material/product flow, information flow, and cash/ finances flow, is necessary to enterprises. Trade credit, also called “buy on credit”, is the most general short-term capital source used by enterprises. The supplier often offers a trade credit to improve sales and reduce stocks on hand. Also, retailer can utilize the selling income during credit period to profit. Many reports have verified that the payment methods offered by the supplier will influence the ordering decision and inventory control. Though many inventory models related to trade credit have been reported so far, with the change of business environment and progression of trade credit policies, many already widely used trade credit terms either been neglected or not considered.
In light of the lack of research dealing with the operational impact of trade credit policies, in this thesis we propose three integrated inventory models under the trade credit conditions. Chapter 1 involves the motivation and objective of this thesis. In this chapter, literature review about relative research papers is also included. Chapter 2 presents a stylized model to determine the optimal strategy for the integrated supplier-retailer inventory model under the condition that both the supplier and retailer have adopted a trade credit strategy. The market demand for the item increases exponentially with the customer’s credit period. By analyzing the total channel profit function, we develop an algorithm to simultaneously determine the retailer’s optimal order quantity and the number of shipments per production run from the supplier to the retailer. In chapter 3, we develop an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model with the assumption that the market demand is sensitive to the retail price and the supplier adopts a trade credit policy. The trade credit policy discussed in this chapter is a “two-part” strategy: cash discount and delayed payment. That is, the supplier offers the buyer a cash discount if payment is made before a specified period, and if the buyer does not pay within the specified period, the full purchasing price must be paid before the delay payment due date. The objective of this chapter is to determine the optimal pricing, ordering, shipping, and payment policy to maximize the joint expected total profit per unit time. In Chapter 4, the effect of an order-size dependent trade credit on the total integrated profit is taken into account. An integrated inventory control model, making joint economic lot sizes of the buyer’s ordering and the supplier’s production batch, are developed to maximize the total expected profit per unit time. Finally, concluding remarks are made in Chapter 5, and future research directions are proposed.
論文目次 目次

目錄 II
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
使用符號一覽表 VI
基本假設 VII



目錄

第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 相關文獻探討 4
1.2.1 信用交易 4
1.2.2 整合存貨模式 7
1.2.3 生產與需求型態 10
1.3 本文架構 12
第2章 供應商與零售商皆提供信用交易之整合供應鏈存貨模式 14
2.1 前言 14
2.2符號說明與假設 16
2.3模式的建立 16
2.3.1 供應商的單位時間總利潤 17
2.3.2 零售商的單位時間總利潤 19
2.3.3 供應鏈的單位時間總利潤 22
2.4求解步驟 24
2.5 數值範例 28
2.6小結 31
第3章 供應商為促使顧客提前付款提供價格折扣之整合供應鏈存貨模式 32
3.1 前言 32
3.2符號說明與假設 34
3.3模式的建立 35
3.3.1 供應商的單位時間總利潤 35
3.3.2 零售商的單位時間總利潤 36
3.3.3 供應鏈的單位時間總利潤 39
3.4求解步驟 40
3.5 數值範例 47
3.6小結 55
第4章 信用交易的賒帳期間與訂購數量有關之整合供應鏈存貨模式 56
4.1 前言 56
4.2符號說明與假設 57
4.3模式的建立 58
4.3.1 供應商的單位時間總利潤 59
4.3.2 零售商的單位時間總利潤 59
4.3.3 供應鏈的單位時間總利潤 61
4.4求解步驟 62
4.5 數值範例 73
4.6 小結 77
第5章 結論 78
5.1 主要研究成果 78
5.2 未來研究方向 80
參考文獻 82
附錄A. 證明若G1≦0,則Π2(n,T)是T的一個凹函數 88
附錄B 供應商和零售商獨立決策時的最適解 89



表目錄

表號
表1.1 整合存貨模式 9
表2.1 本章所建立的供應鏈模式與相關研究的比較 15
表2.2 在不同的θ值下最適解彙整表 28
表2.3 在不同的M和N值下最適解彙整表 30
表3.1 本章所建立的供應鏈模式與相關研究的比較 34
表3.2 不同的信用交易條件下供應鏈的獲利情形 50
表3.3 供應鏈系統的最適解 51
表3.4 不同條件下供應鏈系統的獲利比較 53
表3.5 敏感度分析 54
表4.1 本章所建立的供應鏈模式與相關研究的比較 57
表4.2 範例4.1的信用交易條件 73
表4.3 範例4.1的計算結果 73
表4.4 範例4.2的信用交易條件 75
表4.5 範例4.2的計算結果 75
表4.6 獨立決策vs.共同決策的獲利情形 76



圖目錄

圖號
圖1.1 二選一的信用交易政策示意圖 6
圖2.1 供應商的存貨模式 17
圖2.2 零售商存貨模式的利息賺得和機會成本 21
圖2.3 當供應商提供不同的賒帳期間M時,零售商的獲利情形。 31
圖3.1-1 當T<Mj 時,零售商存貨模式的利息收入 37
圖3.1-2 當T≧Mj時,零售商存貨模式的機會成本 38
圖3.1-3 當T≧Mj時,零售商存貨模式的利息收入 38
圖3.2 對於固定的n值(例如n=8,12,50 )供應鏈單位時間的總利潤 48
圖3.3 對於n=1,2,…100供應鏈單位時間的總利潤 49
圖 4.1 信用交易的賒帳期間與訂購數量有關時,供應鏈系統的總利潤函數圖形 (n=15,p=6.5 ) 66
圖 4.2 最適解的求解程序 72
圖 4.3 存貨系統電腦分析系統 74

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